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Glossary of Psych 210 (2)

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What is included within the Prelinguistic Phase?
- crying (which we do not talk about)
What is included in the prelinguistic phase that we discuss?
- non crying sounds
- early sounds
non-crying sounds
1-2 months:
- Individual letter sounds and intonation patterns
- Habituation/dishabituation paradigm
- Get a baby used to something and then change it around and see if the baby notices
- By 1-2 months they dishabituate
Few more months:
- Discriminate among syllables or words
- Speech sounds matched by speaker’s mouth movements
- If sounds and video don’t match up they know









Early sounds
0-1 months
- Crying
- Indicated pain, hunger, want, etc.
1-2 months
- Cooing - vowel sounds
- Indicates happiness
6-7 months
- Babbling – consonant sounds
6-12 months
- Babbling makes up at least half of the non-crying sounds that infants make
- Intonational pattern of language
- Drift
- Babies can babble in any language (they are born with the capacity to learn any language). Babies drift away from babbling/producing the sounds that are not part of your native language. You babble the sounds you hear.
6-12 months
- Gestural language happens as control of the body/limbs happens















Receptive Language vs. Expressive Language
- receptive always comes first and then expressive language
- aka. Babies understand a lot of words before they can say them
- expressive language is much more difficult
- same as in second languages, understand what they are saying but cannot speak very well




First Words
- any sound or set of sounds that is used consistently to refer to some thing, action, or quality
- her brother’s first word was “biss” and it meant his blanket. We may not consider this a first word but he always referred to it as that it was a first word.
- Children use their first word at approximately 11 months
- 6.5 months and 15.2 months is the range in which kids use their first words, this is a huge range. 90% of kids fall within these parameters. Large “normal range”.
- First words are not the key criteria for aptitude because of this large range.
- Kids are prompted to use their first words, they are elicited.
- After kids get a few words they know that things are labelled and thus words start to be used spontaneously
- Basic symbolic characteristic of language – that things have names








Categories of first words
food/drink
- chips
- eat
- baba (bottle)
animals
- kona
- names of pets
clothes
- hat
toys/play
- blanket
- ball
vehicles (no gender difference here)
- car
- truck
People
- Mom
- Dad
- Buddy



















Adding new words
- slow progression, gradual increase in early language development
- kids acquire one or two words every few weeks
- then explosion (naming explosion)
- 1977 (study)
o Age 6: ~14000 words





Kinds of new words
- names for common objects (labels)
- people in child’s environment


Overextension Errors
- stretching a familiar word beyond its correct meaning
- clever error: find attributes about one thing and then use the same words for other similar things. Ex) cow, sheep, horse story
- learning device because as they make mistakes we try and fix their mistakes and they get feedback



First Sentences
- word + gesture/body language = holophrase
- debate about whether this is a real sentence or a pre-sentence
- more sophisticated then just a word
- common in children from 12-18 months
- two word sentences begin at about 18 months, and the use of single words and holophrases continues for some months
- two words = true sentence
- by about 2 – 2 ½ years, one word utterances drop out and child uses 3-4 word sentences and these sentences are beginning to be quite complex







Grammar
- stage I grammar
- stage II grammar
o based on research down in the 1960s and 1970s by Roger Brown



Stage I Grammar
- most basic/simple sentence possible
- short sentences
- 2 to 3 word sentences
- Only critical words are present  telegraphic speech
- Ambiguity is always there
- IN: nouns, verbs, and modifiers
- OUT: inflections  prepositions, auxiliary verbs, verb endings example, (-ing), articles, and plural endings.







Stage II Grammar

- removing ambiguity from statements
- adding inflections
- questions and negatives
- over-regularization errors
- pragmatics



negatives
- early use of negatives: tacking “n” words onto positive statements:
 no drink milk
 not bath, Mommy
- later use of negative: negative verb forms
 I don’t want more milk
 I won’t take a bath, Mommy






Questions
- How, what, who, when, where
- Different wh words refer to different parts of speech
- The easiest to understand for kids are:
 What
 Who
 Where
 Referring to people, objects, and locations
 Answers to these questions are always concrete, example where’s mommy?
- More difficult questions to understand:
 When
 Which
 How
 Why
 Require children to grasp more difficult concepts and greater language ability
 More difficult for children because they need to have more understanding, example when did daddy go to work?















