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Glossary of Patek Exam 2

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Osmotic Pressure
The pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane.

The opposite of water potential.

Surface Area : Volume Ratio
the larger the organism, the smaller the ratio

Why larger animals need a circulatory system

Open Circulatory system
A heart pumps hemolymph directly into the body cavity to bathe tissues and diffuses back into the system between cells.

There is no distinction between circulatory fluid and interstitial fluid.

Common in molluscs and Arthropods.



Hemolymph
In invertebrates with an open circulatory system, the body fluid that bathes tissues.
Ostia
In the crayish heart, two holes where hemolymph enters to be pumped.
Closed Circulatory System
A heart pumps blood through closed vessels of various sizes and thicknesses.

Found mostly in vertebrates, though also some invertebrates.

There is a lowering of pressure as the blood flows out into smaller vessels.



Systolic pressure
blood pressure inthe arteries during contraction of the ventricles
Diastolic pressure
blood pressure that remains between heart contractions
Transpiration
The evaporative loss of water from a plant
Xylem
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals from roots to the rest of the plant
Phloem
Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant
Sieve Elements
Plant cells within the phloem, which contain no nucleus and very little cytoplasm.

Combine to form sieve tubes, with perforated areas between the from transportation of food materials from one part of the plant to another.

Cohesion
the bringing together of two molecules
Adhesion
the attractions between different kinds of molecules
Blood
A type of connective tissue with a fluid matrix called plasma in which blood cells are suspended
Bulk Flow
the movement of water due to a difference in pressure between two locations
Apoplast
In plants, the continuum of cell walls plus the extracellular spaces
Symplastic
In plants, the continuum of sytoplasm connected by plasmodesmata between cells
Plasmodesmata
An open channel in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell
Caspian Strip
A water-impermeable right of way in the endodermal cells of plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls
Nitrifying Bacteria
Microorganisms that restock nitrogenous minerals in the soil by converting nitrogen to ammonia
Mycorrhizae
Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi
Epiphyte
A plant that nourishes itself but grows on teh surface of another plant for support, usually on branches or trunks of tropical trees

Mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which BOTH organisms benefit
Parasitism
Symbiotic relationship in which the parasite benefits at the expense of the host
Rhizosphere
the layer of soil surrounding the root, typically containing a rich community of microorganisms
Cation exchange
A process in which positively charged minerals are made available to a plant when hydrogen ions in the soil displace mineral ions from the clay particles
Zooxanthellae
Flagellate protozoa that are endosymbionts of various marine animals and other protozoa, most notably reef-building coral.
Bohr shift
A lowering of the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, caused by a drop in pH

Facilitates the release of oxygen from hemoglobin in the vicinity of active tissues

Dissociation curve
A chart showing the relative amounts of oxygen bound to hemoglobin when the pigment is exposed to solutions varying in their partial pressure of dissolved oxygen, pH, and other characteristics
Hemoglobin
An iron-containing protein in red cells that reversibly binds oxygen
Hemocyanin
A type of respiratory pigment that uses copper as its oxygen-binding component.

Found in the hemolymph of arthropods and many molluscs

Partial Pressure
A measure of the concentration of one gas in a mixture of gases

The pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture of gases

Gills
A localized extension of the body surface of many aquatic animals, specialized for gas exchange
Lungs
An invaginated respiratory surface of terrestrial vertebrates, land snails, and spiders that connects to the atmosphere through narrow tubes
Trachea
The windpipe

The portion of the respiratory tube taht has c-shaped cartilagenous rings that passes from the larynx to two bronchioli

Alveoli
One of the dead-end, muliolobed air sacs that constitute the gas exchange surface of the lungs
Coutnercurrent exchange
The opposite flow of adjacent fluids that maximizes transfer rates

Ex. Blood in the gills flows int eh opposite direction in which water passes over gills, maximizing oxygen uptake and CO2 loss

Work
Force x Distance

Energy transfer that occurs as a mass is moved through a distance against an opposing force

Joules
Unit of Energy

The force of one newton acting over the distance of one meter

Ion Gated Channels
Protein channel in a cell membrane that allows passage of a specific ion down its concentration gradient
Voltage gated ion channels
A specialized ion channel that opens or closes in response to changes in membrane potential
Action potential
A rapid change int eh membrane potential of an excitable cell, cause by stimulus-triggered, selective opening and closing of voltage-sensitive gates in sodium and potassium ion channels
Hyperpolarization
An electrical state in which the inside of the cell is more negative relative to the outside than at the resting membrane potential.

A neuron membrane is hyperpolarized if a stimulus increases its voltage from teh resting potential of 70mV, reducing the chance that the neuron will transmit a nerve impulse.

Depolarization
An electrical state in an excitable cell whereby the inside of the cell is made less negative relative to the outside than at eh resting mebrane potential.
Axon
A typically long extension, or process, from a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body toward target cells
Dendrite
One of numerous, short, highly branched processes of a neuron that convey nerve impulses toward the cell body
Synapse
the locus where one neuron communicates with another neuron in a neural pathway
neurotransmitter
A chemical messenger released from the synaptic terminal of a neuron at a chemical synapse that diffuses across teh synaptic cleft and binds to and stimulates the postsynaptic cell
Myelin Sheath
In a neuron, an insulating coat of cell membrane from Schwann cells that is interrupted by nodes of Ranvier, where saltatory conduction occurs.

