Glossary of Positioning Test 4

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What is a Conjuctiva?
Exposed part of the eye covered with a thin mucous membrane
What is the function of the lacrimal gland?
Keeps the eye moist by secretion
What is the white portion of the eyeball?
Where is the cornea located on the eye and what is it normally?
Located anteriorly; bulges anteriorly and normally transparent
What is the limbus?
Outer edge of cornea where it meets the sclera
The middle coat is made up of what and contains how many parts?
Vascular and pigmented and contains three parts
What are the three parts to the middle coat?
Choroid, cilliary body, and Iris
Covers posterior 1/3
Ciliary body
Muscular ring around iris which focuses the eye
Colored muscular diaphragm that controls amount of light entering the eye by controlling pupil size
What is the inner coat of the eye?
What is the retina made of?
Made of nerve tissue and several million receptor organs called rods and cones
Mostly peripheral and responsible for lowlight or night vision
Concentrated toward center of retina and responsible for daylight vision
What is the lens?.
Transparent fluid containing capsule located behind the IRIS
What is the Aqueous Humor?
Watery fluid between cornea and iris or lens
Vitreous Body
Clearlike jelly substance that makes up most of the eyeball
What is essential when doing foreign body localization?
Extreme fine detail
What two things are needed when performing foreign body localization?
Close OID and long SID
What should be eliminated during foreign body localization?
What is recommended Non Screen or Screens for foreign body localization?WHY?
Non screen; screens maybe used but must be free of scratches and or particles and should be cleaned before
What two type of Scout films are taken before a foreign body localization of the eye?
Lateral and Waters
What two projections are taken when doing the Vogt-Free Method?
Lateral Medial and Superior Inferior
How is the filming perfomed during the Vogt- Free Method?
The patient looking directly up,down, left,and right
The Parallax Motion Method is done what?
PA and Lateral Projections
The PA projection has the pt. Looking how?
Left and right
The Lateral projection has the pt. Looking how?
Up and then down
Radiologic examination of the nasal lacrimal drainage system?
Lacrimal gland is situated where?
Anterior gland on lateral side of the roof of the orbit
Lacrimal gland’s function?
Secrete watery fluid or tears to lubricate the conjunctiva( part of this fluid flows into the lacrimal lake..{lacrimal caruncle}
What is the lacrimal caruncle?
Fleshy part in the inner canthus
What two things drain fluid into the lacrimal sac?
Two canaliculi superior and inferior
The lacrimal sac drains into the what?
Nasal lacrimal duct
The openings that are for drainage are called?
Punctum lacrimale
A round tip needle is placed through the ___into the ____
Punctum ; Canaliculis
What are the seven bones of the ORBIT?
Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxilla, zygoma, lacrimal, palatine
What are the 3 openings of the ORBIT?
Optic foramen, superior and inferior orbital fissures
Where the zygoma meets the frontal bone
superiolateral corner?
the position of the RHESE?
Prone; hands placed laterally from face; with affected orbit down; place chin, nose, and cheek on tabletop; Rotate head so MSP forms a 53 degree angle with the table and place AML perp. with tabletop
Central RAY of the RHESE?
Perpendicular entering one inch superior and posterior to TEA
What two things are demonstrated in RHESE?
Optic canal and inferior lateral quadrant of orbit
LONGITUDAL deviation means_______
AML wasn’t perpendicular.
LATERAL deviation means ______
Rotation of head wasn’t 53 degrees
Superior Orbital Fissure Positioning
prone; MSP centered to IR and OML perp. to table
Central Ray to Superior Orbital Fissure
20 to 25 degrees caudal exiting inferior margin of the orbit
Inferior Orbital Fissure Positioning
Prone; MSP is centered but IOML is perp. to table
Central Ray to Inferior Orbital Fissure
20-25 cephalic exiting at the level of the nasion
The temporal bone projects ______ and articulates with the ______to form the ______.
Anteriorly; zygomatic bone; zygomatic arch
Positioning of BILATERAL Z-ARCHES?
Recommended upright; hyperextend neck as much as possible; Tilt head back so IOML is parallel to IR;
Perp to IOML entering MSP and passes through a point one inch posterior to outer canthus