Pragmatics
- Ability to understand pragmatics begins in early childhood
- Sometimes a question is not a question, rhetorical questions
- “What are you doing to that coffee table?!”
- Sometimes questions are hidden in statements
- “mommy and daddy always let me watch lost”





Over-regularization
- Particular problem in English
- Morpheme – minimal linguistic unit that carries meaning
- Two categories of morpheme
Free morpheme – it can stand alone
• Book, eat, run
Bound morpheme – it cannot be used without being affixed to another morpheme (un-, -ed, -s) example, undone.
- Over-regularization
 Tendency on the part of children to make the language regular
 Example, mouse-s, run-ed,I go-ed to the store
 Particularly common between 3-5 years of age
 Reliant on feedback from us to learn this all











Piaget

Pre-Operational Period/thought/stage (2-6)



- At this point they can represent things with images (representational thought) and have object permanence
- Cognitive theory but has social implications
- Piaget characterized this period in terms of limitations
- Characteristics of this period:
o Identities (Qualitative and Quantitative) and Concervation problems (mass, volume, number) and Reversibility







Limitations of Pre-operational Stage
- Egocentrism (unidimensional thinking)
 They are egocentric because they do not have the cognitive capacity to not be. Thus, children cannot assume someone else’s perspective. Example, child hits other child to get toy but cannot put himself in the other child’s shoes.
 Everything is interpreted in terms of themselves
- Irreversibility
 Children cannot see that every logical operation is reversible
- Centration (another unidimensional aspect)
 Children tend to focus on only one aspect at a time
Examples: Susie, do you have a sister? Yup. What’s her name? Joanna. Does Joanna have a sister? I don’t know.
o All three limitations can be seen here









Identity
judgment of sameness about some critical aspect (of a problem, situation, person, etc)
Identities (in order of increasing difficulty of kids to acquire)
Qualitative
Quantitative
Qualitative identity
- Do not have this identity when they enter this period, do have this by the time the pre-operational period is over.
- Realization that an object is the same despite some irrelevant physical transformation
- Example: scrunched piece of paper.
- Major accomplishment of pre-operational period: acquisition of qualitative identity.




Quantitative identity
- acquired later: in concrete operational period, will not have this at the end of the pre-operational period
- Piaget still shows this at pre-operational period to prove that children cannot do it
- realization that an amount is the same despite some irrelevant physical transformation



acquisition of qualitative identity
Maynard the Cat experiment
- Cat doesn’t mind being poked at etc.
- Kids come into lab and interact with Maynard
- Ask kids questions about Maynard: What type of toys does Maynard play with? What does Maynard eat? Etc. They are asking for properties of cat-ness.
- They would put a dog mask onto Maynard. (irrelevant physical transformation)
- Kids are now asked the same questions about Maynard.
Results:
 3 years: they understand cat-ness. Their typical reaction was fear when he had a dog mask. Now saying…Maynard barks, bites, etc. (so they treat him as a dog).
 6 years: they understand cat-ness. Their typical reaction was laughing. Now saying….he purrs, likes fish, etc. (so they treat him as a cat still)









Types of Quantitative identity
Conservation of length
Conservation of Number
conservation of volume
conservation of mass




conservation of length
Bent-wire task
- Time 1: both paper clips same (child agrees – child must agree)
- Time 2: one paper clip unbent (while child watches)
- If at beginning: will say that its not even the same paper clip
- Question: is the unbent paper clip the same amount as the bent one?
Results:
- 5 years (pre-op) – have qualitative but not quantitative
o Their response is no. If you say which one has more? They always choose the unbent one.
- 8 years (concrete operational) – have both qualitative and quantitative
o Their response is yes same amount.










Conservation of volume
- Time 1: two identical glasses with same amount of water (child agrees)
- Time 2: pour water from one glass into a third glass (child watches)
- Question: is the amount of water in the third glass the same?
Results:
• Pre-op: nope it’s not the same. The taller glass has more. (length has a big impact on kids in the pre-operational period)
• Concrete-op: of course the amount is the same, you just poured it into a different shaped glass I saw you.






