Glossary of Psych - Ch 12 - Stress and Health
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- event that trigger a stress response
- stimulus view of stress
- the focus on the situation that causes stress
- respnse view of stress
- focus on the physiological changes that occur when someone encounters an excessively challenging situation
- two major categories of stressors
- major life events and daily hassles
- who developed the social readjustment rating scale?
- holmes and rahe
- what does the social readjustment rating scale do?
- quantifies stress in terms of major life changes
- what does the hassles and uplifts scale do?
- measures the frequency and intensity of minor irritations or hassles and positive events of daily life that my counteract their damaging effects
- what is a major limitation to measuring both major life events and hassles?
- not all people view situations in the same way
- primary appraisal
- quick assessment of the meaning of a given environmental event for the individual
- how do we feel if we view an event as not personally relevant?
- no emotion
- how do we feel if we consider an event as personally relevant?
- we appraise its significance as either contrary to or consistent with our goals or welfare
- how do we feel if we appraise an event as contrary to our well being?
- a negative emotion which might cause stress
- what type of emotion do we feel if we appraise an event as consistent with our well-being?
- positive emotion
- secondary appraisal
- self-assessment of the resources available to cope with stress
- who came up with primary and secondary appraisal?
- Lazarus and Folkman
- where do physiological changes occur when stressful situations lead to negative emotion/
- the auonomic nervous system
the endocrine system
- neuroendocrine system
- the hormonal system involved in emotions and stress
- what are the key structures involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress responses?
- hormones that control ANS activation
- hormones responsible for maintaining the activation of physiological systems during emergencies
- adrenal-medullary system
- a major neuro-endocrine pathway stimulated during stress in which the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system
- a neurotransmitter that activates the sympathetic response to stress, increasing heart rate, rate of respiration and blood pressure in support of rapid action
- hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal (HPA) axis
- a major neuro-endocrine pathway relevant to the stress response involving the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and the adrenal cortex
- what does the hypothalamus release during emotional arousal and stress? what does it do?
- a substance called corticotropin releasing factor which stimulates the pituitary release adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH which then stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland to release cortisol
- who came up with GAS or general adaptation syndrome?
- Hans Selye
- general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
- a generalized, nonspecific set of changes in the body that occur during extreme stress
- what are the three stages of GAS?
- resistance stage
- in the GAS, extended effort by the body to deal with a threat
- exhaustion stage
- phase of the GAS when all resources for fighting the threat have been depleted and illness is more likely
- process by which the body achieves stability through physiological change
- which part of the brain contains one of the greatest concentrations of cortisol resceptors?
- the hippocampus
- act of dealing with stress or emotions
- problem -focused coping
- way of dealing with stress that aims to change the situation that is creating stress
- what is the focus of problem - focused coping?
- focus attention on the stress-proving situation
- what are some examples of problem-focused copings strategies?
- devising a plan to solve the problem
seeking social support as a way to gather information
taking assertive action
- emotion -focused coping
- way of dealing with stress that aims to regulate the experience of distress
- what are the different forms of emotion-focused coping?
seeking social support
- emotional disclosure
- technique for coping, developed by James Pennebaker, through writing or talking about the situation
- social support
- coping strategy that combines problem-focused and emotion-focused coping in seeking social support
- a personality trait that means being more flexible and able to bounce back from difficult situations
- psychosomatic theory
- the idea that emotional factors can lead to the occurrence or worsening of illness
- health psychology
- the study of psychological factors related to health and illness
- what are the two primary ways of explaining the relationship between stress and illness?
- physiological reactivity model
health behavior approach
- physiological reactivity model
- explanation for the causal role of stress- related bodily changes in illness
- health behavior approach
- explanation for illness or health that focuses on the role of behaviors such as diet, exercise, and substance abuse
- psychoneuro-immunology (PNI)
- the science of how psychological factors relate to changes in the immune system
- any foreign substance that triggers an immune response
- natural immunity
- form of immunity that is the first response to antigens
- two forms of natural immunity
- acquired immunity
- immunity provided by antibodies or cells produced int eh body in response to specific antigens
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