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Glossary of Psych111Ch14

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Created by lazyfoot10

Motivation
Why people do the things they do
Therapy
How and why problems in personality functioning develop and how to remedy those problems
Reared Together Twins
Less than 1, therefore nonshared environmental influences must play a key role
Reared apart Twins
Shows shared environment plays little to no role in adult personality
Adoption studies
Being raised together doesn't lead to much similarity in personality between parents and offspring
Id
Primitive impulses
Sex and agression
Pleasure principle
Immediate gratification
Primary process
Ignores consequences and logistics
Ego
Referee between the id and the world
Reality principle
Strives to delay gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet
Secondary process
Thinking discriminates between reality and fantasy
Superego
Moral self, "Should"
Psychic determinism
Everything has a cause, even mistakes
Express unconscious wishes, reveals unconscious thoughts
Symbolic symptoms
Wishes disguised as medical conditions
Laid-off worker gets skin rash
Headaches

Defense Mechanism: Repression
Motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories of impulses
Keep it down, don't have access
Defense Mechanism: Denial
Motivated forgetting of distressing external experiences
"Don't remember"
3 DUIs, don't have a problem

Defense Mechanism: Regression
Act of returning psychologically to a younger, and typically simpler and safer age
Ex. Go to mom when fight with spouse
Defense Mechanism: Projection
Unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others

Feeling is mine, but they have it instead

Defense Mechanism: Sublimation
Transforming a socially unacceptable impulse into an admired goal

Ex. Blues music, Sandusky???

Defense Mechanism: Displacement
Take it out on something else

Ex. Brian Wilson, Prince Fielder

Defense Mechanism: Rationalization
Providing a reasonable-sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviors

Ex. Bark like dog because I missed my dog

5 Major Criticisms of psychoanalytic theory
Unfalsifiability
Failed predictions
Freud thought about unconscious wrong
Reliance on Unrepresentative Samples
Flawed Assumption of Shared Environmental Influence (Thought environment played a huge role but it doesn't)



Rogers Model of Personality
Organism: Like id, only positive and helpful towards others
Self: Set of beliefs about who we re
Conditions of worth: Expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior

Maslow: Characteristics of Self-Actualized People
Creative, spontaneous, accepting of themselves and others, confident in abilities, not self-centered, few deep friendships before multiple superficial friendships, don't desire to be popular, express unpopular opinions when necessary
Locus of control

Internal vs. External

Extent to which we believe reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside of our control

Internal: Life events are due to their own efforts and personal characteristics

External: Life events are largely a product of chance and fate



Big 5 Traits
Extraversion: Social, lively
Neuroticism: Tense, moody
Conscientiousness: Careful, responsible
Agreeableness: Sociable, easy to get along with
Openness to experience: Intellectually curious and unconventional



MMPI and MMPI-2
Widely used structured personality test designed to assess symptoms of mental disorders
CPI
Designed to assess personality traits in the normal range such as dominance, flexibility, and sociability
Projective Test
Test consisting of ambiguous stimuli that examinees must interpret or make sense of
Thematic Apperception Test
Projective test requiring examinees to tell a story in response to ambiguous pictures

Ex. Old lady and weird looking dude picture in the textbook

PT Barnum Effect
Tendency of people to accept high base rate descriptions as accurate

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