Glossary of Psych 346 - exam2
Created by rvgerman
- Learned nonsense syllables to "criterion" to measure learning.
Measured SAVINGS in relearning.
- Don Juan Poem
- Compared with Ebbinghaus nonsense syllables,took 1/10th the time to learn. Shows meaning and organization have a HUGE impact.
- Total-time Hypothesis
- More time spent on initial learning, less time needed to re-learn
- Distributed Practice
- Important exception to Total-time hypothesis. Why? consolidation, multiple contexts, more attention.
- Long-term sensitization
- increased # connections between sensory and motor neurons
- Wagner et al. and distributed practice
- Faster responses for recently repeated items. (and less brain activity)
-Shows long lag is best, pay more attention second time and boosts memory.
- Inter-trial rest interval
- Idea that distributed practice reduces fatigue between trials?
-tested by rotor task, not due to motor fatigue.(watching had same effect as doing)
- Inter-item repetition lag
- Micro-distribution of practice. More distance between presentations is better.
- Generation effect
- Better long term memory if you generate the answer yourself vs having it given to you.
- Mere exposure effect
- prior exposure increases positive feelings
- Expanded retrieval
-Greater vs smaller spacing
- For studying, greater spacing is better.
For testing, smaller spacing if better for greater reinforcement of correct answers.
- Continuing to practice once learned once.
Why its helpful:The more repetitions, the less time needed to relearn it.
- Conditioning (effective vs ineffective ways)
- Classical conditioning- delay between CS and US
Ineffective: simultaneous conditioning and backward conditioning.
- Trace conditioning
- Hippocampally mediated conditioning where US occurs after CS has finished. (no overlap)
- Trace conditioning and coma patients
- Coma patients showed eye muscle response while anesthetized patients didn't.
Evidence of consciousness
- 1.Positive reinforcement
- 1. add desired stimulus
2. remove undesired stimulus
3. add punishment
4. take away reward
- Most durable schedule of reinforcement
- Variable ratio
- Brain regions for implicit and explicit
- Implicit: Caudate
Explicit: Medial temporal lobe
- Implicit/Explicit cooperate when..
- Beginning to learn a new task
- Consolidation effects
- Taking a nap right after studying is best.
- Circadian influences
- During "peak off" times implicit memory is better because explicit is no longer interfering.
- Left vs Right PFC
- Left for words, right for nonverbal
- exception to the fact that most hippocampal patients cannot form new semantic memories.
- Jon and Beth
- Repetition priming and semantic priming
- Item itself is repeated, related information influences activation (environment can influence too)
- Whats wrong with heirarchal view?
- Familiarity matters more than distance, typicality effects (penguin as a bird)
- Semantic Priming: related, unrelated, nonword
- Probes with related primes are verified more rapidly
- TOT tip of tounge
- have a word that sounds like the one we want, but other sounds are activated so it’s harder to get to the word you want.
- Left lateral temporal
- Important for words. (need to know for surgery
- distributed + "hub"
- Hub activates attributes then focus on task-related pieces.
- Whorfian hypothesis
- Language determines perceptions and representations
- Brain organization: lower level processing
- Good evidence for color form motion, somewhat heirarchal
- How does brain organization explain activation?
- Neurons that fire together, wire together (personal experiences
- Learning new concepts: Consistent, Hybrid, varied
- Consistent: all examples about one context (concrete)
Hybrid: First examples from same context then differs
Varied: all examples from different context (abstract)
- 5 Relations to executive function
- 1. attention and inhibition
2. task management
-help overcome schemas when inappropriate
- Ebbinghaus vs Bartlett
- E focused on narrow issues and ignored real world memory.
B studied recall of complex behavior, stressed effort after meaning.
- Repetition worked for what stimuli?
- stimuli that needed to be learned from scratch
- Gestalt and memory
- insightful learning (adding 3 to numbers) lasts longer than rote memorization
- Subjective organization
- distort details to fit schema.
- Camicheals effect
- organized material depends more on how you need to retrieve it, not how it was organized.
- 3 characteristics of skilled memory
- 1. encode meaningfully
2. attach retrieval cues to structure
3. Becomes faster with practice
- LOP more semantic, "deeper" is better memory
TAP semantic only better if tested on meaning, important match between how you learned and how you'll be tested
- London taxi drivers vs bus drivers
- hippocampal differences,
Cost: harder to make other associations, and when stop training the structure shrink compared with controls.
- Turving study of processing
- showed no difference in performance between repeat and non repeat conditions
- Fail to reach semantic level.. three reasons
- 1. nature of material
2. limited processing capacity
3. task demands
- Divided attention
- Harder secondary task reduced activation during encoding= more impairment
- Craik on primacy
- do meaning based for initial words, shows why divided attention reduces primacy effect
- Negative recency
- worst at recalling end of list later on because never thought of meaning
- Three assumptions of sensory-functional theory
- 1. Living things are distinguished form each other mainly on the basis of their visual or
2. Nonliving things are distinguished from each other mainly on the basis of their
3. There are three times as many visual units within the semantic system as there are
- relations vs distinctiveness
- - more possible cues to get to item
-distinguish correct from competitors
- State effects
- Only affect recall not recognition.
-state serves as a cue.
- mood-dependence vs mood-congruence
- -match mood at encoding and retrieval as a cue
-Mood biases what you recall
- Cognitive context- bilingual study
- memories from same linguistic context.
-Bilinguals have two language modes
- Familiarity vs recollection
- both like google:
-strength and recency
-fit between cue and target
- quantitative vs qualitative
- give people instructions for when they should remember or know something
remember= specific details
- Receiver operating characteristics graph
- familiarity gives curved lines
recollection straightens the line
-when you put them together on a graph, whichever way the graph is still distorted that aspect has a larger contribution
- Jacoby: process dissociation procedure
- tease apart true results from contamination
-study was famous and nonfamous names. first said list was famous people and then said it was a mistake and was nonfamous, could subjects remember list?
- Process dissociation procedure: inclusion vs exclusion
- -names you read before ARE famous
-names you read before ARE NOT famous
- Incidental encoding on colored words
- Brain does know difference between recollection and familiarity.
Rhinal cortex= familiarity!
hippocampus and parahippocampus increase recollections!
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