Glossary of Pharm Exam 1 Review

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Created by daisy497

Where does peptic ulcer disease (PUD) occur?
- UPPER gastrointestinal
- most common: lesser curvature of stomach & duodenum
What is peptic ulcer disease?
erosion of the gut wall cause by exposure to pepsin (acid produced in stomach)
What are S&S of PUD?
- abdominal discomfort
- usually 2-3 hrs after meal
- pain on empty stomach
- pain relieved by food and antacids
- weight loss
- poor appetite
- bloating
- belching
- N/V
- gastrointestinal bleeding
- blood in vomit or stool (coffee ground consistency; black stool)

What is the incidence rate of PUD?
10% of North Americans
In the past, how was PUD treated?
- milk
- diet
- rest
- remove person from stressful environment

What are defensive factors for PUD?
- mucous
- bicarbonate (HCO3)
- blood flow
- prostaglandins

What are aggressive factors for PUD?
- helicobacter pylori
- NSAIDs (Non-steroidal Anit-inflammatory Drugs)
- Gastric Acid
- Pepsin
- Smoking

What does HCO3 do in the stomach?
neutralizes H+ ions
What are the affects of prostaglandins in the stomach?
- stimulate mucous production
- stimulate vasodilation
- suppress secretion of gastric acids

What are the treatment goals for PUD?
- alleviate symptoms
- promote healing
- prevent complications such as anemia
- prevent recurrences

What are the classes of Antiulcer drugs?
- antibiotics
- antisecretory agents
- mucosal protectants (barrier)
- antacids

What are antacids?
they convert gastric acid to neutral salts
What are the differences between ranitidine vs. cimetidine?
- cimetidine was first
- cimetidine has more side effects due to distribution
What are the side effects of Cimetidine?
- impotence
- gynecomastia
- confusion, headaches and depression
- diarrhea
- inhibits hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes
- less effective if also on antacids

Which drug inhibits hepatic-metabolizing enzymes?
What are the advantages of OTC drugs for ulcers?
- cheaper
- less time, hassle
- quick relief is possible

What are the disadvantages of OTC drugs for ulcers?
- antacids make environment more conducive to H. Pylori which is a precursor for stomach cancer
- undiagnosed
- OTC doses are lower

Antacids make environment more conducive to H. Pylori. True or False?
What is a precursor to stomach cancer?
Helicobacter Pylori
Diet plays a minor role in treating ulcers. True or False?
What is the MOA of the normal proton pump? (pumps H+ into stomach)
- H2 binds to H2 receptor in parietal cell
- stimulates cAMP production from ATP
- increases activation of KINASES by cAMP
-increased activity of H+/K+ ATPase
- increased H+ pumped into stomach/duodenum

What is Helicobacter pylori?
- lives between epithelial cells & mucous barrier (protects them)
- escapes destruction by acid & pepsin
How do you test for H. Pylori?
- breath test
- serum test
What enzyme increases the activity of H+/K+ ATPase?
What increases activation of kinases?
cAMP (from ATP)
What enzyme does H. Pylori produce?
Urease (which is broken down into CO2 + NH3)

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