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Glossary of PR WS 1

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ABASH
to make ashamed; to embarrass
ADMONISH
to scold gently; to warn
ADROIT
skillful; dexterous; clever; shrewd; socially at ease
AFFECTATION
unnatural or artificial behavior, usually intended to impress
AFFLUENT
rich; prosperous
ALACRITY
cheerful eargerness or readiness to respond
ALTRUISM
selflessness; generosity; devotion to the interests of others
AMBIENCE
atmosphere; mood; feeling
AMBIVALENT
undecided; having opposed feelings simultaneously
AMELIORATE
to amke better or more tolerable
AMENABLE
obedient; willing to give in to the wishes of another; agreeable
AMENITY
pleasantness; attractive or comfortable feature
AMNESTY
an official pardon for a group of people who have violated a law or policy
AMOROUS
relating to love
AMORPHOUS
shapeless; without a regular or stable shape; bloblike
ANACHRONISM
something out of place in time or history; an incongruity
ANTIPATHY
firm dislike; a dislike
ANTITHESIS
the direct opposite
APATHY
lack of interest; lack of feeling
APHORISM
a brief, often witty saying; a proverb
APOCRYPHAL
of dubious authenticity; fictitious; spurious
APOTHEOSIS
elevation to divine status; the perfect example of something
APPROBATION
approval; praise
APPROPRIATE
to take without permission; to set aside for a particular use
ARBITRARY
random; capricious
ARCANE
mysterious; known only to a select few
ARCHETYPE
an original model or pattern
ARDENT
passionate; enthusiastic
ARDUOUS
hard; difficult
ARTFUL
crafty; wily; sly
ARTIFICE
a clever trick; cunning
ASCETIC
hermitlike; practicing self-denial
ASSIDUOUS
hardworking; busy; quite diligent
ASSIMILATE
to take in; to absorb; to learn thoroughly
ASSUAGE
to soothe; to pacifiy; to ease the pain of
ASTUTE
shrewd; keen in judgment
ATTRITION
gradual wearing away, weakening, or loss; a natural or expected decrease in numbers or size
AUSPICIOUS
favorable; promising; pointing to a good result
AUSTERE
unadorned; stern; forbidding; without excess
AUTOCRATIC
ruling with absolute authority; extremely bossy
AVOW
to declare boldly; to admit
AWRY
off course; twisted to one side
AXIOM
a self-evident rule or truth; a widely accepted saying
BANAL
unoriginal; ordinary
BEGET
to give birth to; to create; to lead to; to cause
BELABOR
to go over repeatedly or to an absurd extent
BELEAGUER
to surround; to besiege; to harass
BELIE
to give a false impression of; to contradict
BELLIGERENT
combative; quarrelsome; waging war
BEMUSED
confused; bewildered
BEQUEST
something left to someone in a will
BEREAVED
deprived or left desolate, especially through death
BESET
to harass; to surround
BLIGHT
a disease in plants; anything that injures or destroys
BLITHE
carefree; cheerful
BOURGEOIS
middle class, usually in a pejorative sense; boringly conventional
BROACH
to open up a subject for discussion, often a delicate subject
BUCOLIC
charmingly rural; rustic; countrylike
BURGEON
to expand; to flourish
BURLESQUE
ludicrous, mocking, or exaggerated imitation
CADENCE
rhytmn; the rise and fall of sounds
CAJOLE
to persuade someone to do something he or she doesn't want to do
CALLOW
immature
CANDOR
truthfulness; sincere honesty
CAPITULATE
to surrender; to give up or give in
CAPRICIOUS
unpredictable; likely to change at any moment
CASTIGATE
to criticize severely; to chastise
CAUSTIC
like acidl corrosive
CEREBRAL
brainy; intellectually refined
CHAGRIN
humiliation; embarrassed disappointment
CHARISMA
a magical-seeming ability to attract followers or inspire loyalty
CHARLATAN
fraud; quack; con man
CHASTISE
to inflict punishment on; to discipline
CHICANERY
trickery; deceitfulness; artifice, especially legal or political
CHIMERA
an illusion; a foolish fancy
CHOLERIC
hot-tempered; quick to anger
CHRONIC
constant; lasting a long time; inveterate
CIRCUITOUS
roundabout; not following a direct path
CIRCUMLOCUTION
an indirect expression; use of wordy or evasive language
CIRCUMSCRIBE
to draw a line around; to set the limits; to define; to restrict
CIRCUMSPECT
cautious
CIRCUMVENT
to frustrate as though by surrounding
CLIQUE
an exclusive group bound together by some shared quality or interest
COALESCE
to come together as one; to fuse; to unite
COERCE
