Glossary of Psych 346 Exam 1 2
Created by gallup005
- 7 Recommendations from IES Practice Guide?
- 1. Space Learning over time
2. Interleave worked example solution with problem solving
3. Graphics and verbal descriptions
4. Abstract and concrete representation of concepts
5. Quizzing to premote learning
6. Allocate study time efficiently
7. Deep Level Questions
- Fast initial learning leads to bad long term memory
- Paradoxial effect
- Stuck thinking in a single, specific way
- Functional Fixidness
- What is very important to do especially after you have a grasp on material?
- What are four things that are important for IES spacing effect?
- 1. Deep and Elaborative
2. Increase Difficulty
3. Interim Tests
4. Spacing effects
- What does the optimal spacing increase with?
And what percent of retention interval is advised?
- Retention Interval
- What are spacing effects good and bad for?
- Good: facts, vocab, language learning, math skills
Bad: Perceptual categorization learning
- Is it easier to understand a concept presented concretly or abstractly?
- Are you less likely to apply concrete or abstract knowledge to a new situation?
- If the first presentation is abstract what can you do?
- Apply the understanding in a different context
- Concreteness fading leads to...
- Analogical transfer
- How should support be for interleaving problems?
- Gradually decrease support
- Conditions that make learning slower and more difficult lead to...
- Better LTM and/or improved ability to apply knowledge to new situations
- Desirable Difficulty of learning:
- increases processing that encourages comprehension and memory (deep learning)
- Caveat of Desirable difficulty?
- Must be attainable
- What is metacognition?
- Knowing about own thinking
- Are we good at metacognition?
- No, we're bad at knowing what we know. Early easy learning does not lead to LTM
- What is the testing effect?
- Taking a test promotes learning
- What are the pros and cons of Pre-Questions?
- Pro: my help the students identify what they don't already know
May activate related knowledge
Cons: students may be focused to focus only on the pre Q's
- Semantic and episodic memory often __ and __ with each other
- Support and interact
- what is often determined both by connections and distinctiveness from existing knowledge?
- What is iconic/sensory Memory?
- Visual impression of something that fades quickly
- Give an example of iconic/sensory memory:
- Flash of words/pictures on screen. Know you saw them but loose the visual rep of them quickly
- Short Term Memory example:
- Name as many things that flashed on the screen in order that you can remember.
Typically 7 +/- 2
- Working Memory Example:
- Name as many things you saw on the screen in alphabetical order. Have to rearrange them
- Episodic Memory Definition:
- person's specific, and unique memory for an event
- Episodic is a quick and simple __ ___
- Recognition test
- Autobiographical Memory:
- Knowledge of something that happened to you personally. Combines episodic and semantic
- The day you almost got ran over by a car is ___ Memory
Knowledge how to drive car is __
Knowledge of how to change a tire __
- Prospective memory is memory for:
- Future use
- Semantic memory definition
- Knowledge of the world - the dictionary you walk around with
- What does PRS stand for?
- Perceptual Representation System
- PRS Definition:
- Systems involved in representing the form or appearance of stimuli before or independent of meaning
- What causes automatic changes in the PRS and Priming systems?
- A result of prior exposure resulting in priming
- What are two important aspects of Priming and the PRS?
- 1. specific: only relies on perceptual representation
2. Presemantic: before meaning
- What is the extreme process view?
- One memory,the difference is how you access it (perceptual vs conceptual)
- What is extreme systems view?
- Different kinds of memory are independent from each other and depend on different brain regions (PRS vs. episodic)
- What is the compromise view?
- Different processes supported by different brain regions/systems
- Classifying Memory: how long?
- Working (iconic) Memory to STM to LTM
- How is memory tested?
- priming vs recognition vs recall vs relearning
- What memory systems for info storage?
- semantic vs episodic vs source
- What brain areas involved in memory?
- hippocamplay or not?
- What are some major flaws with the Modal Model?
- We don't go around rehearsing everything, but we don't forget it all either.
Does everything flow this smoothly?
