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Glossary of Psych - Ch 12 - Stress and Health

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Created by cadomanis

stressors
event that trigger a stress response
stimulus view of stress
the focus on the situation that causes stress
respnse view of stress
focus on the physiological changes that occur when someone encounters an excessively challenging situation
two major categories of stressors
major life events and daily hassles
who developed the social readjustment rating scale?
holmes and rahe
what does the social readjustment rating scale do?
quantifies stress in terms of major life changes
what does the hassles and uplifts scale do?
measures the frequency and intensity of minor irritations or hassles and positive events of daily life that my counteract their damaging effects
what is a major limitation to measuring both major life events and hassles?
not all people view situations in the same way
primary appraisal
quick assessment of the meaning of a given environmental event for the individual
how do we feel if we view an event as not personally relevant?
no emotion
how do we feel if we consider an event as personally relevant?
we appraise its significance as either contrary to or consistent with our goals or welfare
how do we feel if we appraise an event as contrary to our well being?
a negative emotion which might cause stress
what type of emotion do we feel if we appraise an event as consistent with our well-being?
positive emotion
secondary appraisal
self-assessment of the resources available to cope with stress
who came up with primary and secondary appraisal?
Lazarus and Folkman
where do physiological changes occur when stressful situations lead to negative emotion/
the auonomic nervous system
the endocrine system
the brain

neuroendocrine system
the hormonal system involved in emotions and stress
what are the key structures involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress responses?
hypothalamus
pituitary gland
adrenal glands

catecholamines
hormones that control ANS activation
glucocorticoids
hormones responsible for maintaining the activation of physiological systems during emergencies
adrenal-medullary system
a major neuro-endocrine pathway stimulated during stress in which the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system
norephinephrine
a neurotransmitter that activates the sympathetic response to stress, increasing heart rate, rate of respiration and blood pressure in support of rapid action
hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal (HPA) axis
a major neuro-endocrine pathway relevant to the stress response involving the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and the adrenal cortex
what does the hypothalamus release during emotional arousal and stress? what does it do?
a substance called corticotropin releasing factor which stimulates the pituitary release adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH which then stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland to release cortisol
who came up with GAS or general adaptation syndrome?
Hans Selye
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
a generalized, nonspecific set of changes in the body that occur during extreme stress
what are the three stages of GAS?
alarm
resistance
exhaustion

resistance stage
in the GAS, extended effort by the body to deal with a threat
exhaustion stage
phase of the GAS when all resources for fighting the threat have been depleted and illness is more likely
allostasis
process by which the body achieves stability through physiological change
which part of the brain contains one of the greatest concentrations of cortisol resceptors?
the hippocampus
coping
act of dealing with stress or emotions
problem -focused coping
way of dealing with stress that aims to change the situation that is creating stress
what is the focus of problem - focused coping?
focus attention on the stress-proving situation
what are some examples of problem-focused copings strategies?
devising a plan to solve the problem

seeking social support as a way to gather information

taking assertive action



emotion -focused coping
way of dealing with stress that aims to regulate the experience of distress
what are the different forms of emotion-focused coping?
reappraisal
distancing
escape-avoidance
seeking social support
self-control
accepting responsibility




emotional disclosure
technique for coping, developed by James Pennebaker, through writing or talking about the situation
social support
coping strategy that combines problem-focused and emotion-focused coping in seeking social support
resilience
a personality trait that means being more flexible and able to bounce back from difficult situations
psychosomatic theory
the idea that emotional factors can lead to the occurrence or worsening of illness
health psychology
the study of psychological factors related to health and illness
what are the two primary ways of explaining the relationship between stress and illness?
physiological reactivity model

health behavior approach

physiological reactivity model
explanation for the causal role of stress- related bodily changes in illness
health behavior approach
explanation for illness or health that focuses on the role of behaviors such as diet, exercise, and substance abuse
psychoneuro-immunology (PNI)
the science of how psychological factors relate to changes in the immune system
antigen
any foreign substance that triggers an immune response
natural immunity
form of immunity that is the first response to antigens
two forms of natural immunity
phagocytosis

inflammation

acquired immunity
immunity provided by antibodies or cells produced int eh body in response to specific antigens

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