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Glossary of PHL final cards

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Justice is getting what you deserve, and goods are distributed according to merit.
Aristotle
Patterned Theory- matching of some natural dimension
Marx
In arguments for welfare programs he supports generosity
Aristotle
Just as a species of the proportionate
Aristotle
From each according to his ability, from each according to his needs!
Marx
Political power is the organized power of one class oppressing the other
Marx
Master and slave but with classes
Bourgeoisie and the proletariat
Marx
Abolish private property to have no owners, therefore there is no class struggle
Marx
Program of progressive income tax, no inheritance, free education, etc.
Marx
Human nature changes, state is transcended and labor vanishes
Marx
It is the philosophers job to change the world
Marx
Choose that which matches the distribution of needs
Marx
• Anyone under a government is obligated to obey its laws because they have consented to the subject of those laws
Locke
Governments are constructed to preserve property
Locke
Government may tax only with the consent of the majority
Locke
Money changes state of nature because it allows people to acquire more than they can immediately use
Locke
“My body is and should be mine”
Labor Theory- My body makes things mine
Locke
The limits in the state of nature are:
Waste: I can own only what I can use
Scarcity: There must be enough and as good left over for others
Locke
Connects with historical theory, “justice of a distribution depends on how it came about”
Locke
Bottom Up Model
Locke
Supports: General Rights and Procedural Positive Rights
Locke
The social contract serves in the state as the basis of ALL rights
Rousseau
"You are lost if you forget that the fruits of the earth belong to all and the earth to no one!"
Rousseau
The government may tax you only if the tax accords with the general will
Rousseau
If your will conflicts with the general will then
you are wrong about what is really desirable
the general will takes precedence
freedom consists in the defeat of your own will
Rousseau
Believes that private property is subordinate to the community’s right to all
Rousseau
it must be unanimously adopted

the general will becomes the sole authority

one must enter the contract without reservations
Features of Social Contract,
Rousseau
his theory of distributive justice in “________” is summarized as tolerating neither rich men nor beggars
Social Contract, Rousseau
believes the _______can transform humans because inequality has made them artificial
Rousseau
The ________can allow us to unite with all while remaining as free as before

And who said this?
Social Contract

Rousseau
no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions
Rousseau
If all men have some thing and none of them have to much then the social state is at their advantage
Rousseau
End Result Theories

justice of a distribution can be judged structurally— identity of people doesn’t matter
Rousseau
and
Rawls
Top Down Model
Rousseau
• Give up everything and you get everything back
o You give up everything willingly to the group so you can gain back your fruits of cooperation
Rousseau
Force —> right; possession —> property
Rousseau
Supports: general, procedural positive, and substantiative positive rights
Rousseau
State must choose best allocation of resources

Socialism: conscious direction of social forces to consciously chosen end
Rousseau
To ensure that everyone cooperates, everyone must benefit from arrangement
Rousseau
Chooses that with greatest area, that stays within its limits
Rousseau
• social and economic inequalities are just only if they result in compensating benefits for everyone
o in particular for the least advantaged members of society.
Rawls
• While the distribution of wealth and income need not be equal, it must be to everyone's advantage
Rawls
• The principles of justice are the principles that free and rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in an initial position of equality
Rawls
agents are morally equal

agents do not know their talents or abilities, their wealth or station in life

agents choose the general distribution scheme for the state of which they are to be citizens

Who created this and wha
Rawls's Veil of Ignorance
Each person has equal right to the most extensive basic liberties compatible with similar basic liberties for others

Social and economic inequalities are arranged so that they are expected to benefit all and attached to positions open to all
Rawls
know all relevant laws of economics and sociology

know nothing about our own position in society

choose principles of justice

choose the maximin principle

who believes this?
Rawls
His maximin principle states that inequalities are justified only if they maximize the welfare of the least advantaged
Rawls
• Justice as fairness, principles of social justice are those that:

Free, rational, self interested, and equal
Rawls
Maximize that welfare of the least advantaged
Rawls
End Result Theories:

justice of a distribution can be judged structurally— identity of people doesn’t matter
Rawls and Rousseau
Persons would accept to govern their associations
Rawls
Would choose that with the highest minimum point
Rawls
A distribution is just if it arises from another just distribution by legitimate means
Nozick
From each as they choose, to each as they are chosen
Nozick
Any distributional pattern with any egalitarian component is overturnable by the voluntary actions of individual persons over time
Nozick
Whatever arises from a just situation by just steps is itself just
Nozick
A theory of justice requires three subsidiary principles:

Acquisition: How to acquire a holding justly from nature

Transfer: How to transfer holdings justly

Rectification: How to correct an earlier injustice

Wh
Nozick, Entitlement Theory
I hold something justly if and only if there is a chain of holdings back to an original acquisition from nature, with no uncorrected injustices

What theory does this explain?
Nozick
My shirt <— retailer <— wholesaler <— factory <— clothmaker <— cotton farmer <— cotton (nature)

What does this explain and what theory is it?
Nozick's Entitlement theory

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