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Glossary of PSCHHH

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Why is it important to study Life Span Development?
So that we can gain a better understanding of who we are.
What are the principal characteristics of the life-span perspective?
lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional,plastic, multidisciplinary and Contextual. Development involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss. Development is a co-construction of biology, culture, and the individual.
What are some of the contemporary concerns about the life-span perspective?
Health and Well Being, Parenting and Education, Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity and Social Policy.
Discuss Diversity in Life-Span Development
cannot
Define and give examples of cognitive processes.
Refer to changes in individuals thought, intelligence and language.Watching a colorful mobiles swinging above the crib, putting together a two-word sentence, memorizing a poem, imagining what it would be like to be a movie star, and solving a crossword puzzle.
What are the eight developmental periods?
The prenatal period, Infancy, Early Childhood, Middle and late childhood, Adolescence, Early adulthood, Middle adulthood, Late adulthood.
Discuss how age is related to happiness
Studies are skewed,
Rodgers-Happiness increases with age
Inglehart-No differences in happiness for adults of different ages
Mroczek and Kolarz-U shaped result with the lowest happiness occuring at 30 to 40 y


Define nature/nurture and discuss the nature nurture debate.
Involves the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture. Nature refers to an organisms biological inheritance, nurture to its enviormental experiences.
Nature vs Nurture
Nature-Basic growth tendencies are genetically programmed into humans.
Nurture-Expieriences around the child, biological enviorment (nutrition, medical care, drugs and physical accidents) to the social enviorment (familys, peers, schools, community,media and culture) are the cardholders for the childs overall development.


Define stability and change and discuss the stability change issue.
Involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change.
Stability-If an individual is shy throughout life, it is because of heredity and at a young age the child encountered considerable stress when interacting with people.

Change-More optimistic of views, that later expieriences can produce change.


Define continuity-discontinuity issue.
Focuses on the degree to which development involves either gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages (discontiunty).
Evaluate the developmental issues
life-span developmentalists acknowledge that development is not all nature OR all nurture..and so on but Nature AND Nurture, Stability AND Change, Continuity AND Disconu
Describe the Scientific Method and its four-step process.
An approach that can be used to obtain accurate information.
1)Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied 2)Collect research information (data) 3)Analyze data 4)Draw conclusions.
Compare and contrast the different psychoanalytic thoeries
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Compare and contrast the different psychoanalytic theories
-According to Freud,the primary motivation for human behavior is sexual in nature. According to Erikson, it is social and reflects a desire to affiliate with other people.
-Accoring to Freud our basic personality is shaped in the first five years of life, according to Erikson, developmental change occurs throughout the life span.
Discuss Freuds psychosexual theory.
As children grow up, their focus of pleasure and sexual impulses shifts from the mouth to the anus and eventually to the genitals. Five stages of sexual development.
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
Our adult personality, is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.





Discuss Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory.
Children go through four stages of cognitive development as they accurately construct understanding of the world around them, by using both Organization and Adaption.
Organization (seperating important ideas from unimportant ideas)
Adaption (Adjsut to new enviormental demands)
Go through four stages in understanding the world, consisting by age and with a different way of thinking.
Senorimotor stage
Preoperational stage
The Concrete Operational Stage
The Formal Operational Stage






Evaluate Psychoanalytic theories
An emphasis on a developmental framework,family relationships, and Unconcious apsects of the mind.
CONS-lack of scientific support, too much emphasis on sexual underpinnings, and an image of people that is tooooo negative.
Discuss Vygotskys socioculture cognitive theory
Social and Cultural interaction guide cognitive development. One culture may be different then another in learning, but gaining the knowledge of an adult through social interaction is indispensable to cognitive developent as it helps them to adapt to their culture.
Discuss the Information Processing Theory
Individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Does not describe development as stage-like, but moreso as a increasingly capacity for full processing information.
Evaluate the cognitive theories
Contributions- A positive view of development and an emphasis on the active construction of understanding.
CONS-doubts ab
Discuss Banduras Social Cognitive Theory
Behavior enviorment and cognition are key factors in development.
(young boy sees father yelling, so later on begins acting very aggressively with friends showing the aggressive behavior of the father.
Discuss Ethological Theory
Behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods..
(Baby geese are born, and go directly to Mother, other eggs are born in an incubator, and go directly to the scientist because they think its their "Mother")
Discuss the ecological theory
Development reflects the influence of five enviormental systems:
microsystems,mesosystems,exosystem,macrosystem,chronosystem.
Discuss Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
Does not follow one theoretical approach, but instead selects from each theory whatever is considered its best features
Compare and contrast survey and interview research!!
A survey is useful when information from many people is needed, while interviews usually require one person at a time.
Describe the case study method of research.
An in depth look at a single individual.
Discuss physiological measures of development
Used when studying development at different points in the life span.
Describe descriptive reasearch.
The purpose of observing and recording behavior.
What is correlational research and discuss its limitationss
Describes the strength of a relationship between two or more events or characteristics. Correlation does not equal causation.
Describe expierimental research and its uses.
carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant. It helps to study cause and effect.
Define independant and dependant variables
Independant Variables-Influential, expierimental factor. Manipulated independantly of other factors to determine its effect.

Dependant Variables-A factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in an independant variable.

Describe Expierimental and Control Groups.
Expierimental Group-A group whose expieriment is manipulated.

Control Group- A Control Group is a comparison group that is as much like the experimental group as possible and that is treated in every way like the expierimental group except for the manipulated factor, stands as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared.

Compare and contrast cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches to research.
Cross Sectional Approach-A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time.

Longitudinal Approach-A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more.

What are the ethical guidelines for conducting research with human participants?
Informed Consent, Confidentiality,Debriefing, Deception.
Discuss the types of bias in research and how to minimize bias.
Gender Bias, Cultural and Ethnic Bias,

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