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Glossary of Pharmacy portion of applied pathology

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Classes of anti-anginal medication
Nitrates

Beta Blockers

Calcium Channel Blockers
How do Nitrates work for anti-angina?
They relax smooth muscle which relaxes the blood vessels and allows more blood to the area which ends ischemia and makes the pain go away.
Nitroglycerine
nitrate

anti-anginal
Nitropatch
nitrate


anti-anginal
Isordil
nitrate




anti-anginal


also vasodilator
Beta Blockers
Beta adrenergic drugs.

Block epinephrine

decrease heart rate

decrease bp
decrease cardiac output
Inderal (propanolol)
Beta blocker

anti-anginal

also anti-arrhythmic
also anti-hypertensive
Lopressor
beta blocker

anti-anginal

also anti-hypertensive
atenolol
beta blocker


anti-anginal

also anti-hypertensive
calcium channel blockers
block calcium channels
anti-anginal
nifedipine (procardia)
calcium channel blocker

anti anginal
verapamil (calon)
calcium channel blocker


anti anginal
diltiazem (cardizem)
calcium channel blocker


anti anginal
Anti-arrhythmics
lidocaine
procainamide (pronestyl)
quinidine
amiodarone
inderal (propranolol)
lanoxin (digoxin)
lopressor
Lidocaine
anti arrhythmic

increases electrical stimulus threshold of ventricle
procainamide (pronestyl)
anti arrhythmic

depresses muscular excitability and slows down contractility
quinidine
anti arrhythmic


slows contractility
amiodarone
anti-arrhythmics


used for abnormal RATE
inderal (propranolol)
anti-arrhythmic

also beta blocker
lanoxin (digoxin)
anti arrrythmic
anti-hypertensives
beta blockers
calcium channel blockers
ace inhibitors
diuretics
apresoline
beta blockers for anti hypertension
being replaced by ace inhibitors
inderal
lopressor
atenolol
calcium channel blockers for anti hypertension
nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem
ace inhibitors for anti hypertension
captopril, lisinopril
Diuretics for anti-hypertension
blocks aldosterone so that water is not retained therefore lowers blood pressure

diuril, aldodril, lasix, aldactone (spironaolactone), aldomet
apresoline
vasoldilator
diuril
diuretic
aldodril
diuretic
lasix
diuretic
aldactone (spironolactone)
diuretic
anti- congestive heart failure drugs
ace inhibitors
glycosides
inotropic agents
diuretics
Glycosides
steroid nucleus with a lactone ring from the fox glove plant. increases cintraction by reducing refractory preiod to av node

Lanoxin (Digoxin)
inotropic agents for anti-congestive heart failure
lanoxin
isuprel
dobutamine
dopamine
Vasopressors
slows the heart rate which increases the heart SV

neosynephrine, levophed, isuprel, aramine
vasodilators
increases heart rate which increases cardiac output


aminophyline
isordil
apresoline
dopamine
neosynephrine
vasopressors
levophed
vasopressor
isuprel
vasopressor
aramine
vasopressor
aminophyline
vasoldilator
dopamine
vasodilator
Antibiotic classes
aminoglycosides
penicillins
cephalosporins
macrolides
tetracyclines
sulfonamides
cloramphenicol
polypeptide antibiotic
quinolones
tb drugs
mycotic agents
protozoan (pcp)
antiviral
aminoglycosides
amino sugars with glycoside linkage. impairs protein synthesis by binding with 30s ribosome of bacteria. used for gram negative like coliforms (enterobacter, klebsiella)

neomycin
streptomycin
gentamicin
tobramycin
kanamycin
amikacin
neomycin
aminoglycoside
antibiotic
streptomycin
aminoglycoside

antibiotic
genatamicin
aminoglycosides
antibiotics
tobramycin
aminoglycosides
antibiotics
kanamycin
aminoglycosides
antibiotic
amikacin
aminoglycosides
antibiotics
Sulfanilamide is
a sulfonamide antibiotic

