Glossary of PSYCH 100 Exam 1
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- Focuses on observable behavior.
- Examines how people understand and think about the world.
Brain is like a computher; information processing.
- Contends that people can control their behavior and that they naturally try to reach their full potential.
- Believes behavior is motivated by inner, unconscious forces over which the person has little control.
- Scientific Method
- The approach used by psychologits to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest.
- Investigator simply observes some naturally occuring behavior and does not make a change in the behavior
- Survey Research
- A sample of people chosen to represent a larger group of interest are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes.
- Case Study
- in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or a small group of people.
- Correlational research
- Positive correlation: one increases, the other increases
Negative correlation: one increases, the other decreases
- Informed Consent
- Participants must sign document affirming that have been told the basic outlines and are aware of waht their participation will involve, what risks the experiment may hold, and the fact that their participation is purely voluntary and they may terminate at any time.
- Experimental bias
- Factors that distort the way the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment.
- False treatment. The decaf.
- Double-blind procedure
- No one knows who drank the real coffee.
- Nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system.
- A cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receive messages from other neurons
- The part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons.
- Terminal Buttons
- Small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons.
- Myelin Sheath
- A protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon.
- Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite of a receiver neuron.
- In brain.
- In brain, spinal cord.
- In brain.
Muscle and mental disorders;Parkinson's disease.
- In brain, spinal cord.
Pain suppresion, pleasureable feelings, appetities.
- In Brain, spinal cord.
- The part of the brain that controls bodily balance.
- The part of the brain located in the middle of the central core that acts primarilly as a busy relaty station, mostly for information concerning the senses.
- Tiny part of the brain, located below the thalamus, that maintains homostasis and produces and regulates vital, basic behavior such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior.
- Reticular Formation
- The part of the brain from the medulla through the pons made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal.
- Cerebral Cortex
- The "new brain," responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain; contains the lobes.
- Initial storage of memory.
- Pituitary Gland
- Growth, hormones.
- Regulates Breathing and Circulation.
- Temporal Lobe
- Sound, understanding language.
- Occipital Lobe
- Vision, visual processing
- Frontal Lobe
- Executive position Lobe.
- Pre-Frontal Lobe
- Planning Things.
- Darietal Lobe
- Spacial Context/Relationships
- Wernicke's Area
- Language Apprehension.
- Brocha's Area
- Speaking. Produce speech verbally
- Can't recognize faces.
- Form of energy in the environment ithat sense organs can detect
- Sense organs detect; Causes a chemical rxn
- The interpretation and integration of the senses
- Absolute threshold
- Smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for the stimulus to be detected by the human receptor cells
- Just Noticeable Difference
- Smallest difference in stimulation required to discriminate 50% of the time
- Sensory adaptation
- An adjustment in sensory capacity of sensory responsivness
- Weber's Law
- Two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage to be perceived as different.
- VISION: Stimuli
- Light waves
- VISION: Sensation
- Visual Receptors Rods & Cones transmit light wave energy into electrical impulses
- VISION: Perception
- Impulses sent to occipital lobe & Primary visual cortex and then are interpreted.
- Black/White/Gray. 120 million. FXN well under low illumination. Receptors in the retina that are sensitive to light
- 6 million. Color perception. Require large amount of light. In fovea.
- Opponent-process Theory of Color Vision
- The theory that receptor cells for color are linked in pairs, working in opposition to each other.
Ex: Yellow, Green, Black Flag
- HEARING: Stimuli
- Sound Waves
- HEARING: Sensation
- Movement of Hair cells
- HEARING: Perception
- When it hits the Temperal Lobe
- A series of principles that describe how we organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes
- A need to fill in the blanks.
- Grouping things according to proximity
- Elements similar in appearance we perceive as grouped together.
- Looking for the simplest shape first
- Top-Down Processing
- Perception that is guided by higher-level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations
- Bottom-Up Processing
- Perception that consists of recognizing and processing information about the individual components of stimuli
- Perceptual Constancy
- Physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent despite changes in their appearance or in the physical environment.
- Awareness of one's surroundings, of one's self, of one's thoughts and feelings
- Altered States of Conscoiusness
- Hypnosis, Meditation, Sleeping, Substance Induced, Day dreaming
- Unconscious Wish Fullfillment
- Manifest content, latent content.
- Dreams for Survival Theory
- Studies on learning new skills before sleeping
- Activation Synthesis Theory
- it's random Electrical Stimulation
- Sleep Apnea
- Stop Breathing
- Cocaine, Benzedrine, Dexedrine
- Alcohol, Rohypnol
- Heroin, Morphine
- Marijuana, LSD, MDMA(Ecstasy)
- Binge Drinking
- Men: 5 drinks per hour.
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