- According to Tulving, episodic memory is:
- Acording to Tulving, semantic memory is:
- Definition autonetic:
- things that have an influence on performance and forms memory, but uses form s of memory w/out being aware
- Example of autonetic memory
- Fingers typing on keyboard - don't have to think about it
- Definition noetic
- aware of knowing
- Declarative Memory Defition:
- memory for facts and events, requires the hippocampus
- Definition for nondeclarative memory:
- learning/memory that does not use concious memory - adapt to nonsensory stimuli
- What are four classifying groups for Dissociations according to Nyberg and Tulving?
- 1. Functional
4. Brain Damage
- Single dissociation definition:
- single variable effects one function but not the other
- Double dissociation:
- variable 1 effects function of A and variable 2 effects function of B
- Single or double: A car won't start, but lights will still go on. Could be due to ignition
- Michael and Brown study showed people pictures.
Test 1: did you see this picture?
Test 2: name this picture as fast as possible
Tested four, eight, weeks
What type of dissociation and why?
- Functional dissociation because testing two different kinds of memory
- Example of developmental dissociation?
- Older adults perform worse on episodic tests (free recall, recognition) than young adults but better at semantic knowledge (facts, vocab)
- Brain Damage dissociation example:
- Hunnington's disease vs Alzhemier's disease
Hunnigtons: imparied prusuit motor, normal word stem completion
AD is opposite
- What is memory?
- changes within and in connections between processing regions that makes up memories.
Strongest connections = strongest memories
- long term potential
connections between neurons, one neuron transmits and communicates with the other
- An association with increased number of connections between sensory and motor neurons
- Long term sensitization
- Habituation definition:
- decreases number of connections - wearing shoes, don't sense they are on your feet
- increase response to something: amplify response to continuous stimuli
- Changes in __ __ matter for long term sensitization
- neural connections
- Frontal cortex:
- executive attention
- special processing and directs attention
- Lateral temporal lobe:
- stores semantic memory (facts, vocab...)
- Medial temporal lobe:
- hippocampus, amygdala, gyrus for episodic memory
- What is Broadman's Area of the brain?
- Distinctions/divisions in the brain where brain cells are aranged differently and in different places - suspect where different functions of brain occur
- Right prefrontal cortex:
- Left PFC:
- What is Event Related Potentials test?
- Cap with electrodes on it, when a neuron fires changes in the electromagnetic field are detected
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET) definition
- figure out the molecule you are interested in, use a radioactive isotope to tag and see where this goes in the brain
- Advantages and disadvantages of PET scan
- Pros: tag things cannot see otherwise like ACh and dopamine
Cons: radioactive, not good spatial or temporal
- Pros and conts of event-related potentials
- Pros: measures changes in brain activity. Temporal: times resolution happens in brain
Cons: not good sptailly: not where it happens, but good when it happens
- Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) definition:
- different tissues in the brain have different magnetic resonancies: disrupt the magnetic changes in protons in the brain and it's measure in waves. fMRI: see rush of O2 into brain see how red blood cells that carry iron different depending if they carry O2
- Advantages of fMRI:
- better spatial and temporal than PET
- What is the subtractive method?
How does activity change in correspondance to the task?
Subtract baseline condition from active
- What is trans magnetic stimulation and is it pro or a con?
- Manipulate brain activity by increasing or decreasing it
All disadvantageous because: stimulation doesn't necessarily mean it's needed for task.
- Iconic memory definition:
- brief storage of visual info
- Masking definition:
- process by which perception and/or storage of a stimulus is influenced by events occuring immediately before or right after presentation
- retention of small amounts of material over periods of a few seconds
- Working memory:
- underpins our capcacity to keep things in mind when performing complex tasks
- systems assumed to underpin the capacity to store info for long periods of time
- Explicit/declarative memory:
- memory that's open to intentional retrieval - based on recalling personal events (episodic) or facts (semantic)
- Retrieval of info from LTM thru performance rather than explicit concious recall/recognition
- semantic memory:
- store accumulative knowedge of the world
- capacity to rememember specific events
- implicit memory:
- capacity to add memory
- Classical conditioning:
- learning procedure where neutral stimulus is paried and represented with a response envoking stimulus - will envoke a response
- presentation of an item can influence processing of subsequent item - can be positive or negative
- pros and cons for understanding disease via neuropsychological studies
- pros: memory deficit can be defining feature - know the symptoms
cons: other cognitive failings not good study
- what is the motor strip?