Basically the fat cells surrounding an axon that increase conduction speed

Giant Axon
large, unmyelinated axons found in invertebrates. The larger the axon, the greater the conduction speed.
Dopamine
A biogenic amine closely related to epinephrine and norepinephrine

A neurotransmitter

Serotonin
A biogenic amine synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan

Another neurotransmitter

GABA
An inhibitory neurotransmitter; in teh crayfish heart, it inhibits both rate and force
Muscle fiber
A cylindrical, multinucleate cell composed of myofibrils that contracts when stimulated
Neuromuscular Junction
Where the axon of a motor neuron meets the muscle. The muscle fiber has a folded surface containing many acetylcholine receptors.
T tubule
When ACh binds to the muscle fiber, it depolarizes the membrane and creates an action potential. The T tubules allow teh action potential to travel into the cell.

An infolding of the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells.

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
A specialized endoplasmic reticulum that regulates the calcium concentration in the cytosol.
Sarcomere
The fundamental, repeating unit of striated muscle, delimited by the Z lines
Thick filament
A filament composed of staggered arrays of myosin molecules

A component of myofibrils in muscles fibers

Thin Filament
The smaller of the two myofilaments consisting of two strands of actin and two strands of regulatory protein coiled around one another

basically, actin

Actin-myosin Cross-bridge
How sarcomeres contract, the myosin fibers pull the actin fibers, causing hte sarcomere to shorten and the muscle to contract
Striated muscle
Visible sarcomere organization

Typically found as skeletal muscle

Smooth Muscle
lack striations because thick and thin filaments are distributed throughout cytoplasm

Found along blood vessels and internal organs.

Cardiac muscle
Striated muscle

Ion channels permit rhythmic contractions through direct electrical coupling among cells.

Molluscan Catch Muscle
Special muscle that allows mussel to be in tetanus

Anterior byssus retractor muscle

Cephalization
An evolutionary trend toward the concentration of sensory equipment on the anterior end of the body
Seta
The elongated stalk of a bryophyte sporophyte, such as in moss
Long term potentiation
An enhanced responsiveness to an action potential by a receiving neuron
Nociceptors
A class of naked dendrites in the epidermis of the skin

Responds to noxious or painful stimuli

Transduction
1)A DNA transfer process in which phages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another

2) In cellular communication, the conversion of a signal from outside the cell to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response

Sensory transduction
The conversion of stimulus energy to change in the membrane potential of a sensory receptor
Transmission
The conduction of impulses to the central nervous system
Perception
The interpretation of sensations by the brain
Tympanic membrane
Another name for the eardrum
Photoreceptor
An electromagnetic receptor that detects the radiation known as visible light
Hormone
In multicellular organisms, one of many types of circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells to change their functioning
Endocrine system
The internal system of chemical communication involving hormones, the ductless glands that secrete hormones, and the molecular receptors on or in target cells that respond to hormones

Functions in concert with the nervous system to affect internal regulation and maintain homeostasis.

Lipid solubility
The lipid solubility of a hormone determines how it affects the cell.

A lipid soluble hormone can diffuse directly into the cell and target cytoplasmic receptors, which can diffuse into the nucleus and act on DNA.

Epinephrine
A catecholamine hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that mediates "fight-or-flight" responses to short-term stress

Also functions as a neurotransmitter

Arabidopsis
A model plant genus of the family Brassicaceae (aka the mustard family)

It has a small genome which has been annotated and sequenced almost in its entirety
Has extensive mapping of all five of its chromosomes
Has a short life cycle and a prolific seed production

Has a large number of mutant lines and genomic resources available for study.





Ethylene
The only gaseous plant hormone. Among its many effects are responses to mechanical stress, programmed cell death, leaf abscission, and fruit ripening.
Triple Response
A plant growth maneuver in response to mechanical stress, involving slowing of stem elongation, a thickening of the stem, and a curvature that causes the stem to start growing horizontally
Positive Feedback
A physiological control mechanism in which a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change.

ex. Birth contractions

Metanephridia
In annelid worms, a type of excretory tubule with internal openings called nephrostomes that collect body fluids and external openings called nephridiopores.
Negative Feedback
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
Osmoregulation
How organisms regulate solute concentrations and balance the gain and loss of water
Homeostasis
The steady-state physiological condition of the body
Malpighian tubules
A unique excretory organ of insects that empties into the digestive tract, removes nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph, and functions in osmoregulation.
Protonephridia
An excretory system such as the flame-bulb system of flatworms, consisting of a network of closed tubules having external openings called nephridiopores and lacking internal openings.
Kidney
One of a pair of organs in the back part of the abdominal cavity which form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands.
Nephron
The tubular excretory unit of the kidney
Loop of Henle
the long hairpin turn, with a descending and ascending limb, of the renal tubule in the vertebrate kidney

Functions in water and salt reabsorption.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
A hormone produced in the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary.

Promotes water retention by the kidney as part of an elaborate feedback scheme that helps regulate the osmolarity of the blood.

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