Conservation of number
- Time 1: two lines of candy are the same
- Time 2: stretch one line out and pre-op will think that the longer one has more candy


Conservation of mass
- Stretching out play-dough
What is the major change that happens between the pre-operational period and the concrete operational period ?
the change from qualitative identity to quantitative identity
Perceived appearance vs. inferred reality
what “looks” real vs. what is “really” real
- Pre-operational children
• Make judgments based on appearances
• Will continue to say that the top line is longer
- Concrete operational children
• Make judgments based on what they “know”
• Will say I know that one looks longer but I know it is not





Centration vs. decentration
- Centration = concentrating attention in a fixed/inflexible was on a limited aspect of a situation
- Decentration = more adaptable/flexible focus of attention
Two types of centration
- Spatial centration (explanation that children say first)
o This is what is happening with the water glass test, looking at length and ignoring width
- Temporal centration (second explanation by child)
o Ignore old information, focus on the new
o So, they knew that there used to be the same amount of water but they ignore this info once the water is moved…



Operation
mental scheme or transformation that can be reversed by child (in their minds)
Reversibility
- Pre-operational child cannot reverse, a concrete operational child can.
- Major distinction between pre-operational and concrete operational period
2 types of reversibility
- Inversion – if they can see the reverse
o Transformation over time will see that amount of liquid is the same
o Saying if I move the water back over here then it’s the same
- Compensation/reciprocity
o Although liquid is higher in this different container it is also thinner so decrease in width compensates for the increase in height



Freud (psychosexual)

Anal Stage (2-3 years)



- Occurs on response to toilet training
- Process of elimination is the primary focus of pleasure
- In situations where parents are too harsh about toilet training? (too little pleasure) – leads to anal retentive
- In situations where parents are too lenient about toilet training? (too much pleasure) – you become to generous and easy going


Freud

Phallic Stage (~3-7 years)

- Genitals are the source of pleasure
- Oedipus complex for boys: boys fall in love with their mothers and want to have sex with them and they realize that their fathers are in the way of this
- Electra complex for girls: girls fall in love with their fathers and want to have sex with them and they realize that their fathers are in the way of this
- Jealously/hate towards the same sex parent
- Fear of punishment from same sex parent
- Fear leads to resolution by identification with same sex parent (I would like to be just like that person). This is the basis of forming a gender identity (it actually develops much earlier than this).
- Penis envy: girls notice that they do not have a penis so no castration anxiety







Erikson (psychosocial)

stage 2: autonomy vs. shame and doubt (~2-3 years)



- child is more independent
- new opportunities for personality development
- new vulnerabilities (literally – falling down, and psychologically – separation anxiety, stranger anxiety)
Goal of stage?
- Parents need to foster sense of self-control without loss of self-esteem
- Childs needs to learn how to exercise their will and self-control
- Child not sure when to let go (eliminate) or when to hold on (retention)
- Need to know when it is okay to be independent and when you need to abide by the rules
Overall
- Child needs to feel independent/autonomous
- But also need to know that you can’t do everything that they want to









Erikson (psychosocial)

Stage 3: initiative vs. guilt (~4-5 years)

- Child must figure out what kind of person they are going to be
- Want to be like your parents, identify with your parents
Positive outcome:
- child eager to try new things, enjoy new experiences, etc.
- lots of play activity (because this is one way of taking on new experiences and showing initiative)
Negative outcome:
- Child criticized/punished a lot by parents then they start to feel guilty about trying new things
- They will begin to take less and less initiative because every time they do they get in trouble
- Less play activity
- Lack of self-confidence








Piaget

Concrete Operational Period (~6-12)

- they come into the stage with qualitative and quantitative thinking
- they can infer reality
- they have decentration
- they can reverse mental schemes
overall:
- increased mobility in thinking
- can solve conservation problems
- starting to think logically
- starting to think more objectively (loosing egocentricity)
- BUT still tied to the observable, concrete world
 i.e. they can solve a problem if they can see objects necessary for solution