- in front of the central sulcus: controls voluntary muscle movement - connects muscles of the body
- Somatosensory strip:
- on the parietal lobe, whole body recieves inptus from skin and muscles to the somatosensory strip
- Broca's area:
- left frontal lobe involved in language production
- Wernicke's area:
- involved in language comprehension
- loss of ability to speak
- inability to know or understand language and speech related behaviors
- Iconic (Sensory) Memory
- Fades fast, can hold up to 12 items
- How is sensory memory related to STM?
- not clear, probably plays a role in auditory STM, but is too short for visual STM
- How is sensory memory related to PRS?
- Sensory memory is brief activations of the PRS
- What is output interference?
- outputting some letters may disrupt others
- What is echoic memory?
- Memory 4-5 seconds. Don't encode/process meaning, but remember having the memory
- What was Sparling's Partial Report study, and what were the findings?`
- Had to write as many things as could remember.
Then write w/ cue: high tone: top line, Medium tone: middle line, low tone: bottom
people were able to do this perfectly no matter what line was cued - w/ the cue
Suggests memory is there - just goes away quickly
- What are the findings from the light/dark study and iconic memory?
- Findings that the longer have to wait to report seeing something the worse you are - ends up in short term memory instead of working
Worse a remembering "light" things first than "dark," but eventually equally bad - 5 seconds
- What is more sensitive to light?
- Will a flash of light to one eye impact iconic memory? Why? What is this called
- No because the brain treats what's seen from the eyes as one. Called a field mask
- When will a field mask have an impact on memory?
- After sensory stage because this will impair memory to the brain
- What is output interference
- Outputting some letters will disrupt your memory of other letters
- What are the two broad categories to why we forget?
- Decay and interference
- Types of interferece:
- output interference
light vs dark fields
- What are some distinctions of memory:
- Nervous system changes as a result of an expereince
Different systems/processes involved with learning and retrieving different kinds of info
Different methods of classifying
- Definition Flashbulb Memories:
- memories for the circumstances in which one first learned of a very suprising and consequential or emotionally arousing event
- Why are FBM super hard to study?
- Ethical reasons
Has to be fast
Have to keep whereabouts of subjects for folllowup
- What did the Brown and Kulick study find in 1977?
- People had these rich detailed memories of the JFK assassination - felt photographic.
- What condition's did Brown and Kulick find essential for the JFK assassination memory?
- Surprise, emotion/constitutionality
- What was the Brown and Kulick study?
- They chose events that should have been unexpeced (suprise value) and varied in emotion/consequentiality per person. And then people chose one event from their life that was suprising
- What were the canocial features of FM that Brown and Kulick found? Which one is not necessary?
- Where were you?
What were you doing?
Who told you/how did you find out?
Feelings of others
Own Emoitional Fellings
Feelings of others taken out because personal events
- What was the NYU FBM study?
- Survery 1: 1-2 weks after 9/11
Survery 2: 11 months
Survery 3: 2 yrs 11 months
Survery 4: 9 years 11 months
Used classic Brown and Kulick type FBM questions and prediction of future memory and saw how people's memories changed/didn't change over time
- Is there a correlation between consequentiality and reported FBM?
- Yes, higher rating = higher consequentiality
In the Brown and Kulick study black people rated MLK's death higher than white people - higher consequence
- Describe the Neisser and Harsch study
- Questioned how people learned of the Challenger explosion the morning after and 3 years after.
Compared their stories
- Findings from the Neisser and Harsch study:
- People were generally very confident in their memory but most people inaccurate with their second memory compared to first
- Describe the Talarico and Rubin study:
- People compared everyday memories to memories of 9/11.
Rated each on vivideness, emotion, rehearsals, etc.
Compared answers and changes in accurarcy/consistency/feelings 1 wk, 6 wks, and 32 wks later
- Talarico and Rubin findings from the 9/11 and everyday memory study?
- Rate of memory decline is constants - actually consistency of memory is declining, but belief that memory is consistent for FBM is the same
- Pros and cons of Talarico and Rubin's study of 9/11 and everyday memories:
- Pro: Compare/contrast - see what pinpoints differences b/w the everyday and 9/11
Cons: Had to ask to pick memory to remember - asking this Q may influence memory
- Hirst et. al. found that __ was reduced over time but __ wasn't.
