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Glossary of Psych 14-17

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psychopathology
problematic patterns of thought feeling or behav. disrupt individ well being or functioning
labeling theory
psychiatric diagnosis is a way of labeling individs a society considers deviant
neuroses
problems in living

-self doubt
- phobias
- interpersonal probs



personality disorders
inhibit capacity to love and work
psychoses
loss of touch with reality
cognitive-behavioral
approach in clin. psych. in which practitioners integrate understanding of classical and operant condit. w/ cog-social perspective
diathesis-stress model
proposes that ppl w/ vulnerability (diathesis) might get disorder under stress
systems approach
explains individs in context of social group
system
group w/ interdependent parts
family systems model
suggests individs symptoms are symptoms of dysfunct. in a family
family homeostatic mechanisms
methods members use to preserve equilib in a family
family roles
parts individs play in repet. fam interaction patterns
family boundaries
phys and psych limits in a fam
family alliances
patterns of taking sides in fam conflicts
descriptive diagnosis
classif. of mental disorders in terms of clinical syndromes
DSM - IV
manual of clinical syndromes by APA used for diagnosis
multiaxial system of diagnosis
system used in DSM-IV. places mental disorders in social and bio context. assess patient on 5 axes
ADHD
inattention, impulsiveness, hyperactivity
conduct disorder
child violates rights of others and social norms
substance-related disorders
cont. use of substance that neg. affects psych and soc. funct.
alcoholism
abuse alcohol --> soc/occup dysfunct.
schizophrenia
disturbances in thought, perceptin, behav, lang, commun, emotion
delusions
false beliefs held despite evidence to contrary
hallucinations
sensory perceptions that distort/occur w/o ext. stimulus
negative symptoms
schizo sympt: flat effect, soc. inapprop. behav., intellectual impairments
positive symptoms
schizo sympts: delusions/halluc. reflect presence of something that was not there previously
dopamine hypothesis
imbalance in dopamine in schizo
ventricles
fluid filled cavities in brain. enlarged in schizo
expressed emotion
fam. interactions char. by criticism, hostility,
mood disorders
disturbances in emotions/mood

manic
excessively happy/euphoric. can do anything
major depressive disorder
depressed mood, loss of activity interest, appetite, sleep, energy
dysthymic disorder (dysthymia)
chronic low lev. depression 2 yrs few weeks of normal level moods
bipolar disorder
extreme mood swings aka manic depression
mania
euphoric, elevated, expansive mood
unipolar depression
involves only depression
negative triad
beck\'s cognitive theory of depression
neg. outlook on world, self, future
cognitive distortions
cog. mechs by which depressed person transforns neutral/pos info in depressive direction
anxiety disorders
char. by intense/freq./cont. anxiety
disruptive avoidance behavior
generalized anxiety disorder
persistent anxiety at moderate level
phobia
irrational fear
social phobia
fear in social/performance situation
panic disorder
intense fear/doom/terror
agoraphobia
fear of being in places where escape might be difficult
OCD
obsessions and compulsions that distress
obsessions
unwanted thoughts/ideas
compulsions
intentional behaviors/mental acts
PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder)
anx. disorder w/ flashbacks, recurrent thoughts
anorexia nervosa
starving yourself
bulimia
binging and purging
dissociation
disturbance in memory/consciousness experiences are kept separate and distinct
dissociative disorders
disruptions in consciousness/memory/identity/environ. perception
dissociative identity disorder
most severe of dissoc. disords. aka mult. personality disorder
borderline personality disorder
unstable interpersonal relationships, mood swings, fear of abandonment, manipulative, impulsive
antisocial personality disorder
irresponsible and socially disruptive behavior
insight
understanding own psych processes
therapeutic alliance
patient\'s degree of comfort with therapist
free association
explore assoc. networks and unconsc. processes
interpretation
therapist helps patients understand exper. in new light
resistance
barriers created by trying to reduce anxiety
transference
patient displaces feelings onto therapist
psychoanalysis
3-5 times/wk w/ therapist on couch free assoc, interpretation, transference
psychodynamic psychotherapy
less freq. face to face w/ therapist
cognitive behavioral
classical and operant condit. w/ cog-social perspective
behavioral analysis
assessing symptom and thoughts/stimuli assoc. with it
systematic desensitization
induced to approach feared stimuli gradually
exposure techniques
patient confronted w. phobic stimulus
flooding
confronts real phobic stimulus all at once
graded exposure
for treating anxiety, real stimuli presented gradually
virtual reality exposure therapy
virtual images of feared stimulus shown
response prevention
preventing patient from producing responses that allow avoidance of feared stimulus
participatory modeling
therapist models desired behavior, gets patient to do it
skills training
teaching behaviors for accomplishing goals
social skills training
instruction and modeling to help develop interpersonal competence
cognitive therapy
focuses on thought processes that underlie psych symptoms
automatic thoughts
ppl say spontaneously to themselves
ABC theory of psychopathology
albert ellis\'s theory of psychopathology
A-activating conditions
B- belief systems
C- emotional consequences