Concrete operational vs. formal operational
- Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
- Transitive inference problems
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
- Reasoning that starts with a fact or a premise and leads to conclusions
- Classic task to test hypothetico-deductive reasoning made by Osherson & Markman (1974)
 Experimenter asks child questions about a coin in her hand
 Child must respond with true, false or can’t tell
• The thing in my hand is a quarter or it is not a quarter?
o Is this true, false, or can’t tell
 Can do this when your hand is closed or the hand is open
o Statement is tautological
 Needless repetition of an idea, statement, or word
• The thing in my hand is a quarter and it is not a quarter.
o Is this true, false, or can’t tell
 Can do this when your hand is closed or that hand is open
o Statement is contradictory
Results:
- Or Statement
o Concrete operational child can’t tell when the hand is closed but always say true when hand is open
o Formal operational child can always say true whether hand is open or closed
- And Statement
o Concrete operational child can’t tell when the hand is closed but always say true when hand is open
o Formal operational child can always say true whether hand is open or closed
• Thus, concrete operational thought tied to hard, tangible reality





















Transitive inference problems
- Problems of the form: if A>B and B>C, is A>C?
- Example) Joan is taller than Sandra. Sandra is taller than Mary. Is Joan taller than Mary?
Results:
- Concrete operation child: can’t do it at the start
- Most kids can do this by middle of period (~7-8)
- But easier to do if J,S, and M were standing in from of them
- Harder if make it less plausible. If Halifax is west of Toronto and if Toronto is West of Vancouver then where is Halifax with respect to Vancouver?
- These are not true facts but we can still figure it out
- Esp. difficult for concrete operational if knows geography (concrete reality)
- In formal operational they will think it is weird that the info is contrary to reality but they can still do it.








Concrete operational child
- Concrete operational child is tied to concrete, empirical reality while formal operational adolescent can work with hypothetical (and not necessarily true) concepts
- Concrete operational child is much more flexible and creative in thinking than the pre-operational child
Freud

Stage 4: Latency Stage (7-11)

- quiet stage
- sexual urges are at a minimum
- forget about earlier sexual urges
- focus on school (making an assumption that most kids are going to school)
- focus on play activities
o tend to play with same sex piers
o continuing with the identification with same sex that follows the Oedipus complex
- time to acquire cognitive skills, cultural values






Erikson

Stage 4: industry vs. inferiority (6-12)

- sense of identity can start in stage three (kids are saying I want to be like my parents)
- now your identity is “I am what I learn”, “I’m a learner”
o can carry on as part of our identity throughout life
o coincides with entry to school
o wanting to learn and work
o you are learning in school and out of school
- learning even if you are not in school
- also learning when you are not in school but at home, friends, etc.
- all situations are potential learning situations
successful experiences with learning
o leave this stage with a sense of industry
o will leave this stage with a sense of openness and willing to try new things with a feeling of competency/mastery
failure with learning
o sense of inadequacy and inferiority
o feeling that one is “good-for-nothing”
overall:
o effort to make things well
o effort to complete tasks
o we tend to gravitate towards things we are good at and pull away from things that we are not good at. Erikson was ahead of his time here.

















Peer Relationships
- peer group: group of individuals of roughly the same age and social status who play, work, and/or learn together.
- SES – kids at the same school tend to have roughly the same SES due to the fact that schools are in neighbourhoods and houses cost certain amounts in these places.
- As you get older you have more peer groups then a child whose peer group is primarily their school friends
- Peer groups usually have a special vocabulary, a dress code, hang out together (even when they don’t have to be)
- Formal schooling is a very integral part of why peer relationships are so important at this age, school forces you together.
- Before school your peer group can vary across individuals. Could be preschool, family, etc.
- Enjoyment of school is partially (to totally) related to interactions with peers. Freud and Erikson did not touch on how much peers can affect how much kids like/dislike/can perform in school. Peers have a massive impact on kids cognitive, social development.
- Peers have an important effect on
o Social skills
o Self-concept
o Self-competence
o (think about the movie: blast from the past)
New theory: peers are more important than parents.