- consistency, confidence
- Describe the Neisser et. al. study on earthquake in Cali:
- Interviewed students from Emory, UC Santa Cruz, and Berkley
Students in Santa Cruz most affected by the earthquake, then berkley, then emory
Asked typical FBM questions
- Findings from Neisser et a study on FBM?
- Actual experience of the earthquake (Santa Cruz) people remember better than those who just heard about it - memory more consistent
- Neisser et. al. links to BK's hypothesis?
- Arousal: no correlation
Consequentiality: Neisser says no b/c FBM should be how you learned about it rather than consequence
Distinctiveness: if exprienced earthquake better memory
Narrative/rehersal: most important for Neisser et. al
- What did the Hirst et. al. study find for consistency of FBM for people on semantic memory
- People who suffered personal loss/inconvience remembered facts better
- Why may people who suffered/incovienced remember facts better than others?
- Through rehersal - talking about it more
- What did people with better semantic memory not show
- consistency for the reception event
- Why do people have low consistency to reception even despite high confidence?
- It is how they felt, no outside knowledge to how they felt but may change this b/c of the media and how you're supposed to feel
- What did the Sharot et. al fMRI study show on everyday vs 9/11 memory?
- Distance mattered for arousal level on 9/11 memory - more aroused
- People who lived closer had less activation in the __ (less __) and more activation in the ___ than people who didn't live close to the world trade centers.
- parahippocampal cortex
- How does Patrick Davidson define FBM?
- vivid, long-lasting memories for the circumstances in which people hear about shocking news events
- What is the major difference between FBM and other forms of autobiographical memory?
- Not the core context of the event (autobio) but the contextual elements souring it
- What is the double assessment procedure, and why is it used in FBM?
- Used to measure participants retention of info over time - judge their accuracy
Assessment 1 is right after the event, Assesment 2: longer delay
If there is inconsistency know one memory is inaccurate
Do this b/c can't know right/wrong of person's personal memory
- Are FBMs more accurate and/or durable than everyday memories?
- Depends - controls in the experiment, hard to tell because all memories seem to become forgotten/distorted
- Encoding Variable for FBM:
- factors at play during the reception event
- Rehearsal Variables for FBM:
- during the period b/w reception and subsequent report
- What is the general consensous on psychological factors for FbM?
- FBM is more likely to occur if it was surprising, emotionally arousing, important to the person, reharsed thru convo, thoughts and media exposure
- Why is the relationship between emotion and rehearsal curvilinear?
- Too much distortion - no longer linear correlation
- what does the MTL have to do with FBM?
- supports encoding, storage and recpetion and target events of the FBM
- Does damage to the MTL have a larger effect on target event or reception event memories?
- Reception event memory (emotion, where, what/how...) because can remember facts, but have hard time with the things that surround the facts
- What does the amygdala effect in FBM?
- initial encoding of memories, their consolidation/storage, or both
- What are broad categories that suggest there are separate short term memory stores?
- 1. Pts: HM and KC, impaired LTM, normal STM
PV and KF: impaired STM and normal LTM
2. Serial position curve: primacy vs. regency effects
3. Brown-Peterson Task
4. Acoustic/phonological vs semantic codes
- What is the serial position curve?
- People remember the beginning and end of the list better than the middle of the list
- Why do they think the serial position curve works?
- Maybe primacy (beg) has been pushed into LTM and the end of the list (regency) is in STM due to rehearsal
- What are the problems with the Regency portion of the curve and STM?
- Get the recency effect even after delay and before recall if you also put a delay b/w each word's presentation
Also get primacy and receny effects for LTM
- Describe the Brown Peterson Task:
- Person reads and memorizes letters, computes sums, writes down sum and the letters
- What type of interference occurs in the Brown Peterson Task?
- Proactive Interference
- For the acoustic/phonologic what releases words from the prison of interference?
- Change in semantic memory (change in the word meanings) will release it from prison of interference
- What is the eveidence for different short term stores?
