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Glossary of PA 44 oral prep

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Vso
55-stall speed in landing configuration
Vmc
56-minimum controllable airspeed
Vs
57-stall speed with zero flaps

Vr
75-rotation speed
Vx
82-best angle of climb
Vxse
82-best angle of climb-single engine
Vsse
82-safe speed for intentional engine failure
Vy
88-best rate of climb-blue line
Vyse
88-best rate of climb single engine
Vfe
111-max flap extension speed
Vlo(up)
109-max gear retraction speed
Vlo(down)
140-max gear extension speed

Vle
140-max speed with gear extended
Vno
169-max structural cruising speed

Vne
202-never exceed speed
Va
135-maneuvering speed at 3800 lbs
Max demonstrated crosswind component
17
approximate drag factors per piper seminole poh
1. flaps 25 - -240fpm
2. flaps 40 - -275fpm
3. windmilling prop -200 fpm
4. gear extended -250fpm




when a multi engine airplane loses an engine, the airplane loses ____ of its available power. This power loss results in a loss of approx. ____ of the aircrafts excess power and climb performance
50%,80%
During flight with one engine inoperative, proper pilot technique is required to maximize aircraft performance. An important technique is to establish a _______.
Zero sideslip condition
Explain steps for zero sideslip condition
1. bank 5 deg into good engine
2. split the ball towards operation engine
what does zero sideslip condition do?
it aligns the fuselage with the relative wind to minimize drag and must be flown for optimum aircraft performance

define single engine service ceiling
the maximum density altitude at which the single engine best rate of climb airspeed(Vyse) will produce a 50 fpm rate of climb with the critical engine inop.
define single engine absolute ceiling
the maximum density altitude that an aircraft can attain or maintain with the critical engine inop.
Climb performance depends on what 4 factors
Airspeed
Drag
Power
Weight


Def. critical engine
the critical engine is the engine that, when it fails, most adversely affects the performance and handling qualities of the airplane
What factors determine critical engine
P P factor
A Accelerated slipstream
S Spiraling Slipstream
T Torque


what kind of engines do the piper seminole have
L Lycoming
H Horizontally Oppose
A Air Cooled
N Normally Aspirated
D Direct Drive



what kind of propellers does the seminole have
Hartzell two bladed, controllable pitch, constant speed, full feathering metal propellers
what is controllable pitch?
the ability to control engine RPM by varying the pitch of the propeller blades
When the blue propeller control handle is moved forward, oil pressure, regulated by a prop governor, drives a piston, which moves the blades to a ____ pitch, ____ RPM (______) position.
High, Low (unfeathered)
After RPM setting is selected with the blue prop control handles, the ____ will automatically vary oil pressure inside the prop hub to change the prop blade pitch in order to maintain a constant engine ___.
Prop governor, RPM
How long does it take for the prop to feather
6 seconds
The ____ prevents the propellers from feathering below ____ RPM.
centrifugal stop pin, 950
Propeller overspeed is usually caused by a malfunction in the ____ which allows the prop blades to rotate to full low pitch. What should be done in case of prop overspeed?
Prop governor, reduce airspeed and use throttle to maintain a max of 2700 RPM
describe the landing gear in the seminole
hydraulically acuated, fully retractable, tricycle type landing gear
Hydraulic pressure for gear operation is provided by an ____, _____. The gear is held in the up position solely by ___. ___ assist in gear extension and in locking the gear in the down position.
electrically powered, reversible hydraulic pump.

hydraulic pressure.

springs



A gear warning system is activated under any of the following conditions.
1. the gear is not locked down with the throttle lever positioned below approx 15" mP on one or both engines
2. the gear is not locked down with flaps at 25 or 40
3. the gear handle is in the up position on the ground

Gear retraction on the ground is prevented by a ____.
squat switch (located on the left main)
the seminole is equipped with _____ disk brakes
hydraulically actuated

this hydraulic system is independent of the landing gear hydraulic sytem

what are the flap settings in the seminole
0
10
25
40


The seminole is equipped with two ____, vacuum pumps.
engine driven
the vacuum system operates what instruments.



Attitude gyro
HSI


what are the suction limits
4.8-5.2 at 2000 rpm
what are the pitot static instruments
Airspeed Indicator, Altimeter, VSI
what must you do when using alternate static source
storm window and cabin vents must be closed, and the heater and defroster must be turned on-this will reduce the pressure differential between cockpit and the atmosphere
describe the fuel system for the seminole
uses 100LL avgas, has two 55 gallon bladder nacelle tanks, with 1 gal in each tank unusable. there are two engine driven and two electrically driven fuel pumps
when are the electrically driven fuel pumps used
engine start
takeoff
landing
fuel selector changes
maneuvers



what are the three positions for the fuel selectors for each engine
on
off
x-feed

what is the correct procedure for crossfeed operations to supply left engine with fuel from right tank
FOR STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLT ONLY
1. left eng elec boost pump on
2 left fuel sel to xfeed
3. check left fuel pressure
4. left eng elec boost pump off
5. check fuel pressure




The seminole is equipped with a ___ volt electrical system which utilizes push-pull type circuit breakers, a___ volt, ___ amp battery, and 2 __ amp, engine driven alternators.
14 volt
12 volt, 35 amp
70 amp