Peer groups for 2-3 year olds
go to daycare, friends on the street, these are peer groups. They have friends/playmates. Their friendships are based on playing/activities that you cannot do on your own. Like that person because they are useful to you (think egocentrism). This is very different then later on in life. Don’t really compare themselves to their friends/playmates (again due to egocentrism). Don’t tend to share/help/cooperate with others as much as later.
Peer groups for adolescents
identify with opinions of a group. Do not see this early on. Reject opinions of other groups. Can place high school students into groups (jocks, nerds, etc.)
Peer groups for middle childhood
All of a sudden children are concerned with judgment of entire group of classmates. Children start to compare themselves to others. Study where they ask a grade one class who is the best reader at the beginning and the end of the class. At the beginning over 70 percent said themselves. At the end they were good judges at who was actually the best. Much more dependent on peers. May start going to other kids for advice. More interested in helping/sharing/cooperating. Kids get pleasure from these activities and will do it on their own (without someone telling them to do it). Less physical violence but more verbal assaults. Gender differences here. Girls tend to be better at manipulating etc. because they get in more trouble for physical violence so learn to substitute it out faster.
Peer Acceptance (PA)
(bulk of research in middle childhood but can be used at any period)
- being accepted by your peers begins to matter a lot
- very long term implications of being accepted by your peers or not
- suicide rates (especially in high school years) are related to PA
- How do we measure/asses PA?
o Observation of children
o Questionnaire that ask kids to evaluate one another’s likeability
 Look at how each kid tends to be rated by his/her classmates






Four categories of Peer Acceptance
1) popular/well-liked children
2) neglected children
3) controversial children
4) Rejected children


popular/well-liked children
a. communicate well with peers
b. sensitive towards others
c. friendly
d. cooperative with adults and children




Neglected children
a. Usually well-adjusted kids
b. Considered shy by classmates


Controversial children
(lack of stability leads to controversy)
a. At both extremes, some kids really like them and some kids really dislike them
b. If you go back later, kids often flip about whether they like them or not
c. Tend to be hostile and disruptive
d. Also lots of positive and prosocial acts





Rejected children
- Kids who are actively disliked by many of their classmates
- unhappy
- alienated
- poor achievers
- low self-esteem





Long Term Effects of Rejection
- rejected kids are more likely to:
o drop out of school
o be involved in criminal activities



two types of rejected children
1) aggressive rejected
2) withdrawn rejected
Aggressive rejected
kids who are actively rejected by their peer group because their aggressive, confrontational behaviour. They tend to overestimate their social competence for interacting with peers. But they are perceived by their peers as argumentative, uncooperative and generally hard to get along with. Thus they do not have very good social awareness. Tend to be impulsive, immature, likely to misinterpret social situations. Bullies.
Withdrawn rejected
children who are actively rejected by their peers because of their withdrawn, anxious behaviour. They are aware of their social isolation. Tend to be lonely, anxious and unhappy. They have low self-esteem which can effect how they do in school short term and long term. They are socially awkward so we try to get them involved in activities with younger kids where their lack of social competence won’t seem so bad. Tend to be submissive. Bully victims.
Reasons for interest in this age? (adolescence)
- baby boomers were born after world war two, their was a lot of teenagers around and they are loud and interesting
- adolescence can be seen as storm and stress, tantrums, hormones, rebelling
Adolescence (12-18)
- period can be hard to define, starts earlier for some
- noticeable physical, cognitive, social changes that mark the end of childhood
- person’s culture has effect on how we view adolescence
o some cultures say this is when you are becoming an adult
o other cultures say that it is just a continuation of childhood
o some parents react negatively, some parents are excited about it




Puberty
- puberty: change from state of physical immaturity to one of physical maturity (biologically mature and able to reproduce)
- obvious gender differences
- females go through puberty earlier than males (about 2 years difference)

Growth Spurt
- often first visible signs of puberty
- Huge feet is another sign because extremities grow first
- During first 2-3 years of puberty:
o Boys  max 9 inches
o Girls  max 6-7 inches
- Gawky stage
o Feet and hands are out of proportion with the rest of the body
o Changes in the facial features occur
 Nose, ears grow. Jaw shape changes.
 Head grows (for the first time since you were two)
- Shape changes
o Genders become physically distinct
o Wider hip to waist ratios for girls, and get boobs
o Wider neck and shoulders for boys
o Males become stronger than females