Positioning for unilateral z-arches?
Upright with back against IR; IOML parallel
Central Ray for unilateral z-arches?
Perpendicular IOML through affected arch one inch posterior to outer canthus
Vertical portion of mandible
Horizontal portion of mandible
Place where mandibular ramus and body meet?
Angle or gonion
What does the superior portion of the ramus consist of?
Coronoid process which is anterior, mandibular notch, and mandibular condyle which is posterior
What forms the TMJ.
The mandibular condyle articulates with the mandibular fossa of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone
The most anterior portion of the mandible where the right and left mandibular bodies meet is _____
Mandibular symphysis
Mandibular Rami view is done to demonstrate what?
Lateral or medial displacement of the fractured ramus
Positioning of Mandibular Rami?
Center the MSP to the vertical gird and adjust the OML perp. to the IR
CR of Mandibular Rami?
The CR is perp. and exits the acanthion
Positioning of Mandibular Body
Center the MSP to vertical grid and place the mandibular symphysis parallel to the IR. This should place the AML perpendicular to the IR
CR of Mandibular Body?
CR is perpendicular exiting at the level of the lips
Positioning of Axiolateral Oblique Mandible
Place patient at the vertical grid with the head in a true lateral position (interpupillary line perpendicular to IR, IOML parallel to transverse axis of IR) with the affected side closest to IR. Have patient close mouth, with teeth together. Extend the head so that the long axis of the mandibular body is parallel with the transverse axis of the IR to move the mandible in front of the cervical spine
To view the Ramus:
Leave the patient in the true lateral position
To view the Body:
Rotate the head toward the IR 30 degrees
To view the Symphysis:
Rotate the head toward the IR 45 degrees
Central Ray of Axiolateral Oblique Mandible?
25 degrees cephalic passing through the anatomy of intrest
To demonstrate the TMJ, open and closed mouth projections are usually employed for comparison to demonstrate _____
Sialography has been replaced with ____ and ____
CT and MRI
What does Sialography demonstrate?
Lesions and tumors, fistulae, diverticulae, strictures, and calculi
3 pairs of salivary glands are:
Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
The Parotid (__?____)extends ___ and ______ to open in the oral vestibule opposite the 2nd molar
Stensons duct; anteriorly and medially
What does the Parotid open into?
Oral vestibule opposite the second molar
The sublingual glands are the _____, and are ____and _____
Smallest; narrow and elongated
The sublingual glands are located in the _____
Floor of the mouth
The submandibular duct (___?____) extends ____ and ___ to open into the mouth on the side of the ______
Wharton’s Duct; anteriorly and superiorly; Frenulum of the tongue
Numerous small sublingual ducts exist (ducts of ___?__)
The main sublingual duct (_______) opens beside the orifice of the submandibular duct
Bartholins Duct
About ____minutes before the exam, give the patient a ____ ____to open the ducts
2-3 ; secretory stimulant
After the exam is complete, give the patient the ____- -_____again to promote the evacuation of the contrast medium
Secretory stimulant
Another radiograph should be taken about how many minutes after the exam to verify clearance of contrast
10 min.
General term applied to the radiologic examination of the brain by means of introduction of a gaseous contrast media into the ventricular system.
Cerebral Pneumography
Cerbral Pneumography is done to demonstrate
Lesions and tumors of the ventricular system and filling defects of the ventricular channels
Direct injection of gas into the central ventricular system.
Whrere is the needle placed in infants
Directly into the lateral ventricle trhough the anterior fontanel
The needle is inserted through the ____into the _____ and the contrast is injected

in adults

Burr hole ; lateral ventricle
Indirect injection of gas in the subarachnoid space by spinal puncture
The gas passes through the space of the spine to the _____
Whenever possible,the patient should be placed in the seated ____for spinal puncture, introduction of contrast media, and filming
For both techniques, proper positioning cannot be overemphasized; Any rotation causes ____of the ventricles and may obscure ____or provide false positives
Distortion; lesions

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