rational emotive behavior therapy
uncover and alter illogical thoughts that lead to psycholog. distress
humanistic therapies
focus on patient\'s conscious or lived experience and on the way ea. person uniquely experiences relationships
Gestalt therapy
psych. distress results from losing touch w. emotions. says focusing on here and now is curative
empty chair technique
assoc w/ Gestalt
imagine person in other chair who they want to speak to
uncondit. positive regard
total acceptance of therapist to client
group therapy
mult. ppl together
group process
interactions in a group
self-help group
leaderless. to cope w/ specif. problem like AA
family therapy
attempts to change maladaptive patterns among fam. members
genogram
3/4 generation map of family to explain fam difficulties
marital (couples) therapy
treats a couple
negative reciprocity
couples respond to neg comments with neg behaviors
psychotherapy integration
use of multiple theoret. perspectives
psychotropic meds
drugs that act on brain to affect mental processes
antipsychotic meds
treat schizo, sedating, reduce hallucinations and delusions
tardive dyskinesia
irreversible side effect of use of antipsychotic meds where u get twitching of tongue/face/neck
antidepressant meds
increases norepinephrine or serotonin
tricyclic antidepressants
meds for depression. compensate for depleted neurotransmitters
MAO inhibitors
antidepressant
keeps MAO from breaking down
allows more available neurotransmitter

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
like Prozac that block presynaptic membrane from taking back serotonin
lithium
drug for bipolar
benzodiazepines
anxiety meds

affect action of norepinephrine

Valium Xanax



electroconvulsive therapy
last resort severe depression

shock to brain to induce seizure

psychosurgery
brain surgery to reduce psych. symptoms
meta-analysis
stat technique for comparisons btw effects of trtmt and no trtmt
common factors
shared elements in psychotherapies that produce pos. outcomes
efficacy studies
asses psychotherapy outcome under controlled conditions
effectiveness studies
assess outcome of psychotherapy as it is practiced in the field
social psychology
examines influences on way ppl think, feel, behave
social cognition
process by which ppl make sense of themselves/others/relationships
first impressions
initial perceptions of another person
halo effect
attrib. addit. pos. char to person w/ one salient quality like attractiveness
stereotypes
characteristics ascribed to a group based on race, ethnicity, gender etc
prejudice
judging based on neg stereotypes
discrimination
behavioral component of prejudice
authoritarian personality
prone to hate those who are different or downtrodden
ingroups
ppl perceived as belonging to valued group
outgroups
not belonging to valued group
social identity theory
ppl derive identity from groups they belong to
superordinate goals
goals req. groups to coop for benefit of all
attributional style
assigning causes to behav/events
attributions
inferences about causes of own and others thoughts
intuitive scientists
ppl as lay scientists who try to understand selves and others
ext. attribution
attribute behavior to situation
int. attribution
attribute behavior to person
consensus
normative response to social group
consistency
extent to which person responds in same way to stimulus
distinctiveness
extent to which person responds in a particular way to many different stimuli
discounting
ppl downplay role of 1 variable that might explain behavior bc know another might be contributing
augmentation
ppl emphasize int. explanation for behav. bc it occured despite situational pressures
correspondence bias
ppl behav corresponds to internal states aka
fundamental attrib. error
self-serving bias
ppl tend to see selves in more pos. light than they deserve
attitudes
assoc. btw actions or objects and evaluations
attitude strength
durability of attitude and impact on behavioe
attitude importance
relevance of attitude and psych signif. of attitude for individ
attitude accessibility
ease with which attitude comes to mind or is activated
implicit attitudes
attitudes that regulate thought and behavior unconsc. and automatically
attitudinal ambivalence
a condition in which an attitude obj is assoc w conflicting evaluative responses
attitudinal coherence
extent to which attitude is internally consistent
persuasion
attempts to induce attitude change
attitude inoculation
building up a receiver\'s resistance to opposing attitude by presenting weak arguments for it
central route
method of persuasion