Primary Sexual Development
- involves primary sex organs (those involved in reproduction)
 males: testes enlarge/functionally mature so sperm and semen are being produced (technical term is spermarche)
 females: ovaries release mature ova (technical term in menarche)

Secondary sex characteristics
- Visible characteristics that differentiate males and females
 Males:
• enlargement of testes
• Appearance of pubic hair (comes first)
• Appearance of underarm and facial hair (comes later, facial is last)
• Voice changes, larynx expands (adam’s apple) vocal cords run across this so males have lengthened vocal cords
 Females:
• Breasts development gradual
• Pubic hair
• Underarm hair and facial hair (but much less)
• Accumulation of fatty tissue (typically settles around the hips)









Timing of Puberty/environmental impact of puberty
- genetic and environmental factors
- environmental factors include:
o general health (better health – earlier onset)
o nutrition (obesity – earlier onset) (anorexia – later onset)
o stress (high stress- earlier onset)
o depression (associated with delayed onset)
- historical changes
o if we went back to 1910 – girls are going through puberty 2 years earlier now then they used to.
o Males in mid twentieth century took until the age of 26 to reach adult height, now it usually happens around 18
o Trend is for things to happen earlier and earlier
o Also go through it faster









Rite of passage
- many cultures, transition to adolescence recognized by ritual
- in many ways this signals a positive change
- many “modern” cultures have no ritual associated with it
- first ejaculation/period can have negative interpretations/connotations




early maturing boys
o more physically mature at earlier age
o seen as more psychologically/socially mature
o more favourable self-concept
o better performance in sports/social status with sports
o expected to behave maturely
o more responsibility






late maturing boys
o take longer to become physically mature
o people expect you to be less socially mature
o less social status
o seek social attention (class clowns) or become withdrawn (group showers=self consciousness)
o less freedom, being treated like little boys





early maturing girls
o more likely to feel negative/self-conscious about appearance
o first ones in the class to go through puberty, focus of attention/unwanted comments
o usually tallest/biggest students in class
o parents become rigid/controlling
o negative outcome can partially reverse (because these girls are more attractive to boys/older boys – risk factor, teenage pregnancy)



late maturing girls
o self-conscious about their lack of development
o parents less rigid but treat them like kids (which they can resent)
o fewer interactions with males (romantic or otherwise)
o start dating later (lowest risk of teenage pregnancy)
o less popular
o better chance of making friendships with boys, not just romantic relationships
o tend to be leaner (skinnier)





Piaget

Formal Operational Thought (~age 12)

- Concrete operational kids can perform mental operations to objects/events; most of these operations are performed on concrete things. They can classify/order/reverse mental operations.
- Formal operational kids can perform mental operations that include more than the concrete operational kids. They use concrete operations to get results to generate hypotheses from results. You are able to test the hypotheses. Formal operational kids are “scientists”. Thus, start making operations on operations. Thought is now truly logical, abstract and hypothetical. Formal operation thinking resembles the scientific method.
Pendulum Test
(used to check formal operational thinking)
o Pendulum: weight hanging from a string
o Would usually be provided with a pendulum and many different strings, weights, etc.
o What determines how fast a pendulum swings?
 Weight of the weight.
 Force used
 Height lifted
 Length of string
• Concrete operational – length of string and weight of weight
• Formal operational – height from which pendulum is released and force of push on pendulum








What differentiates the CO from FO?
CO
• no systematic working through options
o i.e. doesn’t change one variable and hold all others constant
FO
• imagine all possible determinants of pendulum speed before beginning
• systematically vary factors one by one
• observe results
• keep track of results
• draw appropriate conclusions (example if the shortest string is pink CO may say that it is the fact that it is pink)
- overall, test predictions from each hypothesis (hypothetico-deductive thought)








balance beam task
o hang 5kg weight off 4th arm on left side balance. How to get balance even? (cannot remove the 5 kg weight)
o solving problem requires realizing that heaviness of weights and distance from center interact to affect balance.
o Typical responses
 PO (3-5 yrs) – hang weights at random
 Early CO (7 yrs) – use same amount of weight on each side (but did not figure out which place to hang the weight)
 Late CO (10 yrs) – placement of weight on arms important but use trial-and-error
 FO (13-14 yrs) – hypothesizes direct relationship between weight and location and systematically test hypothesis.