- Pts KF and PV v HM and KC
Serial position curve: primacy and recency effects happen in LTM
Brown Pterson Task: not just time that matters, but storage fades over time due to inteference
Acoustic/Phonologic vs semantic: released from PI by changing semantic categories
- How you use info matters for storage becauuse:
- STM tasks often use phonological codes and don't think of meaning, so there's interference if similar
LTM think about meaning, no longer similar, no longer interference
- What about separate STM stores for normal controls and amnesics w/ the Hannua study?
- Repeat pictures and ask people if they have seen them before and if so, has anything moved?
Amnesics: hippocampus damage should be bad w/ items inbetween b/c delay and fine with noticing change b/c still in STM
- What happened with scene (item) memory in the Hannula experiment?
- everyone is good if they immediately see it -> not destroyed by LTM
- What happened with relational memory in the Hannula experiment? (did something move??)
- Amnesics bad: hippocampus not LTM - just happened to use assoc for LTM?
- What is the more integrated view of memory?
- Focus of attention: have certain number of items in STM (chunking) - items just outside of focus attention can be activated
- What did Nelson Cowan believe for STM?
- Have roughly 4 items in store for chunking, visual STM (flashed colored bloks, flash again, detect the change)
- What is short term memory store?
- Special mechanism or theoretical concept for explaining performance in seconds
- What is short term memory?
- performance in seconds
- What is the phonological loop?
- multiple component structure, have storage and rehersal, things that effect 1 don't always affect the other
- What does auditory speech affect?
- the phonological short term
- What do digits affect in the phonological sotrage?
- the sub vocal rehearsal process which is important for memory
- What does counting disrupt?
- It uses subvocal that disrupts articulatory suppression
- What does reading affect? It is auditory __
- Auditory imagery that is not essential for memory, NOT subvocaling
- What is articulatory suppression?
- some people read and hear words while saying "the"
Reading/hearing doesn't have effects on blocking loop or rehersal
Impairing the loop is equal for hearing/reading
- What is the phonological similarity effect?
- Words that sound the same are harder to remember
- Does the phonological loop matter for reading/hearing words?
- If read words w/ articulatory suppression blocked the vocalizing part and won't get the phonological similarity effect
- What is the visospatial sketchpad?
- You draw something like the letter "F" and will go around the corners of it
- What was different with the visopatial pointing response and why did it differ from the visospatial task?
- Had a spatial representation in head but had to point to yes or no - this was harder b/c of the interference of the tasks - loose the sight of it
- Patient 1 can drive and remember new routes but cannot remember objects
Patient 2 cand remember shapes and colors but can't remember landmarks
Double or single dissociation and why?
- Double: patient 1 has an intact spatial processing and impaired object
- What is the unitary-store model?
- Representations based for perception, LTM and STm that are identical
- What is the frontal processes responsible for?
- Helps keep attenion focuses and blocks out other things
- What does the fMRI show?
- pattern of activation that helps to be more sensitive to specificity or general fxn
- Regions that are __ during delay vs. those that hold __ - specific info
- Active, Representation
- What do PV and KF have?
- impaired STM but normal LTM
- What problem does PV show for Baddley's model?
- PV has impaired STM but intact LTM
PV cannot learn a new lang - impaired auditory WM
Why would STM auditory have anything to do with LTM lang aquisition if the stores were separate?
- What was the Smith and JOnes experiment with STM and LTM and people's faces paired with houses?
- STM: people saw the face, delayed saw face again or a diff face and asked if same face
LTM: people showed house and delay and then face, was this the face w/ the house origianlly?
- What do fMRI scans show for LTM and STM in the Smith Jones experiment?
- FFA: fusiform face area, responds well for faces, higher activation for face than house
PPA: parahippocampal place area, better for geometric things
- What's different about baddeley's second model?
- uses episodic buffer to have working memory that still central executive, still storage usits, has interaction w/ episodic buffer - can combine LTM with what's currently in WM
- What did the fMRI study find on brain activation for STM and LTM?
- some regions are more active for LTm than STM trial - anterior PFC and hipppocampus for LTM
STM and LTM activations are similar but not identical
- What is the multidimensional code?
- helps bind components together. Communication b/w SST stores and LT stores (mediated by central executive)
- What is Broadman's Area?