first one discovered

discovered in 1936
Penicillins
beta lactam fused structure
works by affecting cell wall formation
used for gram positive infections
PV or PO
pen g
pen vee
Penicillinase resistant penicillins
penicillase will split beta lactam
these can be used instead
methicillin
oxacillin
nafcillin
dicloxacillin
amoxicillin
pen v
penicillin
antibiotic
pen g
penicillin
antibiotic
methicillin
penicillinase resistant penicillin
oxacillin
penicllinase resistant penicillin
nafcillin
penicillinase resistant penicllin
dicloxacillin
penicillinase resistant penicllin
amoxicillin
penicllinase resistant penicillin
extended spectrum penicillins
can affect both gram positive and gram negative

ampicillin
carbenicillin
mezlocillin
ampicillin
extended spectrum penicillin
carbenicillin
extended spectrum penicillin
mezlocillin
extended spectrum penicillin
cephalosporins
inhibits cell wall formation
can be used if a patient is allergic/resistant to pencillin
mainly used on positives but also on negatives
ceftin
cefamandole
cefoxitin (cefizax)
cephalothin
keflex
kefzol
kefzol
1st generation cephalosporin
ceftin
cephalosporin
cefamandole
cephalosporin
cefoxitin (cefizax)
cephalosporin
cephalothin
cephalosporins
keflex
cephalosporin
macrolides
big structures similar to penicillin
have lactone ring

erythromycin
azithromycin
erythromycin
macrolides
used for legionella pneumophila
azithromycin
macrolide
tetracyclines
semi-synthetic drug
comes from streptamyces
minocin
vibramycin
doxycycline
tetracycline
minocin
tetracycline
antibiotic
vibramycin
tetracycline
antibiotic
doxycycline
tetracycline
antibiotic
tetracycline
achromycin
sumycin
sulfonamides
broad spectrum antibiotics
gantrisin
bactrim
septra
sulfanilamide
azulfidine
gantrisin
sulfonamides
bactrim
sulfonamides

broad spectrum
septra
sulfonamides

broad spectrum
sulfanilamide
sulfonamide
azulfidine
sulfonamide

broad spectrum
chloraphenicol
the 1st broad range antibiotic

used to come from the fungus actinomyces but now synthetically created

blocks amino acid in rna from getting to the ribosome
chloromycetin
the 1st broad range antibiotic

used to come from the fungus actinomyces but now synthetically created

blocks amino acid in rna from getting to the ribosome
polypeptide antibiotic
bacitracin

neosporin

vancomycin(vancocin)
bacitracin
polypeptide antibiotic
neosporin
polypeptide antibiotic
quinolones
new generation of antibiotics
cipro (ciprofloxacin)
cinoxacin
norfloxacin
enoxacin
cipro (ciprofloxacin)
quinolones

new generation of antibiotics
cinoxacin
quinolones

new generation of antibiotics
norfloxacin
quinolones

new generation of antibiotics
enoxacin
quinolones

new generation of antibiotics
tb drugs
isoniazid (inh)--c6h7n3o
rifampin pas (paramino salycilic acid)
ethambutol
pyrazinanimide
rifamate (inh and rifampin)
isoniazid
tb drug

c6h7n3o
rifampin (pas)
tb drugs
ethambutol
tb drugs
pyrazinanimide
tb drugs
rifamate (inh and rifampin)
tb drugs
mycotic agents
antifungus drugs
amphotericin b
nystatin
mycelex
amphotericin b
fungizone
antibiotic for fungus
nystatin
mycostatin
mycelex
mycotic agent

antifungus agent
protozoan drugs for PCP (pneumocystis carinii pneumonia)
pentamidine
flagyl

usually in immunocompromised
pentamidine
protozoan drug for pcp
flagyl
protozoan for pcp
antiviral
acyclovir (zovirax) herpes

azt (azidothymidine) HIV

ddi-dideoxyinosine (retrovir-zidovudine)
acyclovir (zovirax) herpes
antiviral
azt (azidothymidine) hiv
antiviral
ddi-dideoxyinosine (retrovir-zidovudine)
anti viral
psychosis
any major mental disorder of organic or emotional origin marked by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality. associated with delusions, hallucinations, or illusions

