Glossary of Pathology test questions

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Most male genital infections are
Sexually transmitted
The most common cause of prostatic enlargement in 60- to 70-year-old men is
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Inflammation of the fallopian tubes is called
A trophoblastic proliferation that can mimic pregnancy and causes high human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is
hyaditifom mole
Women with carcinoma of the endometrium are at an increased risk of developing carcinoma of the
The most important complication of endometriosis is
Abnormality of the placenta characterized by deep penetration of the placental villi into the wall of the uterus is called
Placenta accreta
Eclampsia is characterized by all the following
A Pap smear is most appropriate for early detection of:
Carcinoma of the cervix
If a woman has a family history of cancer (i.e., her mother and her sister had cancer of the breast), her chances of developing breast cancer are:
Significantly increased (5 to 6 times)
A woman who was diagnosed with a stage I breast cancer, with no metastases, underwent a lumpectomy. Her chances of surviving 5 years are
All the following are used successfully in the treatment of breast cancer
Antiestrogen drugs
Cytotoxic drugs
Radiation therapy
The central (“midshaft”) portion of long bones is called
Rheumatoid arthritis is best classified as
Autoimmune disease
Which of the following diseases is a genetic cause of dwarfism
Osteomyelitis of long bones is most often caused by
Pyogenic bacteria
Osteoporosis occurs commonly in postmenopausal women secondary to decrease in
If a long bone fracture has numerous lines and fragments, it is called
Which joint disease is characterized by destruction and loss of cartilage, sclerosis of subchondral bone, cyst formation, and osteophytes?
The most common symptom of degenerative joint disease is
Axons are cytoplasmic extensions of
forms of brain injury that does cause significant macroscopic or microscopic changes in the brain?
Brain contusion
Brain laceration
Coup lesion
Contrecoup lesion
Multiple plaques of demyelination visible by CT scanning are typical of
Multiple sclerosis
The most prominent clinical feature of Alzheimer’s disease is:
digestive enzyme secreted by the pancreas
component of the pancreatic juices acts as a buffer and neutralizes the acidity of the gastric juice
This hormone causes an increase in blood glucose by releasing stored glucose
Functionally most pancreatic carcinomas are characterized by
No hormonal symptoms
A friend of your from undergrad who would "drink alot" calls to tell you that he has a pancreatic carcinoma. You now that about 90% will die with in:
six months
A major biochemical abnormality typical of diabetes mellitus that can be detected by blood analysis is
Berry aneurysms
are normally found at vascular branch points in the circle of Willis
Normal testicular descent happens in the male
at 7 months gestation.
Yellow cholesterol gallstones are typically found in association with
Type ____ diabetes occurs with a failure of glucose to enter the cells because of membrane resistance or non-auto-immune defiiciency
type II
Symptoms of a subdural hemorrhage may take _______to appear
Atheromas occur most commonly in the smaller or bigger vessels associated with cerebral blood supply
Testicular maldescent predisposes a patient to
testicular carcinoma
Prostate cancer commonly will metatses to
bone and pelvic lymph nodes
The involution of the thymus that occurs normallly with aging is an example of the process known as
malignant tumors demonstrate
increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio
nuclear hypochromatism
symptom of inflammation
localized pain
The chronic inflammatory response focuses on:
production of fibrin
An exudate is the result of
increased capillary permeability
sodium retention
Neurons commonly do or do not undergo hyperplasia
do not
A pyknotic nucleus becomes more or less intensely stained with hematoxylin
An anaplastic tumor is or is not typically very aggressive
Dysplasia is or is not often be a pre-neoplastic condition
Neutrophils normally constitute _______ of the leukocyte population
following characteristics defines a benign growth
generally slow growing
uniform cells throughout the tumor
well differentiated cells
An increased functional demand on a cell can lead to
action of neutrophils during acute inflammation
ameboid movement
Blood vessels best designed to withstand high pressures are:
Lifestyle choices that can contribute to atherosclerosis include
The most common clinically significant emboli are most often composed of
Most venous emboli that are of clinical significance orginate in the veins of the
lower extremities
Tissue transplantation between gentically identical twins is called
Columnar bronchial epithelium irritated by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke into stratified epithelium. This change is an example of
Aspirin can inhibit some aspects of inflammation by inhibiting the synthesis of:
prostoglandins and thromboxane
A lung tumor that has spread to the brain has metastasized via
blood vessels
The most important complication encountered in persons affected by familial hypercholesterolemia is:
Tumors of the pituitary may secrete which hormones
growth hormone
thyroid-stimulating hormone
an enlarged heart secondary to his long standing uncontrolled hypertension. What is the pathologic response that causes enlargement of the heart by hypertension?
If viewed at the cellular level the liver cells of an epileptic patient who recieved a daily dose of phenobarbital shows increased amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. What is the explanation for this finding?
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum is most prominent in liver cells and breaks down drugs through metabolic degradation. There is an increased amount of SER due to the need to break down the daily doses of phenobarbital in the epileptic patient
Which of the following organs undergoes atrophy during childhood and adolescense
A bacterial throat infection (strep throat) is associated with a white exudate surrounded by reddened mucosa. This is an example of:
Fibrinous inflammation
The white blood cells (WBCs) recovered from the urethral discharge of a man with gonorrhea were found to contain bacteria. How did the bacteria enter the WBCs?