to force someone to do or not to do something
COGENT
powerfully convincing
COGNITIVE
dealing with how we know the world around us through our senses; mental
COGNIZANT
aware; conscious
COHERENT
holding together; making sense
COLLOQUIAL
conversational; informal in language
COLLUSION
conspiracy; secret cooperation
COMMENSURATE
equal; proportionate
COMPLACENT
self-satisfied; overly pleased with oneself
COMPLEMENT
to complete or fill up; to be the perfect counterpart
COMPLICITY
participation in wrongdoing; the act being an accomplice
SENTENCE
CONCILIATORY
making peace; attempting to resolve a dispute through goodwill
CONCORD
harmony; agreement
CONCURRENT
happening at the same time; parallel
CONDONE
to overlook; to permit to happen
CONDUCIVE
promoting
CONFLUENCE
a flowing together, especially of rivers; the place where they begin to flow together
CONGENIAL
agreeably suitable; pleasant
CONGENITAL
describing a trait or condition acquired between conception and birth; innate
CONNOISSEUR
an expert; particularly in matters of art or taste
CONSECRATE
to make or declare sacred
CONSONANT
harmonious; in agreement
CONSTRUE
interpret
CONSUMMATE
perfect; complete; supremely skillful
CONTENTIOUS
argumentative; quarrelsome
CONTIGUOUS
side by side; adjoining
CONTINGENT
dependent; possible
CONTRITE
admitting guilt; especially feeling remorseful
CONTRIVED
aritifical; labored
CONVIVIAL
fond of partying; festive
COPIOUS
abundant; plentiful
COROLLARY
something that follows; a natural consequence
CORROBORATE
to confirm; to back up with evidence
COSMOPOLITAN
at home in many places or situations; internationally sophisticated
COUP
a brilliant victory or accomplishment; the violent overthrow of a government by a small internal group
COVET
to wish for enviously
CREDULOUS
eager to believe; gullible
CULMINATE
to climax; to reach full effect
CULPABLE
deserving blame; guilty
CURSORY
hasty; superficial
CURTAIL
to shorten; to cut short
DAUNT
to make feaful; to intimidate
DEARTH
lack; scarcity
DEBACLE
violent breakdown; sudden overthrow; overwhelming defeat
DEBILITATE
to weaken; to cripple
DECADENT
decaying or decayed, especially in terms of morals
DECIMATE
to kill or destroy a large part of
DECOROUS
propler; in good taste; orderly
DEFERENCE
submission to another's will; respect; courtesy
DEFINITIVE
conclusive; providing the last word
DEGENERATE
to break down; to deteriorate
DELETERIOUS
harmful
DELINEATE
to descrive accurately; to draw in outline
DELUDE
to deceive
DELUGE
a flood; an inundation
DEMAGOGUE
a leader of the people, but more a rabble rouser
DENIZEN
inhabitant
DEPRAVITY
extreme wickedness or corruption
DEPRECATE
to express disapproval of
DERIDE
to ridicule; to laugh at contemptuously
DEROGATORY
disapproving; degrading
DESICCATE
to dry out
DESPONDENT
extremely depressed; full of despair
DESTITUTE
extremely poor; utterly lacking
DESULTORY
without a plan or purpose; disconnected; random
DIALECTICAL
relating to discussions; relating to the rules and methods of reasoning; approaching truth in the middle of opposing extremes
DICTUM
an authoritative saying; an adage; a maxim; a proverb
DIDACTIC
intended to teach; morally instructive; pedantic
DIFFIDENT
timid; lacking in self-confidence
DIGRESS
to stray from the main subject
DILETTANTE
someone with superficial knowledge of the arts; an amateur; a dabbler
DISCERN
to have insight; to see things clearly; to discriminate; to differentiate
DISCREET
prudent; judiciously reserved
DISDAIN
arrogant scorn; contempt
DISINTERESTED
not taking sides; unbiased
DISPARAGE
to belittle; to say uncomplimentary things about, usually in a somewhat indirect way
DISPARATE
different; incompatible; unequal
DISSEMINATE
to spread the seeds of something; to scatter; to make widely known
DISSIPATE
to thin out, drift away, or dissolve; to cause to thin out, drift away, or dissolve; to waste or squander
DISSOLUTION
the breaking up or dissolving of something into parts; disintegration
DISTEND
to swell; to extend a great deal
DOCILE
easily taught; obedient; easy to handle
DOCTRINAIRE
inflexibly committed to a doctrineor theory regard to its practicality; dogmatic
DOGMATIC
arrogantly assertive of unproven ideas; stubbornly claiming that something (often a system of beliefs) is beyond dispute
DUBIOUS
full of doubt; uncertain