- Changes in cellular structure of the brain from one region to the next, brain activity is probably different
- What test in the Buffer vs Rehearsal task was considered storage and executive and why?
- N-back test, series of letters had to determine if the letter was a match to letter 2 back
- What was the storage only task?
- item recognition task, delay, is the probe item one you saw? just storage no rehearsal
- What was the phonological representations task?
- Rhyme judgements, had to subtract phonological from reharsal to get activation
- What type of storage is related to language learning besides the phonological loop?
- PFC and rehearsal
- Pts with parietal damage seem to have problems with __ __
- visual storage
- Verbal storage is __ lateralized
- Spatial storage is __ lateralized
- Broaca's area important for
- Right premotor is important for
- spatial storage
- Object storage:
- Right VLPFC
- What does the anterior cinulate do?
- inhibition - conflict resolution in brain - executive
- What is the central executive not involved in. What is it involved in?
- Not: storage of info
Is: having to manipulate info
- How does central executive correlate w/ fluid intelligence tests?
- more complicated the test, more have to hold on to info to do something with iT
- what are examples of separate storage?
- forward and backward digit spans
Forward: have to repeat numbers same way
Backward: have to manipulate numbers and say backwards
Reading span: remember the last word of each sentence in the set - process the meaning of the sentence
Working memory: includes EC, predictive of other ablilities, changes with development/age
- What was up with pt RE?
- impaired phonological STM
normal visospatial STM, normal executive fx
Can spell words w/ little problem but not nonwords b/c doesn't have phonological
Relies on visual appearances: thinks lemon rhymes with demon
- How did RE compare to controls for the token test?
- Hearing instructions: RE as good as controls
Reading w/ auditory suppression: RE better than controls
Repetition: RE cannot repeat sentence
- RE could ___ long, ambiguous sentences as well as controls.
Could __ __ in sentences as well as controls
But bad at __
- What are five components of executive processing according to Smith and Jonides?
- 1. Attention and inhibition
- What did evolution do to brain?
- increased size and complexity of PFC
- What is the PFC involved in?
- executive function
- What is the anterior cingulate involved in?
- error/conflict monitoring, conflict resolution
- Familiarity based conflict:
- See 4 letters, delay, is this the letter you just saw?, delay, yes/no, may be conflic with the last b/c 1st set, but not with the last
- PFC and what pathway
- PFC and temporal
- Fronal region activated during memory retrival show __ to __ gradient of function
- posterior to anterior
- What is the role of preforntal activations:
- attention control by signaling posterior sensory regions to continue higher levels of activation for rep. currently not in focus
- What is rehearsal:
- A controlled sequence of retrievals and re-encodings of items into the focus of attention
- Why do we forget?
- overlap of rehersal in the brain with etreval and inital perceptual encoding doesnt happen
- What is time-based decay?
- performance decreased as retention intervals increased
- Why is it hard to test decay?
- hard to control retention interval - attempt by counting backwards
- What happens neurally during delay?
- Prefrontal and posterior regions (where storage/maintance occurs) declines
- What are 3 interference theories:
- 1. dominate explanations of forgetting
2. STM capacity and its variation among indiv. determined by ability to overcome interference
3. STM and LTM sep systems but interference suggest unitary system
- What are the 2 things memory requires?
- 1. Remembering what items are
2. Remembering the order they were presented
- What is chaining and why is this probably not how order is remembered?
- each number is associated or linked to the next
Prob: if 1 item is forgotten performance does not necessarily collapse for the others as it would if it were a chain
- What is the peterson task?
- STM forgetting task in which small amounts of material is tested after brief dealy filled w/ rehersal-prevention task
- What is free recall?
- Method where participants are presented w/ a sequence of items, have to subsequently recall in any order they wish
- WHat is primacy effect?
- tendency for the first few items in a sequence to be better recalled than most of the following items
- What is the recency effect?
- Tendency for the last few items in a sequence to be better recalled
- What is long-term recency?
- tendency for the last few items to be well recalled under conditions of LTM
- What are 5 variables that influence both primacy portion of the serial position curve and other LTM tasks?
- 1. Presentation Rate
2. Word frequency
3. Imageability of words
4. Age of participant
5. Physiological state
- what is the word length effect?
