Glossary of PSCI 1050 Exam 2
Created by danielleroach
Other Decks By This User
- What factors are included in the calculus of voting?
- B=benefits of having your candidate win
P=probability of your vote making a difference
- What factor in the calculus of voting tends to discourage people from showing up to the polls?
- probability of your vote making a difference
- What are the different ways of calculating voter turnout?
- -rational calculus of voting
-VAP voting age population
-VEP voting eligible population
- What do the differences matter in the different voter calculations?
- because you can draw different conclusions based on each calculation
- Compared to the rest of the world, where does the United States stand in terms of voter turnout rates?
- -we sit at 31 out of 37 with 55%
-never higher than 65% ever
- What are undervotes?
- ballots that indicate no choice for an office, whether because the voter abstained or because the voter's intention could not be determined
- What are overvotes?
- when you vote for more than one candidate
- How do the laws surrounding voter registration play into voters' decision to show up to the polls?
- registration is not required and most haven't registered or don't how or where to register.
- How do voter registration laws differ from other developed countries?
- -not required
-we have motor voter laws, but it had little affect
- What are some other potential reforms to elections that may encourage people to show up to the polls?
- -involve when elections are held
-frequency of elections
-restrictions on where one can vote
- What part do parties play in increasing voter turnout?
- political parties are more effective at mobilizing
- Which groups in society are more inclined to vote?
- -highly educated
-increases with age then declines with old age
- What are some explanations for why we have seen a major shift in voter turnout over time?
- people differ in...
-their ability to bear the costs of voting
-the strength of their feeling of civic duty
-how often they are targets of mobilization
- What is an aggregate change that results from a change in the group's composition, not from a change in the behavior of individuals in the group?
- compositional effect
- what is the degree to which individuals are integrated into society-families, churches, neighborhoods, groups and so forth?
- social connectedness
- What is the most popular way of selecting party nominees for president (state by state)?
- national party conventions and then primaries
- What were some of the reforms in nomination rules in the Democratic party? What impact did it have?
- -new rules opened up the process to regular party voters
-increase in number of presidential primaries
-use of proportional representation
-effort to make delegates more diverse
- How does the electoral college shape how candidates run their campaigns?
- -candidates spend time in battleground states
-pay less attention to states they know they cannot win
- What are some of the considerations voters make to choose between candidates?
- -party loyalties
-qualities of the candidate
- Recently, there was a major reform in the amount of money individuals could contribute to party
committee. What was it? What was this sort of money called?
- Soft Money-money contributed by interest groups, labor unions, and donors to party committees.
-was banned by McCain-Feingold Bill in 2004
- What is most campaign money spent on?
- electronic media
- What are pledged delegates?
- commit to voting for particular candidate at convention
- What are superdelegates?
- elites who are not required to vote for particular candidate
- How do the Democratic and Republican parties differ in how they distribute delegates among
- Republicans use Winner-Take-All system
Democrats do not
- What are electors? What do they do?
- Each state selects a number of electors equal to the sum of its House and Senate seats
-they are the electoral college
- How can you calculate the number of electors for each state?
- its the sum of its house and senate seats
- What element of the electoral college and its place in presidential elections have gained a considerable amount of criticism?
- because in most cases if you win the popular vote you'll lose the electoral vote and that it isn't really how the people voted
- In most states, if a presidential candidate in the general election wins a majority of the votes, how many electoral votes does he/she receive?
- the full amount that the state is allowed
- Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974
- -contribution limits
-public matching funds
- what is hard money?
- -money donated directly to the candidate
- Are members of Congress spending more or less time in their seats than in the past?
- more time
- What is reapportionment? How is it determined?
- 435 seats in the House are apportioned among the states according to their populations
-determined by the census taken every 10 years
- What is redistricting?
- Drawing new boundaries of congressional districts, usually after the decennial census
Restrictions placed on the number of people placed within each district and the shape of the boundaries.
- What is gerrymandering?
- drawing lines of congressional districts in order to confer an advantage on some partisan or political interest.
- What is an open seat? What impact might it have on congressional elections?
- a house or senate race with no incumbent, because of death or retirement
-it could change who people vote for
- What is a safe seat?
- a congressional district certain to vote for the candidate of one party
- What is an incumbent?
- a person running for the office they currently hold
- What are some factors that contribute to the incumbency advantage?
- the electoral advantage a candidate enjoys by virtue of being an incumbent, over and above his or her personal and political characteristics
-Cater to constituents
-Greater access to resources
- How do incumbents go about trying to secure their reelection in an upcoming election?
- Often use privileges of office to provide voters with additional, more personal reasons to support them
- What is their franking privilege? Why is it important?
- sending mail at the expense of the government
-bc they virtually can send campaign ads to everyone bc they don't have to pay for it
- On average, do House or Senate elections tend to be more expensive?
- Which members of Congress have the highest reelection rates, the House or Senate? Why might
they differ in their ability to get reelected? 4 major differences.
-high ambitions of senators
- Are national forces a stronger or weaker influence on congressional elections than they have
been in the past?
- weaker or limited influence
- What are coattails?
- positive electoral effort of a popular presidential candidate on congressional candidates of the party
- Why might national forces have grown in congressional elections?
- increase in issue advocacy
-keeps national issues on agenda
You must Login or Register to add cards