EBULLIENT
boiling; bubbling with excitement; exuberant
ECLECTIC
choosing the best from many sources; drawn from many sources
EDIFY
to enlighten; to instruct; especially in moral or religious matters
EFFACE
to erase; to rub away the features of
EFFUSION
a puring forth
EGALITARIAN
believing in the social and econmic equality of all people
EGREGIOUS
extremely bad; flagrant
ELICIT
to bring out; to call forth
ELUSIVE
hard to pin down; evasive
EMINENT
well-known and respected; standing out from all others in quality or accomplishment; outstanding
EMPIRICAL
relying on experience or observation; not merely theoretical
ENERVATE
to reduce the strength or energy of, especially to do so gradually
ENFRANCHISE
to grant the privileges of citizenship, especially the right to vote
ENGENDER
to bring into existence; to create; to cause
ENORMITY
extreme evil; a hideous offense; immensity
EPHEMERAL
lasting a very short time
EPIGRAM
a brief and usually witty or satirical saying
EQUANIMITY
composure; calm
EQUITABLE
fair
EQUIVOCAL
ambiguous; intentionally confusing; capable of being interpreted in more than one way
ERUDITE
scholarly; deeply learned
ESOTERIC
hard to understand; understood by only a select few; peculiar
ESPOUSE
to support; to advocate
ETHEREAL
heavenly; as light and insubstantial as a gas or ether
EUPHEMISM
a pleasant or inoffensive expression used in place of an unpleasant or offensive one
EVANESCENT
fleeting; vanishing; happening for only the briefest period
EXACERBATE
to make worse
EXACTING
extremely demanding; difficult; requiring great skill or care
EXALT
to raise high; to glorify
EXASPERATE
to annoy thoroughly; to make very angry; to try the patience of
EXHAUSTIVE
thorough; rigorous; complete; painstaking
EXHORT
to urge strongly; to give a serious warning to
EXIGENCY
an emergency; an urgency
EXONERATE
to free completely from blame; to exculpate
EXPATRIATE
to throw (someone) out of his or her native land; to move away from one's native land; to emigrate
EXPEDIENT
providing an immediate advantage; serving one's immediate self-interest; practical
EXPEDITE
to speed up or ease the progress of
EXTOL
to praise highly; to laud
EXTRAPOLATE
to project or deduce from something known; to infer
EXTRICATE
to free frin difficulty
EXTROVERT
an open, outgoing person; a person whose attention is focused on others rather than on himself or herself
EXULT
to rejoice; to celebrate
FABRICATION
a lie; something made up
FACETIOUS
humorous; not serious; clumsily humorous
FACILE
fluent; skillful in a superficial way; easy
FARCICAL
absurd; ludicrous
FASTIDIOUS
meticulous; demanding; finicky
FATALIST
someone who believes that future events are already determined and that humans are powerless to change them
FATUOUS
foolish; silly; idiotic
FAUNA
animals
FECUND
fertile; productive
FELICITY
happiness; skillfulness; especially at expressing things; adeptness
FETTER
to restrain; to hamper
FIGURATIVE
based on figures of speech; expressing something in terms usually used for something else; metaphorical
FLOUT
to disregard something out of disrespect
FOMENT
to stir up; to instigate
FORBEAR
to refrain from; to abstain
FOREGO
to do without; to forbear
FORSAKE
to abandon; to renounce; to relinquish
FORTUITOUS
accidental; occurring by chance
FOUNDER
to fail; to collapse; to sink
FRENETIC
frantic; frenzied
FURTIVE
secretive; sly
GARRULOUS
talkative; chatty
GENTEEL
refined; polite; aristocratic; affecting refinement
GESTICULATE
to make gestures, especially when speaking or in place of speaking
GLUT
surplus; an overabundance
GRANDILOQUENT
pompous; using a lot of big, fancy words in an attempt to sound impressive
GRANDIOSE
absurdly exaggerated
GRATUITOUS
given freely (said of something bad); unjustified; unprovoked; uncalled for
GRAVITY
seriousness
GREGARIOUS
sociable; enjoying the company of others
GUILE
cunning; duplicity; artfulness
HACKNEYED
overused; trite; stale
HAPLESS
unlucky
HARBINGER
a forerunner; a signal of
HEDONISM
the pursuit of pleasure as a way of life
HEGEMONY
leadership, especially of one nation over another
HERMETIC
impervious to external influence; airtight
HEYDAY
golden age; prime
HIERARCHY
an organization based on rank or degree; pecking order

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