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Glossary of Presentational Speaking

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Created by wolfmight

Study Public Speaking to Advance:
A. professional goals
B. personal goals
C. career
D. values
E. critical thinking & listening





Forum
Public space for Roman citizens to meet
public forum still used today? true/false?
true
Forensic Oratory
legal contexts, such as before a jury
Deliberative Oratory
legislative or political contexts
Epideictic Oratory
for special ceremonies, such as celebrations and funerals
5 Canons of Rhetoric (Aristotle)
Invention
Arrangement
Style
Memory
Delivery





Invention (inventio – Cicero)
Adapting the speech to the audience(persuasive)

Discovering your speech material (informative)



Arrangement (dispositio – Cicero)
Organization
Outline
visual aid



Style (elocutio – Cicero)
use of language to express ideas.
Style, tone of voice
Forensic speaking

requires memorization of manuscripts.
Manuscripts used in Extemporaneous speaking are...
flexible
Delivery (pronounciatio – Cicero)
vocal variety and delivery style
non-verbals
Practice of Oratory (or rhetoric)


In Greece, Refers to making "effective speeches" (particularly persuasive).

Athenian public square/market used for public involvement/speaking?
Agora
Greek legal speeches of persuading jurors to vote in their favor
Forensic oratory
Speech given in legislative or political contexts
Deliberative
Speech delivered in special ceremonies (celebrations/funerals)
Epideictic
Dyadic communication
speaking between two peopel
Mass communication
speaker and large audience
public speaking
speaker delivers speech for a purpose
Communication occurs in a single ____ or situation
context
the _____ decodes the message and sends nonverbal feedback to the speaker
reciever
the ________ encodes and then transmits a message along a channel to the reciever
speaker
sometimes _)_____ or interference keeps the message from reaching the reciever
Noise
Encoding
speaker thinks of what to say
Audience perspective
speaker considers audience's point of view
Shared meaning
mutual understanding of the message between speaker and reciever
goal
speaker's purpose
decoding
listener interprets what the speaker said or did
outcome
effect of the message of the reciever
linear
communication is a one-way message
receiver doesn't always respond to the source
transactional communication
includes verbal feedback or interruptions
Cultural sensitivity
Speakers respecting other cultures
Hearing
physiological response
Listening
active, cognitive process
Feedback Loop
Successful speakers "adjust their messages" based on "reactions" from listeners. - circular response
Selective perception
We pay attention to one message and ignore others. Example: Ignoring a friend to answer a cellphone
Difference between monologue and dialogue
Monologue is linear ; Dialogue is transactional.
Is a speech a monologue?
No
Speeches are dialogues?
Trye
Active Listeners do the 3 things:
Set Listening goals, listen to main ideas, watch for nonverbals
artifacts
things important to a culture
channel

the means of communication
Components of the Listening Process
Mindfulness

Physical reception

Selective perception

Organizing

Interpreting

Responding

Remembering













Dialogic Communication
speaker and listener must create meaning for the message together
External Obstacles to Listening
A. Message Overload
B. Message Complexity
C. Noise



Internal Obstacles to Listening
A. Preoccupation
B. Prejudgment
C. Reacting to Emotionally Loaded Language
D. Lack of Effort
E. Not Adapting to Diverse Speaking Styles





Internal Listening Distractions
Thoughts and feelings that intrude on our attention

Daydreaming, anxiety, illness, or fatigue are examples of common distractions.


Scriptwriting


when the listener is too busy to listen because he is thinking of what to say next.
Defensive listeners

prejudge the message

assume they know the info

or assume the speaker is offensive.



Cultural barriers/differences
impact how well we listen.
Critical Thinking
The ability to evaluate claims on the basis of well-supported reasons.

Greek word "ethos"
Means character in Greek.
Stands for Ethics in modern times
speaker credibility
have a solid grasp of the subject,
display sound reasoning skills,
are honest and straightforward, and
are genuinely interested in the welfare of their listeners




Limitations of First Amendment: speech that

provokes violence

defames

invades privacy






Slander
Speech that can be proved to be defamatory
Heckler’s veto
drowning out a speaker's message of which u disagree
Plagiarism
passing off of another person’s information as one’s own
Wholesale plagiarism
cutting and pasting material from sources into your speech and representing it as your own
Patchwrite plagiarism
copying material , then changing words and arrangement to make it look different
invective

verbal attack
conversation stopper
speech designed to discredit, demean and belittle
fair use

permits limited use of works in the classroom
Functions of Special Occasion Speeches
Entertainment
Celebration
Commemoration
Inspiration
Social agenda-setting





Types of Special Occasion Speeches
Introduction
Acceptance
Presentation
Roasts/Toasts
Eulogies/Tributes
After Dinner Speeches
Inspiration







Speeches of Introduction
Prepare the audience for the occasion

Motivate audience to listen to the speaker







When introducing another speaker, you
should
Pronounce the speaker’s name correctly
Speeches of Acceptance
made in response to receiving an award

Speeches of Presentation
to communicate the meaning of the award and to explain why the recipient is receiving it.

Roasts and Toasts
Both are tributes to a person that celebrate and recognize his/her achievements.

roast
humorous tribute where a series of speakers poke fun or tell embarrassing stories about the person being roasted
toast
serious and brief tribute to honor the person with sincerity.
eulogy
delivered to commemorate a deceased friend or family member.
canned speech
a speech that is unrelated to an event
Thesis Statement
Clearly expresses the central idea of your speech
Concisely identifies your speech topic for the audience
Typically includes phrases about each of your main points





Public Speaking Anxiety (PSA)
The fear associated with actual or anticipated communication to an audience as a speaker.

four stages of Public Speaking Anxiety
Pre-preparation anxiety
Preparation anxiety
Pre-performance anxiety
Performance anxiety




Pre-preparation Anxiety
procrastinate on beginning the speech writing process

pandering
abandoning your own values to better suit your audience
Attitudes
our general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events.

Beliefs
the ways in which people perceive reality.
Values-
our most enduring judgments about what’s good and bad in life.

Perspective Taking
Uncover audience feelings or expectations towards your speech or you as speaker

linear active cultures are
systematic planners.

People from multi-active cultures tend to be
people-oriented, talkative, and do many things at once.

people from reactive cultures rarely initiate discussions, are
accommodating, and are slow to take action.

captive audience

required audience that isn't voluntary
co-culture

social community of values/beliefs that may not be like your own
high-uncertainty avoidance cultures

less accepting of uncertainty - Portugal, Greece, Peru, Belgium, and Japan
Purposes for Speaking
TO INFORM

TO PERSUADE

FOR SPECIAL OCCASIONS





To Inform
demonstrate your knowledge

Increase the audience’s understanding

learn from teh audience





To Persuade
To change the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, or values on a topic
To change or reinforce the audience’s behavior


Arrangement
strategic process of deciding how to order speech points into a coherent and convincing pattern for your topic and audience.
Outlining-
physical process of plotting those speech points on the page
Coherence
clarity of thought and logical consistency in the organization patterns of coordination and subordination
balance
appropriate weight or emphasis be given to each part of the speech in relationship to the other parts.

transitions
words, phrases, or sentences that move the audience to the next point or section.
Signposts
contained within main points to indicate sub-points or order.

Full-sentence transitions
most effective between the main sections and are set off by parentheses.

Restate-forecast form-
the transition restates the point just covered and previews the point to be covered next

Rhetorical questions-
questions that do not invite actual
responses.


Preview statement-
describes what will be covered in

coordination and subordination
logical placement of ideas in relation to one another
coordinate
given equal weight
subordinate
given less weight

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