Glossary of Presentational Speaking
Created by wolfmight
- Study Public Speaking to Advance:
- A. professional goals
B. personal goals
E. critical thinking & listening
- Public space for Roman citizens to meet
- public forum still used today? true/false?
- Forensic Oratory
- legal contexts, such as before a jury
- Deliberative Oratory
- legislative or political contexts
- Epideictic Oratory
- for special ceremonies, such as celebrations and funerals
- 5 Canons of Rhetoric (Aristotle)
- Invention (inventio – Cicero)
- Adapting the speech to the audience(persuasive)
Discovering your speech material (informative)
- Arrangement (dispositio – Cicero)
- Style (elocutio – Cicero)
- use of language to express ideas.
Style, tone of voice
- Forensic speaking
requires memorization of manuscripts.
- Manuscripts used in Extemporaneous speaking are...
- Delivery (pronounciatio – Cicero)
- vocal variety and delivery style
- Practice of Oratory (or rhetoric)
In Greece, Refers to making "effective speeches" (particularly persuasive).
- Athenian public square/market used for public involvement/speaking?
- Greek legal speeches of persuading jurors to vote in their favor
- Forensic oratory
- Speech given in legislative or political contexts
- Speech delivered in special ceremonies (celebrations/funerals)
- Dyadic communication
- speaking between two peopel
- Mass communication
- speaker and large audience
- public speaking
- speaker delivers speech for a purpose
- Communication occurs in a single ____ or situation
- the _____ decodes the message and sends nonverbal feedback to the speaker
- the ________ encodes and then transmits a message along a channel to the reciever
- sometimes _)_____ or interference keeps the message from reaching the reciever
- speaker thinks of what to say
- Audience perspective
- speaker considers audience's point of view
- Shared meaning
- mutual understanding of the message between speaker and reciever
- speaker's purpose
- listener interprets what the speaker said or did
- effect of the message of the reciever
- communication is a one-way message
receiver doesn't always respond to the source
- transactional communication
- includes verbal feedback or interruptions
- Cultural sensitivity
- Speakers respecting other cultures
- physiological response
- active, cognitive process
- Feedback Loop
- Successful speakers "adjust their messages" based on "reactions" from listeners. - circular response
- Selective perception
- We pay attention to one message and ignore others. Example: Ignoring a friend to answer a cellphone
- Difference between monologue and dialogue
- Monologue is linear ; Dialogue is transactional.
- Is a speech a monologue?
- Speeches are dialogues?
- Active Listeners do the 3 things:
- Set Listening goals, listen to main ideas, watch for nonverbals
- things important to a culture
- the means of communication
- Components of the Listening Process
- Dialogic Communication
- speaker and listener must create meaning for the message together
- External Obstacles to Listening
- A. Message Overload
B. Message Complexity
- Internal Obstacles to Listening
- A. Preoccupation
C. Reacting to Emotionally Loaded Language
D. Lack of Effort
E. Not Adapting to Diverse Speaking Styles
- Internal Listening Distractions
- Thoughts and feelings that intrude on our attention
Daydreaming, anxiety, illness, or fatigue are examples of common distractions.
- when the listener is too busy to listen because he is thinking of what to say next.
- Defensive listeners
- prejudge the message
assume they know the info
or assume the speaker is offensive.
- Cultural barriers/differences
- impact how well we listen.
- Critical Thinking
- The ability to evaluate claims on the basis of well-supported reasons.
- Greek word "ethos"
- Means character in Greek.
Stands for Ethics in modern times
- speaker credibility
- have a solid grasp of the subject,
display sound reasoning skills,
are honest and straightforward, and
are genuinely interested in the welfare of their listeners
- Limitations of First Amendment: speech that
- Speech that can be proved to be defamatory
- Heckler’s veto
- drowning out a speaker's message of which u disagree
- passing off of another person’s information as one’s own
- Wholesale plagiarism
- cutting and pasting material from sources into your speech and representing it as your own
- Patchwrite plagiarism
- copying material , then changing words and arrangement to make it look different
- verbal attack
- conversation stopper
- speech designed to discredit, demean and belittle
- fair use
- permits limited use of works in the classroom
- Functions of Special Occasion Speeches
- Types of Special Occasion Speeches
After Dinner Speeches
- Speeches of Introduction
- Prepare the audience for the occasion
Motivate audience to listen to the speaker
- When introducing another speaker, you
- Pronounce the speaker’s name correctly
- Speeches of Acceptance
- made in response to receiving an award
- Speeches of Presentation
- to communicate the meaning of the award and to explain why the recipient is receiving it.
- Roasts and Toasts
- Both are tributes to a person that celebrate and recognize his/her achievements.
- humorous tribute where a series of speakers poke fun or tell embarrassing stories about the person being roasted
- serious and brief tribute to honor the person with sincerity.
- delivered to commemorate a deceased friend or family member.
- canned speech
- a speech that is unrelated to an event
- Thesis Statement
- Clearly expresses the central idea of your speech
Concisely identifies your speech topic for the audience
Typically includes phrases about each of your main points
- Public Speaking Anxiety (PSA)
- The fear associated with actual or anticipated communication to an audience as a speaker.
- four stages of Public Speaking Anxiety
- Pre-preparation anxiety
- Pre-preparation Anxiety
- procrastinate on beginning the speech writing process
- abandoning your own values to better suit your audience
- our general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events.
- the ways in which people perceive reality.
- our most enduring judgments about what’s good and bad in life.
- Perspective Taking
- Uncover audience feelings or expectations towards your speech or you as speaker
- linear active cultures are
- systematic planners.
- People from multi-active cultures tend to be
- people-oriented, talkative, and do many things at once.
- people from reactive cultures rarely initiate discussions, are
- accommodating, and are slow to take action.
- captive audience
- required audience that isn't voluntary
- social community of values/beliefs that may not be like your own
- high-uncertainty avoidance cultures
- less accepting of uncertainty - Portugal, Greece, Peru, Belgium, and Japan
- Purposes for Speaking
- TO INFORM
FOR SPECIAL OCCASIONS
- To Inform
- demonstrate your knowledge
Increase the audience’s understanding
learn from teh audience
- To Persuade
- To change the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, or values on a topic
To change or reinforce the audience’s behavior
- strategic process of deciding how to order speech points into a coherent and convincing pattern for your topic and audience.
- physical process of plotting those speech points on the page
- clarity of thought and logical consistency in the organization patterns of coordination and subordination
- appropriate weight or emphasis be given to each part of the speech in relationship to the other parts.
- words, phrases, or sentences that move the audience to the next point or section.
- contained within main points to indicate sub-points or order.
- Full-sentence transitions
- most effective between the main sections and are set off by parentheses.
- Restate-forecast form-
- the transition restates the point just covered and previews the point to be covered next
- Rhetorical questions-
- questions that do not invite actual
- Preview statement-
- describes what will be covered in
- coordination and subordination
- logical placement of ideas in relation to one another
- given equal weight
- given less weight
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