- tendency for verbal memory span to decrease with longer words
Decay --> forget b/c hey take longer to recall
- What are nonsense syllables?
- pronouncebale but meaningless consonant-vowel-consonant items designed to study learning w/out complicating factor of meaning
- what is the irrelevant sound effect?
- tendency for verbal STM to be disrupted by concurrent fluctuating sounds in speech and music
- What does the phonological loop do?
- Stores limited capacity, items are registered as memory traces, they decay within a few seconds
- Rehearsal process:
- can increase traces
- Do similar meaning to words have the same effect as the phonological similiarity effect?
- no only ones that sound the same
- When does the phonological similarity effect disappear?
- when items on the list are increased in lenght and participants are allowed several learning trials
- What did Ebbingnaus do for learning/practice?
- He used his self as own subject, practiced and saw what was remembered
- How did Ebbinghaus measure length of learning?
- Number of trials - amount learned on same number of trials might differ according to motivation, fatigue, etc
- How did Ebbinghaus measure memory?
- concious recall fluctuates with attention
Material might be retined to some degree but not accessible
- What happened when Ebbinghaus compared learning nonsense syllables to DOn Juan?
- Don Juan took less time to learn than nonsense
There's a linear relationship b/w number of syllables and time it takes to learn them
- More repetitions = __ time to learn
- Are there benefits of overlearning?
- Yes, overlearn on the first day, takes fewer trials and total time needed to learn
- 3 factors of distributed practice
- 1. consolidation
2 Multiple instances/contexts
3. More attention
- Regonition memory is better for:
- distributed practice
- What are the best ways to distribute practice?
- 1. inter-trial rest interval
2. inter-term repetition interval
3. inter test interal
2 + 3 best
- What is the idea of the inter-trial rest interval? does it work?
- distinguished practice works by reducting fatigue b/w trials. Doesn't seem to be strong contibuter to distributed practice
- What is micro-distribution of practice? why is this the best way to study?
- priming --> procedural --> semantic --> episodic
More spacing between, better for learning
Testing self best for LTM
- What is the generation effect?
- Better LTM if you generate the answer yourself rather than having it given to you
- What is the mere exposure effect?
- prior exposure increases positive feelings
- What is positive punishment?
- aversive stimulus to stop and unwanted behavior
- Distibuted parctices is better for __ __ with greater __
- massed practice, spacing
- Successful retrieval practice is better for __ ___ with __ spacing
- test effect, smaller
- compromise between distributed and retrieval practice?
- expanded retrieval
- Why is feedback important? When are delays for feedback acceptable?
- correcting errors
explicit tests (conditioning/habits) of healthy adults
- General principles of role learning:
- more time there is to learn, more repetitions needed to learn it
- Total time hypothesis: 3 parts
- 1. Benifits of overlearning
2. Benifits of distributed practice (immediate priming vs. later recognition memory)
3. Distibuted practice: inter-item retrieval, testing effects, expand retrival
- How does classical conditioning impact a drug overdose?
- Body associates enviornment with drug, body is CC to respond to this enviornment to prepare for the drug. Without being in this envorinement body may not do apporpriate things
- How do context settings work?
- Provide cue for a specific routine/designated schdule
- Latent inhibition:
- constant exposure to something - so many exposures w/out paying attention makes it hard to make associations
- What are two types of ineffective CC?
- Simultaneous conditiong: CS presented w/ US
Backward conditioning: US presented before CS
- What is trace conditiong?
- Delay b/w end of CS and US - have memory of the trace to connect the two, awareness/explicit memory help w/ even amnesics
- Example of Pos. Reinforcement:
- hugs, soothing
Removal undersired stimulus
- Fixed Ratio: example too
- respond certian number of times and get reward (salesman on commission)
- Fixed interval and example:
- Reinforcer (paycheck comes at same time every week)
- Variable interval and example:
- occurs at random times
- Variable ratio: example
- respond certian number of times, know what the magic number is (slot machine) best for durable memory
- Skill learning:
- learn how instead of that
- Explicit learning/awareness may __ in learning some complex sequences
- Implict and explicit learning/memory systems may __ with each other
- MTL: __ > ___
- explicit > implicit
- implicit > explicit
- when do implicit/explicit systems cooperate?