During phagocytosis, the bacterium was engulfed by the leukocyte and ingested. When the WBC was found, it still had remains of the bacterium within it.
Antibodies are produced by which cell lineage
Plasma cells
A child is born without a thymus. Can this child resist infections?
T-cells mature in thymus and account for 2/3 of the lymphocytes. They are key in fighting infections. The child will have virtually no immune system without a functioning thymus
A rejection of a skin xenograft is which type of hypersensitivity reaction
Type IV hypersensitivity reaction
The most common source of chemical carcinogens in the human habitat is:
Cigarette smoke
explain how tumors metastasize
cancer cells dont stop dividing like normal cells. When normal cells come in contact with eachother, they stop. Cancer cells lack this feature and keep dividing non-stop. The cell can lose function that the normal cell have and can survive on very little nutrients as compared to the normal cell. If the dividing cells are near a highway within the body, then they spread into this highway and therefore, into the rest of body (i.e. lymphatic, blood). Normal cells adhere where as cancer cells can "float" allover, thereby adding to their spreading capabilities. The growth of tumor cells are irregular and take up lots of space and this can cause problems where space is limited (i.e. brain) causing physical symptoms.
Teratomas orginate from
germ cells of the ovary
Graves disease is caused by a disorder best classified as:
autoimmune disease
How do you think that a patient with graves disease would be treated
anti-thyroid drugs
examples of edema
Periorbital swelling
The proteinacous meshwork that holds a thrombus todether is composed of:
Oncotic edema caused by reduction of the colloid osmotic pressure of teh plasma is a typical feature of chronic failure of the:
Myocardial infarction is accompanied by typical biochemical changes. Elevation of which enzyme in the blood occurs first after the occlusion of a coronary artery
Creatine kinase
Attacks of intrinsic asthma may be precipitated by all of the following
Bronchial infection
Psychological stress
Although the diagnosis of asthma is made primarily by the symptoms. You draw blood test for his allergies. What cell line would you expect to be elevated in a child with asthma and allergies?
The treatment of asthma is primarily symptomatic. Generally, it is aimed at reducing:
bronchospasm and bronchial inflammation
Overall, the most common form of leukemia is:
Acute myelogenous leukemia
The most common form of leukemia in a child younger than the age of 5 is:
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Acute "honeymoon" cystitis is caused by:
If the patient in the case had waited a week and then came to see you and also complained of fever, rigors and strong back pain what would be her likely diagnosis .
acute pyelonephritis
Pyuria is:
pus in urine
Diverticula of the intestine are most often located in the
sigmoid colon
Genetic predisposition to colon cancer is inhereted as an autosomal dominant trait in:
familial adenmatous polyposis syndrome
All of the following are common symptoms and/or complications of duodenal ulcer
major functions of the liver
Which of the hepatitis viruses is blood born and currently the most common cause of cirrhosis in the US
hepatitis C virus
34 year old male with testicular cancer had a positive urine pregancy test
Please explain
trophoblastic cells are like the placenta in that they secrete hCG into the blood stream. This can be found in blood serum or urine. The presence of the hCG is an indication of a germ cell tumor
Most carcinomas of the prostate occur in what part of the prostate
occur in the peripheral part(posterior lobe) of the prostate
Acute mastitis is most often caused by
staphyloccoccus aureus
More than 50% of all cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) contain intranuclear inclusions of
Human papilomavirus
potential complications of type II diabetes
Peripheral neuropathy
Retinal disease
Severe atherosclerotic disease
In early stages of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus the typical pathologic finding is:
AIDS patients are extremely susceptible to
accounts for the vast majority of cases of systemic hypertension.
Essential hypertension
The body may try to compensate for respiratory failure by producing more ________ cells
red blood
is Adult respiratory distress syndrome is usually fatal
Brain metastases are a common sequela to
lung carcinomas
respiratory disorders that manifest increased mucus production
chronic bronchitis
cystic fibrosis
Target organ usually affected by systemic hypertension include
Chron's disease patients may present with _______ pain
low back
Jaundice is caused by an increase in plasma concentration of _________, a hemoglobin breakdown product
Artherosclerotic narrowing of which artery causes hypertension
renal artery
Rheumatic carditis is typically preceded by
Streptococcal throat infection
The most common form of leukemia in children younger than the age of 5 years
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
The most common symptom of lymphoma is
Lymph node enlargement
Consumption of platelets associated with widespread hemorrhages is a feature of
Disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC)
Crypt abscesses, serpiginous ulcerations, and inflammatory polyps of the large intestine are a typical feature of:
Ulcerative colitis
disorders cause hemolytic anemia
hereditary spherocytosis
sickle cell disease
The lack of bile adversely affects the absorption of all of the following vitamins
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin K
most common cause of cirrohsis in the US is:
Alcohol abuse
In cirrohosis the surface of the liver is:
In hemochromatosis the liver contains increased amounts of:
Aplastic anemia
involves a failure of marrow stem cells to produce red blood cells.
features of acute glomerulonephritis
The most common urinary stones are composed of
calcium phosphate
The most common malignant tumor of the urinary tract is
carcinoma of the the urinary bladder

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