schizophrenia
major depression
bipolar mood disorder
paranoia
schizophrenia
haldol
trilafon
navane
proloxin
thorazine
risperadal
clorazil
major depression
tofranil
elavil
norpramin
nardil
parnate
zoloft
paxil
prozac
effexor
serzone
bipolar mood disorder
lithium
depakote
tegretol
anxiety disorder
valium
librium
ativan
xanax
panic disorder
tofranil
xanax
klonopin
paxil
obsessive-compulsive disorder
prozac
anafranil
luvox
zoloft
haldol
schizophrenia
trilafon
schizophrenia
navane
schizophrenia
prolixin
schizophrenia
thorazine
schizophrenia
risperdal
schizophrenia
clozaril
schizophrenia
tofranil
major depression
panic disorder
elavil
major depression
norpramin
major depression
nardil
major depression
parnate
major depression
zoloft
major depression
obsessive compulsive disorder
paxil
major depression
panic disorder
prozac
major depression
obsessive compulsive disorder
effexor
major depression
serzone
major depression
lithium
bipolar mood disorder
depakote
bipolar mood disorder
tegretol
bipolar mood disorder
valium
anxiety disorder
librium
anxiety disorder
ativan
anxiety disorder
xanax
anxiety disorder
klonopin
anxiety disorder
anafranil
obsessive compulsive disoder
luvox
obsessive compulsive disorder
acetaminophen
tylenol
acetylsalicylic acid
aspirin
actinomycin D
cosmegen
allopurinol
zyloprim
for gout
bleomycin
blenoxane
cisplatin
platinol
cyclophosphamide
cytoxan
diethylstilbestrol
des
fluorouracil
adrucil
efludex
5-fu
haloperidol
haldol
lidocaine hcl
xylocaine
methotrexate
mexate
mithramycin
mithracin
calcium antibiotic
nitrogen mustard
mustargen
platinum
platinol
prednisone
deltasone
orasone
anti-inflammatory
procarbazine
matulane
quinacrine
atabrine
tamoxifen citrate
nolvadex
testosterone propionate
oral-oreton
inj neo-honbreol
vinblastine
velban
vncristine
oncovin
ak
above the knee
ashd
arteriosclerotic heart disease
abd
abdomen
@
at
bid
twice a day
bs
bowel sounds
breath sounds
bm
bowel movement
bone marrow
bph
benign prostatic hypertrophy
cbc
complete blood count
ck
creatinine phosphokinase
cva
cerebral vascular accident
cc
chief complaint
c/o
complains of
cxr
chest x ray
c&s
culture and sensitivity
djd
degenerative joint disease
dx
diagnosis
dtr
deep tendon reflex
ecg
electrocardiogram
eeg
electroencephalograph
fx
fracture
fh

fmh
family medical history
gm
gram or grams
hpi
history of present illnes
hx
history
heent
head
ears
eyes
nose
throat
iv
intravenous
ivc
intravenous colangiogram
lytes
electrolytes
npo
nothing by mouth
n&v
nausea and vomitting
pe
physical examination
prn
as needed
pt
patient
po
by mouth
qd
every day
r/o
rule out
ros
review of systems
rx
treatment
sgot

ast
serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
s/p
status post
tia
transient ischemic attack
u/a
urinalysis
ugi
upper gi series
vs
vital signs
wnl
within normal limits
Clinical History components for autopsy
1. chief complaint
2. present illness
3. past medical and social history
4. family history
5. physical examination
6. clinical impression
7. laboratory data and hospital course
8. summary
wbc
3.5-12 thousand/mm3
rbc
4.5-6.2 million/mm3
hgb
13.4-17.7 gm/dl
hct
40-53%
mvc
80-97 u3
mch
27-32 uugm
mchc
32-36 gm/dl
plt
150-420 thousand/mm3
polys
45-80%
bands
1-7%
lymphs
20-40%
atyp lymphs
0-7%
mono
2-15%
eo
0-5%
baso
0-1%
retics
0.5-2.7%
meta
0-1%
cl
100-110 MEQ/L
co2
20-30 mmol/l
k
3.5-5 meq/l
na
135-145 meq/l
bun
7-25 mg/dl
glu
65-109 mg/dl
tp
6.0-8.5 gm/dl
alb
3.5-5.0 gm/dl
ca
8.5-10.5 mg/dl
phos
2.5-5.0 mg/dl
t chol
60-200 mg/dl
uric acid
3.3-8.7 mg/dl
creatinine
0.5-1.5 mg/dl

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