Glossary of Psych111Ch13

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Power of the situation
Acts, presence of other people
Power of subjective interpretation
Interpretation and influence about the situations
Assigning causes to behavior
Internal vs. External Attribution
Internal: Inside the person (Ex. Impulsive)

External: Outside the person (Ex. Family is broke)

Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to overestimate personality factors and underestimate situational influence
Self-Serving Bias
Bias to choose most flattering or forgiving attributions of our own lapses

Embrace the good, dismiss the bad

Just-World Hypothesis
Bias to believe that the world is fair
Regulate human life, including social conventions, explicit laws, and implicit cultural standards
A given social position that is governed by a set of norms for proper behavior
Dynamic groups of individuals that share a similar context and are exposed to many similar cultural messages and ideas

Ex. Sesame Street

A change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure
Factors that influence Conformity
Unanimity: If all conformed, more likely
One person differs, less likely
Size: After 5/6 people, no more effect
Asians more likely to conform
Low self-esteem
Status of group members

Asch's Paradigm
Line test

Conformed 37% of the time

The Autokinetic Effect (Sherif) and group norms
The illusion that a stationary spot of light is moving when viewed in a darkened room.

In groups, norms formed quickly

Private vs. Public compliance
Private acceptance: Changed perception

Public compliance: Agree with others just to agree, Don't change internal feeling

Stanford Prison Study
Power of the situation: Behavior driven by roles.

People became members of groups, less like individuals

Symptoms of groupthink
Invulnerability (We cant fail)
Unanimity (We all agree)
Moral correctness (We know we're right)
Conformity Pressure (Don't rock the boat)
Stereotyping opposition (They're morons)
Self-censorship (I think that's stupid, but I won't say anything)
Stifling disagreement (You think you know better than us)

Obedience and Milgram Paradigm: Why did they obey?
The shocking experiment

Gradual escalation, Emerging situation, Authority

Factors that led to dis/obedience in Milgram
When experimenter left the room, When "learner" was in the same room, When experimenters disagree on whether the experiment should go on, When person ordering them to continue was not the experimenter, When someone else refused to go on
Variations in Milgram's that increased/decreased compliance
Hearing screams, Observes agony, Hold to shock plate, Separate room, Someone else say to stop, Different settings, Tells someone else to give shocks
Prosocial behavior
Behavior intended to help others
Bystander Effect
Want to intervene, but feel frozen, helpless to help
Pluralistic ignorance
Error of assuming that no one in the group perceives things as we do,

Ex. Don't know if man on ground is asleep, drunk, or needs help

Attitudes and whether they predict behaviors
Belief that includes emotional component
How we feel about an issue or person
Not powerful predictors (Ex. Hotels said they wouldn't serve Chinese, but they did)
Can be correct sometimes (Ex. Strange yogurt vs. Ice cream)

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs
Ex. Cheating on a test
A: I'm honest
B: I cheated
New C: I had to cheat because the test was unfair

Dual Process Model

Two pathways of persuading others

Central: Arguments, info, allows for careful elaboration

Peripheral: Snap judgments, Surface aspects

Ex. Ads with attractive or famous people

To arrive at an unfavorable conclusion about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating all the evidence
Group polarization
Group strengthens the dominant position held by group members

Causes prejudice to decrease or even increase

In-group bias
Tendency to favor individuals inside our group relative to members outside of it
Out-group homogeneity
The tendency to view all people outside of our group as highly similar
Minimal group paradigm
Ex. Grouped people by "dot overestimators/underestimators"

Gave more goodies to their group

Ultimate attribution error
Assumption that behaviors among individual members of a group are due to their internal dispositions
Attribute positive behaviors of disliked groups to luck
Adaptive conservatism
Distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different

"Better safe than sorry"

Act of treating members of out-groups differently from members of in-groups
A belief, positive or negative, about the characteristics of members of a group that is applied generally to most members of the group
Implicit vs. Explicit Prejudice
Implicit = Unaware of

Explicit = Aware of

Scapegoat Hypothesis
Claim the prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes
Jigsaw classroom
Educational approach designed to minimize prejudice by requiring all children to make independent contributions to a shared project

Shows significant decreases

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