Glossary of Phil. of Religion Midterm
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- inductively valid
- if the premises are true then the conclusion is likely to be true
- deductively valid
- if the premises are true, the conclusion must also be true
- sources of evidence
- observation/perception, testimony, memory, intuition
- any attempt to support beliefs or actions with reasons
arguments are assessed in two ways
truth of premises and validity
- an attitude a person has about the way the world is
- Philosophy- literal meaning
- \"love of wisdom\"
- contradictions in personality
- if God has human like emotions than he can be tricked, angry, confused, ect. To have human like mental states, you would not know what will happen but his is not consistent with the perfect definition of God. This means God does not exist
- contradictions in omnibenevolence
- if you are omnipotent you can do anything but if you are omnibenevloent you cannot do evil. the two cannot exist at once which means there is no God
- the \"chuck norris\" defense
- god can create a stone so heavy he can\'t lift it, and also lift it.
- philosopher behind the problem of evil
- philosopher behind the contradiction argument: paradox of the stone
- contradiction argument: paradox of the stone
- God can either create a stone that he can\'t lift or he cannot create it. in either sense, there is something he cannot do. This would make him not omnipotent. God is omnipotent so God does not exist
- Plantigna\'s \"free will defense\"
- Free will is greater than suffering. Free beings create suffering. if God exists he would want to create a world with free will which in turn would bring about suffering.
contradiction argument: paradox of the stone
- Problem of Evil argument
- God is all perfect(all knowing, powerful, and good). So God knows of suffering and evil and has the potential to stop and prevent any suffering. if god exists than suffering cannot. and since suffering exists, God does not
- design argument: inductive to the universe
- the universe has just the right conditions for life to exist. Likelihood principle leans more towards intelligent design over mindless chance.
it is likely there is an intelligent designer: God
- objection to the design argument
- evolutionary theory
- design argument: inductive
- Things which lack natural intelligence act for an end. This can either happen through mindless chance or intelligent design. Likelihood principle that intelligent design is more likely than mindless chance.
There must be an intelligent designer: God
- design argument: deductive
- things which lack natural intelligence act for an end and if it lacks intelligence it must only pursue that end by the guidance of a designer.
So there must be an intelligent designer: God
- The design argument\'s different versions
- Deductive (aquinas), inductive (paley), Inductive applied to the universe
- cosmological argument
- First mover- this first mover is who we understand to be God
- The claim that we do not now, or possibly ever, have sufficient evidence to evaluate the claim that God does or does not exist
- The claim that there does not exist any entity with all of the qualities of God
- the claim that there does exist an entity with all of the qualities of God
- positions in religion (belief)
- definition of God
- Creator of the universe and everything in it
\"perfect\" - all knowing, powerful, good, present.
- Philosopher behind the design argument
- philosopher behind the cosmological argument
- two kinds of agnosticism
- TAP - temporary agnosticism in practice (has the possibility to be proven)
PAP - permanent agnosticism in principle (all attempts to prove x have failed and the future will be like the past so no proof of x is possible.)
- God is in which kind of agnosticism
- A priori
- can know before experience (ontological)
- A presterori
- need to go out and observe or experience something (cosmological, design)
- Objection to the cosmological argument
- why can\'t it go on to infinity?
reject the old idea of what motion is
- reply to the objection of infinity in cosmological argument is ____
- Philosopher behind the deductive version of the design argument
- philosopher behind the ontological argument
- The ontological argument
- if god only exists in the mind then we can think of something better than god (him existing in the world) therefore god must exist in the world because nothing better can be thought than god.
- Objections to the ontological argument
- why is it better to exist in the mind than in the world?
what if someone doesn\'t have the concept of god in their mind?
- Kant\'s look on existence (ontological)
- existence is not a property
- philosopher behind the practical argument
- Practical argument
- your expected winnings for believing in god is much greater than not believing. If you do not believe in god your losses are much greater than not believing. so it is rational to believe in god
- to calculate probabilities
- number of possibilities divided by the number of favorable outcomes
- objections to the practical argument
- doesn\'t prove the existence of god.
can\'t force belief
many gods are possible
could you avoid wagering?
- Philosophers behind the moral argument
- adams (DCT) and kant (moral order)
- divine command theory
- an action is required or forbidden if god commands it.
- The moral argument (DCT)
- god is the best explanation for moral properties
moral properties exist so god must exist
- objections to the moral argument
- why is god the best explanation?
what if god is just the middle man?
- Moral Order version of the Moral argument
- right and wrong come rom rationality but god is required to reward and punish people. we get rewards and punishments so there must be a god
what is moral is loved by the gods and what is immoral is hated by the gods
- objections to the problem of evil argument
- maybe god can exist with suffering?
deny that god is all perfect
deny that an all perfect god is inconsistent with the existence of evil
- any attempt to show how the divine attributes of God could be compatible with the existence of evil
EX Free will defense
- evidential version of the problem of evil
- god cannot exist when there are large amouns of unnecessary suffering so god does not exist.
- Free will defense philosopher
- objections to the free will defense
- why is free will so great?
can can\'t god force free beings to not cause suffering?
- when someting is p and not p at the same time
- philosopher behind the contradictions argument
- redefining all-powerful
- Maximum power or the most powerful
- Improbability argument philosopher
- absence of evidence philosopher
- Improbability argument
- the ultimate 747
god is complex and improbable and he cannot just exist. he must have a designer
- objections to the improbability argument
- how do we know god is complex and improbable?
- false predictions argument
- the only evidence we have is historical. we cannot trust the bible because it says things that we have proven inconsistent with our best knowledge therefore god does not exist
- objections to the false predictions argument
- argument more for agnosticism
maybe the bible can be true about certain things and false about others
- absence of evidence argument
- there is no good evidence for god
evidence of god has a low prior likelihood so it is likely that god does not exist
- absence of evidence involves..
- TAP and PAP
- objections to the absence of evidence argument
- argument for agnosticism
why is there a low prior-likelihood for the existence of God?
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