- beginning stages of learning new complicated skill
- when do implicit/explicit systems compete?
- proablility learning - teaching someone else the skill
- Total time hypothesis:
- amount of time to learn a task is a simple fxn of the amount of time spent on the task
- Distibuted practice:
- breaking practice into shorter sessions will lead to fewer, longer, learning sessions
- Who spent the fewest hours practicing overall and who learned the skill in the fewest days in the postman study?
- People who spent 1 hour a day
- Expanding retrieval:
- learning schedule whereby items are initally tested after short delay w/ pretest delay gradually increasing across subsequent trials
- Does motivation have indirect or direct effect on learning?
- What kinds of info is learned through mass repetion? what is not
- Non-complex, short info best
- CC basic phenomenon:
- Pair and UC w/ NS and get CR
- Cell assemblies:
- assumes to involve the establishment of links b/w cells forming the assembly for LTM
- time-dept process which new trace is gradually woven into memory by which its components and their interconnections are cemembterd
- Amygdala important for:
- emotional processing
- where is the hippocampus:
- in the MTL - important for TM
- What is Hebb's proposal of LTM:
- cell assemblies - chemical synapses change and are strenghtened over time leading to LTM
- What is evidence that hippocampal LTP plays role in learning?
- rats with lession can still learn the maze, but rats who have AP5 blocking LTP cannot
- CC definition:
- a neutral stimulus is paired with an UCR: results in CS with CR
- stimulus that elicits response before conditioning occurs
- initially neutral stimulus that elicits CR after being associated with US
- aninnate response that's elicited by stimulus before
- response elicted by cond stimulus after CC taken place
- what are major distinctions b/w CC and opearnt?
- CC: stimulus elicts response - learned associations
OC: how consequences influence behavior. learn association b/w behavior and consequence
- response to CS eliminated if CS presented without US
- spontaneous recovery:
- if time passes after extinction occured, presence of CS can envoke some responding again
- Quantitative law of effect:
- the effectiveness of a reinforcer depends on the amount of reinforcement earned for alt behaviors. reinforcer less effective if there are lots of reinforcers in the envornment
- What is levels of processing? does it fit with modal model?
- Theory that items are more deeply processed witll be better remembered in the STM
- How does pt data discredit the modal model?
- Pts with STM deficits should have problems with LTM according to modal model
- Phonological loop:
- responsible for temporary storage of speech like info - rehersal
- visuospatial sketchpad:
- responsible for temporary maintannce of visual and spatial info
- semantic coding:
- processing an item in terms of meaning - relates it to info in LTM
- nonword repetition tasks:
- test where participants hear and attempt to repeat back nonwords that gradually increase in length
- centrual executive:
- whole system controlled by, limits system and selects and manipulates material in subsytems
- What was pt PV problem? what could she/couldnt she do. What does this suggest?
- PV: impaired phonological loop (digit span only 2), could do LTM and working meory, couldn't learn new language or semantic coding
Suggests phonological loop important in language acquistion
- episodic buffer:
- working memory model: assumes a multidimmensional code allowing various subcomponents of WM to interact with LTM
- supervisory attentional system:
- accounts for attn control of action
- Who tends to have better memory? those w/ strong imagery or those without?
- Those without b/c those w/ tend to fill what they think they know as a vivid memory
- linking features into objects (color red. shape square. turns into red square)
- What part od Baddeley's WM model is thought to be where the phonological loop and LTM are combined?
- episodic buffer
- PFC important for:
- executive process and short term storage
- Distinction between the subvocal rehearsal process and the phonological buffer?
- verbal storage is decomposed into the phonologial buffer and turned into short term maintance thru subvocal rehersal
- What part of the brain is important for rehearsal process?
- Broaca's area and PFc
- what area of the brain is important fo phonological buffer?
- posterior parietal region
- what area of brain is important to language? rehearsal or phonological?
- rehersal - broca's area
- Spatial objects for brain?
- right Premotor cortext
- object brian:
- right DLPFC
- ventral path is __ whereas doral __
- what where
- spatial info is more dorsal than object
- activates left hemp speech areas
- ventral PFC
- right premortor cortex
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