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Glossary of Psych 330 Vision & Audition

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Created by tstoops19

Wavelength
Discriminate between to distinguish colors
Hue
Dominant wavelength

"Color" we perceive

Brightness
Intensity of a color

Dark to light

Saturation
Different shades of the same color
Retina
Light sensitive surface on the back of the eye consisting of neurons and photoreceptor cells: rods and cones.

Transduction occurs here

Rod
Cylindrical, responsive to a wide range of color

Mainly night vision

Specialized for motion



Cones
Tapered outer segment, more numerous in fovea

Highly responsive to right light, mainly day vision

Maximal responsive to specific light: blue (short). green (middle), red (long)



Fovea
Center of the retina where photoreceptors are more densely packed

ONLY CONES

Transduction
Light (photons) cause rods and cones to generate graded potentials eventually causing ganglion cells to fire and action potential.
Photoreceptor
(Rods and Cones)

Convert light energy first into chemical energy and then into neural energy

Photoreceptors are connected to two layers of retinal neurons
Bipolar Cells

Horizontal Cells: link photoreceptors to bipolar cells

Amacrine Cells: link bipolar cells with retinal ganglion cells



Retinal Ganglion Cells
M (magnocellular): Found throughout retina

P (parvocellular): Found largely in the region of the fovea where we are sensitive to color and fine details

Optic Disc
Where blood vessels enter the eye and the axons that form the optic nerve leave the eye, has no receptors and this forms a blind spot.
Optic Nerve
Conveys information from the eye to the brain
Optic Nerve/Tract
Axons that run from the retina to the LGN to visual striate cortex (VI)
Geniculostriate System
A pathway formed by the P and M ganglion cells. This pathway goes from the retina to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus and then to layer IV of the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe.
Soundwave
Vibrations from the air to your ear turned to sound
Transduction (Auditory)
Converts pressures into a mechanical signal into electrochemical neural energy
Pitch
Frequency- the shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency and the higher the pitch of the sound.
Amplitude
Height of the wave. Measured from the base to the peak or base to trough
Timbre
Quality of a sound independent of its pitch and volume
Outer Ear
Collects sounds from the environment and funnels them through the auditory system. Composed of three parts:

-Pinna: (Ears) skin covered cartilage, lowest portion is called the lobe

-External Auditory Canal: Passageway in the temporal lobe that begins at the ear and extends inwards and upwards. Lined with skin, hair and ceruminous (ear wax).

-Tympanic Membrane/ Ear Drum: Marks the border between the outer ear and middle ear. The eardrum serves as a transmitter of sound by vibrating in response to sounds traveling down the external auditory canal, and beginning sound conduction in the middle ear. Consists of three layers: The middle point of the tympanic membrane (the umbo) is attached to the stirrup, the first of three bones contained in the middle ear.





Middle Ear
Transmits sound from the outer ear to the inner ear. Can be thought of as a room, the outer wall contains the tympanic membrane. The back wall, separating the middle ear from the inner ear has two windows: the oval window (inner ear) and the round window (Cholea)
Ossicles
Three tiny bones in the middle ear form a chain which conducts sound waves from the tympanic membrane (outer ear) to the oval window (inner ear). Three bones are the hammer (malleus), the anvil (incus) and the stirrup (stapes). These bones are connected and move as a chain might, causing pressure at the oval window and the transmission of energy from the middle ear to the inner ear. Sound waves cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate, which set up vibrations in the ossicles, which amplify the sounds and transmits them to the inner ear via the oval windows.
Cholea
(Latin for "snail") ROUND WINDOW

The site of the sense organs for hearing. Filled with fluid and contains three parts:
-The nerve hair cells
-The tectoral membrane
-The basilar membrane




Organ of Corti
Lies along the entire length of the basilar membrane. The organ contains hairs (cilia) and is the site of the conversion of sound waves into nerve impulses, which are sent to the brain, for auditory interpretation.
Cilia
Hair cells have hair like structures

-Outer: Embedded into tectoral membrane; amplify/ increase clarity of the sound

-Inner: Loosely connected; necessary for hearing



Tectorial Membrane
Covers the surface of the organ of corti
Tip Link
Opens and allows influx of potassium channels causing depolarization of the membrane. Neurotransmitters are released to the dendrites of auditory nerve fibers
Primary Auditory Cortex (AI)
In temporal lobe. tonotopic "sound space" representation

-500 Hz corresponds to apex of cochlea
-16,000 Hz corresponds to the base of the cochlea


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