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Glossary of Psych111Ch5

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Created by lazyfoot10

What is sleep?
Brain is still active
Minimally aware of external events
Altered state of consciousness

Circadian rhythm
Changes that occur on a roughly 24 hour basis

Hormone release, brain waves, body temperature, drowsiness

Superchiamatic nucleus
"Biological clock"
Located in hypothalamus
Makes us feel drowsy at different times of the day and night
Controls levels of alertness


EEG (Electroencephalogram)
Record of electrical activity

Rough index of psychological statess

Stage 1 Sleep
Light sleep
Theta waves
Hypnagogic imagery
Myoclonic jerks


Hypnagogic imagery
Scrambled bizarre and dreamlike images that flit in and out of conscioiusness
Myoclonic jerks
Sudden jerks of our limbs as if being startled or falling
Stage 2 Sleep
Sleep spindles and K complexes
Brain waves slow down even more
Brain activity decelerates, heart rate slows, body temp decreases, muscles relax, eye movements cease
65% of our sleep


Stage 3 and 4 Sleep
Stage 3: Delta waves 20-50% of the time
Stage 4: More than half the time
Deep, slow-wave sleep
These deeper stages are needed to feel fully rested in the morning
"Sleeping like a baby"



Stage 5: REM Sleep
High frequency, low amplitude
Waves resemble those of someone awake
Increased blood pressure, increased heart rate
Rapid irregular breathing
20-25% of night's sleep



Alpha vs. Beta Waves
Alpha: Awake but non-attentive, large, regular

Beta: Awake and attentive, low amplitude, fast, irregular

Slow wave vs. REM
Slow wave: Immobile, hard to wake up, less likely to be dreaming, shorter, everyday themes

REM: Active cortex, paralyzed except for eyes, genital arousal, more likely to be dreaming, emotional and illogical themes, EEG similar to wakened person

Theory of why we sleep: Restoration Theory
Body wears itself out
Sleep allows for repair and rest
Pituitary gland release growth-producing hormone during sleep
Post vigorous physical activity


Theory of why we sleep: Preservation/Protection (Adaptive)
Circadian rhythms develop during times when there is greatest danger (dark)
Limited amount of time needed for eating, etc.
Sleep is based on how much time needed to get food, how easily we can hide, how vulnerable we are to attack
Evolutionary reasons


Theory of why we sleep: Facilitation of learning
Strengthens neural connections that serve as the basis of learning
Improving at novel complex requires sleep
Reduced activity in the hippocampus (important for memory)
Infants spend a lot of time sleeping
Sleep is good, all-nighters are not



Insomnia
Having trouble falling asleep, staying asleep
Waking too early in the morning
Waking up during the night and having trouble returning to sleep

Narcolepsy
People experience episodes of sudden sleep lasting various times
During strong emotions
Sleep apnea
Blockage of the airway when sleeping
Causes snoring
Interferes with ability to sleep (disruption)

Night terrors
Screaming, sweating, confused
Mostly children, occasionally in adults
More likely under stress

Nightmares = REM
Night terrors = Non-REM




Sleepwalking
Walking while fully asleep
Drive cars, turn on computers
Not acting out dreams, during NON-REM sleep

Lucid dreaming
A dream when you know you're dreaming
Theory of dreaming: Freud's Dream Protection Theory
Dreams require interpretation
Express unconscious wishes, thoughts
Dream Protection Theory: Manifest Content
Conscious content, "literal" meaning
Dream Protection Theory: Latent Content
Unconscious content, "figurative" meaning
Theory of dreaming: Activation-Synthesis Theory
Brain activation, rather than an unconscious wish
Brain's attempt to make sense of the random signals it receives
Amygdala the source of emotional content

Theory of dreaming: Dreaming and the Forebrain
Damage to the forebrain can prevent dreaming
Implies more than the forebrain is necessary
Theory of dreaming: Neurocognitive Theory
Dreams are a meaningful product of our cognitive capacities
Dreams get more emotional, more complex with age
Not explained by random firing (too normal and thematic)
Dreams are a special kind of thinking


Sociocognitive Theory of Hypnosis
People's attitudes, beliefs, motivations, and expectations of hypnosis shape their responses to hypnosis
Dissocation Theory of Hypnosis
Separation between personality functions
Normally well integrated, but the separation causes the hypnosis
Substance abuse vs. Substance dependence
Abuse: Recurrent problems
Ex. Family, friends, job, life, law

Dependence: Impairment, distress
Withdrawl, tolerance (need more to feel the effect), physical dependence, psychological dependence (cravings)



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