Other typical tasks of formal operational stage
o Solve a geometric proof
o Discover proportional relations
 Ex) 16 is to ___, as 4 is to 1.
o Evaluate syllogisms
 Ex) all children hate spinach, girls are children. Therefore, girls hate spinach.



More things about FO stage.
- In these tasks kids that are better at science or that have schooling will do better. Up until this point Piaget’s theory was universal but now it isn’t
- Formal operational thought has social aspects. Adolescents tend to think that the whole world is looking at you and that everyone is thinking the same thing as you. A good thing about egocentrism is the use of abstract thought to think about ideas such as death, the future, etc. Thinking in FO becomes logical, abstract and flexible.
- Through adulthood, FO thinking applied to more and more content areas and situations. No changes in structures of thought anymore. What changes are contents of thought
- After going through FO, adolescents/adults equipped with necessary abilities/structures to solve problems that are social, emotional, cognitive, physical, etc.
- Some people will fail FO tasks, but this doesn’t necessarily mean that they do not have FO thinking abilities.



Freud

Genital Stage (Adolescence)

- pinnacle of sexual development
- this is the stage that we aspire to get to
- he proposed that not many people make it to genital stage
- sexual urges reappear
- sexual urges toward the proper person (peer of opposite sex)
- indulging in mature sexual urges
- outward focus – interested in the pleasure of yourself and of others
- only reach this stage if didn’t get fixated at earlier stage






Erikson

Stage 5: identity vs. role confusion (~12-18yrs)

- big focus on “who am I?”
- also focused on PTSD suffers from world war 2 veterans, sense of self was so changed from experiences in the war that they were having trouble integrating into society
- to form your identity, need to reject and accept many different aspects of self
- adolescence is the first stage at which we are willing to define ourselves in negative terms
- capacity for abstract thought important, need the cognitive capacity to think about ourselves in this way
successful outcome:
o identity
 reliable, integrated sense of self that is base on many different roles (you have many different aspects of yourself). Need to be both independent and unique but aware of society’s expectations.
- At this stage, erikson said that there is different types of unsuccessful outcomes.
- Unsuccessful outcome
o Role Confusion
 failure to integrate roles. More likely when lack family support and/or adult role models










Moral Development



- behaviour and thought are different things in the field of moral development
- one thing to say that you would never do something and actually not doing it, etc.
- we will focus on moral reasoning
- kids need to learn what is right and what is wrong which is culturally determined
- children also need to learn rules and sets of rules (example, kids putting up their hands and asking to go to the bathroom at the dinner table because that is what they do at school)
- overall, need to learn what behaviours are right and wrong is moral development




two branches of research in moral development
o Moral Conduct/Moral Behaviour
m Part of moral development concerned with behaviour (ex. drop a hundred dollar bill and see if kids pick it up, taking japenese people to innkeepers)
o Moral Reasoning
 Part of moral development concerned with knowledge and understanding of moral issues and principles (moral reasoning can affect moral conduct but doesn’t always)


Several theories of moral development
o Piaget (cognitive)
o Kohlberg (cognitive)
o Social learning (eg. Bandura)



Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
- don’t memorize the names to the stages, just know the basic levels (preconventional, conventional, postconventional)
- is participants were all boys (72 boys aged 10-16)
- 9 stories were presented to the participants and the basic premise of each of the stories is that characters (or someone close to them) in a predicament where their needs/desires conflicted with laws/prohibitions of society
- They are presented with the story, they read it, then are asked questions about it
- Most famous one is the Heinz story. Woman going to die from cancer and cant afford the meds for her so he breaks into a store to steal the money. Should the husband have stole the money? Why or why not?
- Kohlberg set these up so that there is no right answer, cares about what we are thinking
- So for each story,
o What is the morally correct action for character to take?
o Why?
- Based on responses that he got from the stories he was able to categorize into 3 stages with two levels in each (6 levels)
- He proposed that each of us is trying to obtain the top level of moral development.
- Moral reasoning classified into 6 categories
- Each category/stage more mature
- Most people don’t make it to the top but can predict how far people will get via certain factors












