Glossary of Physiology Body Compartment

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Formula of Osmolarity
2 (NA) + BUN/2.8+ Glu/18
Isotonic Solution
Solution with tonicity of 300mosm
Hypertonic Solution
Under Physiological conditions, Tonicity should be 300 mOsm/l
But in this situation, Tonicity goes up (meaning more than 300mosm) Which has an effect on movement of fluid.

Hypotonic Solution
Tonicity goes down, meaning below 300 mOSm/l. which effects the movement of fluids.

Why 2X(NA)
Nacl. It has 2 components, one being Na and Other one being Cl.
To simplify we use 2X NA.

What if Glucose, How would you go by
Since Glucose is one molecule,
therefore we use 1 X 300mosm/l

What are the factors effecting Plasma osmolarity?
1. Concentration
2. Electrical Charges
3. Movement of fluids

Intracellular Fluid
referred as ICF. IS 2/3 of body compartment.
Extracellular fluid
ECF, is 1/3 of body compartment.
Total body weight of 60 %, how much is ICF and ECF
if weight of 60%, then 40 % is ICF and 20% is ECF, Of the 20% ECF 15% in interstitum and 5 % is plasma
In-between cells

Blood with clotting factors, When we are dealing with physiological conditions, we are dealing with plasma.Because in-side of our body we have plasma.
Blood component from which clotting factor has been removed.
Therefore, in lab test tubes is serum not plasma.
Why not infuse pure water?
If patient is infused with pure water,Cells of the body will swell up and you could kill someone.

That's why never use pure H2O.

What should you infuse

5 % Dextrose

Loss of Isotonic solution

Ex: Hemorrhage
How does it effect Body compartment?

What is being effected in this example?

Isotonic solution,meaning same tonicity. Therefore no change in Osmolarity.

Example: Hemorrhage meaning blood loss.
Compartment which should be effected is ECF. ECF is 20% of which 5% is plasma volume.

You are only loosing Blood volume.

There will be no change in ICF due to osmolarity of both ICF and ECF is 300mosm/l

Loss or gain of Isotonic Solution, which compartment does it effect?
Loss or gain of Isotonic solution, meaning no change in osmolarity, there fore it only effects ECF, it would not effect ICF also because there is no osmotic draw in either direction.

Loss of Hypotonic Solution

example: Sweating (Dehydration), Diabetes Insipidus, and Hypotonic urine

Which body compartment will be effected and why?

1. it effects both compartments because Hypotonic solution.

Hypotonic urine, Kidneys dialuting capacity goes down to 50 ot 100. you are retaining osmolar particles but loosing water. therefore you retained salt, lost water.
Retention of salt is why the osmolarity is going up, therefore volume is first lost in ECF which makes plasma more concentrated and fluid will move out from the cell.

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