induce recip of message to think carefully and weigh the arguments

peripheral route
meth. of persuasion that appeals to automatic and emotional processes
elaboration likelihood model
proposes that knowing how to appeal to a person requires figuring likelihood that he will think much about the arguments
cognitive dissonance
person exper. discrep. btw. attitude and behavior which leads to tension and change in attitude, behav, perception
self-perception theory
individs become aware of own attitudes and emotions by observing own behavior
self
person, mental process, body
self-concept
person\'s view of himself
self-esteem
degree to which person likes/respects seld
self-handicapping
ppl set themselves up to fail when success is uncertain to preserve self esteem
self-consistency
motivation to interpret info to fit self-concept and to prefer ppl who verify rather than challenge it
self-presentation
process by which ppl attempt to control impressions others form of them
self-presentational predicaments
desires to influence others impressions of us fail
self-monitoring
differences in degrees ppl manage impressions
actual self
ppls views of how they actually are
ideal self
person\'s view of what they\'d like to be
ought self
duties, obligations, responsibilities, that define a way a person should be
situational variables
aspects of the situation that interact with aspects of the person to produce behavior
dispositional variables
personalities and attitudes
need to belong
strong possibly innate need to be involved in relationship
interpersonal attraction
factors that lead ppl to choose to spend time with others
social exchange theories
based on behav. principles suggest that the foundation of relationships is reciprocal reward
matching hypothesis
ppl tend to choose partners equally attractive to themselves
passionate love
highly emo form. intense physiolog. arousal and absoption in another person
companionate love
love that involves deep affection, friendship, and emo intimacy
sexual strategies
tactics used in selecting mates
altruism
behaving to help another without gain
ethical hedonism
all behavior is and should be designed to increase one\'s own pleasure or reduce one\'s own pain
reciprocal altruism
nat. selection favors animals that behave altruistically if benefit exceeds cost to reproductive success
bystander intervention
helping person in need
diffusion of responsibility
presence of other ppl leads to diminished sense of personal responsibility to act
aggression
verb/phys behav. aimed at harming others
hostile aggression
aggression illicited by anger
instrumental aggression
calm, pragmatic, aggression may be accomp. by anger
frustration aggression hypothesis
when ppl are frustrated in achieving a goal they become aggressive
self-fulfilling prophecy
impression of a situation that evokes behav that makes impressions become true
obedience
compliance w authority
conformity
changing attitudes or behav to accomodate standards of a group
group
collection of ppl actions affect others
norms
standards of behavior

reference groups
groups to which a person refers when taking a particular action
role
position within group that defines approp. behav. for that person
task leaders
group members who take responsibility for seeing that the group completes its task
social-emotional leaders
roles that may emerge in a group where members seek to max group cohesion
social facilitation
presence of other ppl facilitates or hinders performance
social loafing
reduction in individ effort in group
leaders
ppl who exercise greater influence than the avg member in a group
door-in-the-face technique
ppl intentionally make request that they know will be turned down but follow with smaller request
foot-in-the-door technique
involves getting ppl to comply with a small request to get them to go along w big request later
low-balling
ppl get a commitment to a request and then change conditions

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