Level One: Preconventional/ Premoral
- moral reasoning based on assumptions that individuals must serve their own needs, it is focused on the individuals involved
- morality based on external consequences to self
o stage one and stage two have consequences, stage one focuses on the negative (getting in trouble) and stage two focuses on the positive (rewards)

Stage One: Punishment and obedience orientation
o Obey rules to avoid punishment
o A possible response to Heinz: He should steal it because if his wife dies he might get into trouble. He should not steal it because he will be caught and sent to jail if he does.
Stage Two: Naïve instrumental hedonism
o Conform to obtain reward or to have favours returned
o Possible response: Its alright to steal the drug because he wants his wife to live. He shouldn’t steal the drug because the druggist is in it for the money so he will prevent him from getting his reward.


Level Two: Conventional/ Morality of Conventional Rule Conformity
- moral reasoning based on view that social system must be based on laws and regulations, based on societal needs not individual ones
- morality based on what other people have defined to be good or bad (social norms)
- kids have to be at least at concrete operational to make it into level two



Stage Three: “Good-boy” morality of maintaining good relations
o Conform to avoid disappointment by others, concerned what others (society) is thinking, you don’t want people to be disappointed in you
o Possible responses: He should steal it because people would look down on him if he didn’t care enough to steal it. He should not steal it because he will bring dishonour on himself.
Stage Four: Authority and social-order maintaining morality
o Conform to avoid censure by legitimate authorities
o Belief that social order should be maintained for its own sake
o Possible responses: He should steal it because it is always good to save peoples lives but only with the idea of eventually paying the druggist. He shouldn’t steal it because it’s always wrong to steal.

Level Three: Postconventional/ Morality of Self-Accepted Moral Principles
- moral reasoning based on assumption that value, dignity, and rights of each individual person must be maintained
- about internal punishment and rewards
Stage 5: Morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law
o Assume role of impartial spectator, judging in terms of community welfare
o Possible responses: The law wasn’t set up for these circumstances. It isn’t really right but he would be justified to take it for his wife. You can’t have everyone stealing when they are desperate, the ends may be good, but the ends don’t justify the means.
Stage 6: Morality of individual principles of conscience
o Conform to avoid self-condemnation. Would that person be ale to live with themselves if they did X? didn’t do X?
o Possible responses: He should steal it because of the principle of respecting and preserving life. He shouldn’t steal it because even if others accepted that he did it he would know and would never forgive himself for not living up to his standards.
Overall points for Kohlbergs theory of moral development
- most adults usually only attain stage 3 or 4 (level two)
- higher IQ children often display higher moral reasoning
- children involved in clubs, politics, group decision making - do better, aka. Experiences with dilemmas (not just black and white) help
- children in industrialized societies move through stages faster
- cross culturally, everyone ends up at around the same place
- children who are good at seeing situations from another person’s point of view do better
- that doesn’t mean that we would all react the same way in a dilemma with moral reasoning
- moral reasoning is fluid, it is not a permanent structure, our moral reasoning can progress or regress depending on situations
- philosophers, people interested in ethics, religious individuals, people that spend a lot of time thinking about moral problems are the ones that make it to level 3.
- Middle childhood – around age 3-4 and stay there throughout adolescence and adulthood








Three possible negative outcomes of stage 5
- Premature choice of identity
 instead of going through the long term process of integration you just adopt the identity that someone has chosen for you i.e. parents, adult, etc. This sets you up for a later crisis.
- Prolonged identity and role confusion conflict
 Don’t have identity because they do not know who they are. Erikson proposed that individuals that came into this category were vague and erratic and in the fog. They don’t seem to care that they have no integrated sense of self.
- Choice of a permanently negative identity
 Teenagers decide that this is who I am not because they have integrated all the difference aspects of themselves but they know that their choice of identity is going to upset someone else. Ex. your parents want you to be a mobster and you decide to be an environmental specialist. It’s a backlash against parental or authority figures.






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