The cabin is supplied heat by a ______ located in the ___ compartment and burns fuel at the rate of ___.
Janitrol gas combustion heater, nose

1/2 gal per hour

To prevent activation of the overheat switch upon heater shutdown during ground operations, turn the 3 position switch to _for__ min with the air intake lever in the __ position before turning off. how long in air?
fan, 2 minutes, open

15 seconds

the seminole is equipped with two electric stall detectors located on the __ wing. The inboard detector provides stall warning at flaps ___ and the outboard at flaps __
25 and 40

0 and 10

where is the emergency exit
pilots left side window
what is the oil capacity of the seminole
4 to 6 quarts
Normal Takeoff flaps 0
increase throttles to 2000 rpm
check gauges-full pwr
rotate 75
accelerate to 88 blue line
pos rate neg runway gear up
climb 88 til 500 agl then 110
reduce throttles 24/2500 at 100 agl, after takeoff chk 1000 agl





in flight engine failure procedures-in 3 seconds
maintain dir. control, pitch, attitude, airspeed
mixtures-full fwd, props-full fwd, throttles-full fwd
flaps up, gear up, identify(dead foot), verify-throttle close, prop feather, mixture cutoff inop eng, climb blue line

VMC demo
clearing turns, flaps up, gear up, mix rich, props fwd, fuel pumps on, slowly close left throttle while maintaining heading and alt. slow to 100kias, slowly increase right throttle to full pwr, use rudder to maintain dir control and bank 5 deg into op eng, increase pitch attitude slowly, decrease airspeed at approx 1 knot per sec until full rudder is applied to maintain dir control, recover at first sign of loss of dir control or stall recover by reducing power on good engine while decreasing angle of attack to regain dir control within 20 deg of heading, continue increasing power on op eng, accelerate to 82-88, bring throttles slowly together 20" mp
emergency descent
throttles slowly to idle
props fwd
mixtures adjust
gear down, max speed 140
maintain 140
do not bust altitude




steep turns
clearing turns, pwr to 20/2300
set heading bug, maintain alt +_ 100
maintain 120 kts
50 deg turn left and right
roll out with 10 degrees



slow flight
clearing turns, fuel sel on, mix rich, fuel pumps on
mp 15", gear down
full flaps
blue line-props fwd, slow to just above stall 60kts
mp 20"
power for alt, pitch for airspeed
recover with max power
retract flaps
accelerate to 82, retract gear, acc to 88
cruise checklist
22/2300, check inst., fuel pumps off, mix lean











power off stall
clearing turns, fuel pumps on, mix rich, props fwd, mp 15"
gear down, full flaps
pwr idle, pitch to maintain alt, maintain heading-pwr to idle, increase pitch attitude to induce stall, recover at onset of stall, recover full pwr, retract flaps, pos rate retract gear,

power on stall
clearing turns
to config gear down, departure config-gear up
mix rich, props fwd, fuel pumps on
slow to 80 kts
maintain heading
pitch up while increasing pwr to 18"
recover at onset of stall
nose down full pwr
accelerate to 82
pos rate - gear up
cruise









accelerated stall
clearing turns, slow to 120kts
flaps up gear up
mix rich, props fwd, fuel p on
establish 45 deg turn
reduce pwr to idle
maintain alt to induce stall
recover at onset of stall
simultaneously reduce angle of attack, max pwr, level wings
cruise checklist









cruise checklist
pwr 22/2300
instruments check
cowl flaps as req'd
L fuel pump off-check pressure
R fule pump off-check pressure
landing light-on local/off xc
mixtures lean





to maintain ifr currency
6 approaches, holding procedures, radial and bearing tracking in last 6 months
when is an alternate required
when weather at dest is forecast to be below 2000 ceiling and visibility less than 3 miles

requirements for an alternate airport
forecasted weather at ETA must be at 600' ceiling and 2 miles for precision,

800' ceiling and 2 mi for non precision

alternate can not be based on gps approach



reserve fuel of __ min for ifr flights

reserve fuel of ___ for vfr day flights and ___ for vfr night flights

45
30
45

VOR Limits
4 degrees for VOT, ground checkpoint and dual check

6 degrees for airborne check

VOR equipment must be checked every __ days
30
Transponders must be checked every _____.
24 months
Pitot static systems must be checked every ____
24 months
ELT equipment must be checked every 1.____ 2.____ 3.___
12 months
after half battery life
after 1 hour cumulative use

an aircraft for hire must have a _____ inspection and ____
100 hr, annual inspection
In order to descend below the DH or MDA, all of the following conditions must exist
Required flight visibility is met
the aircraft is in a normal position to land
the runway environment is in sight
approach lights in sight
descend and land if red terminating bars or red side row bars are in sight



standard traffic pattern for multi engine aircraft is ____ agl
1000
lost comm procedure vfr
squawk 7600
remain vfr
land as soon as possible

lost comm procedure ifr
squawk 7600 and fly
Route-Assigned, Vectored, Expected, Filed (first that applies)
Altitude-whichever is highest until descent is req'd for landing
Minimum IFR altitude
Expected
Assigned




Part ___ states you may be paid for acting as PIC of an aircraft engaged in carrying persons or property for compensation or hire
Part 61
examples when you dont have to have an operation certificate
student instruction
certain nonstop sightseeing flights
ferry or training flights
aerial work operations-including-crop dusting, banner towing, aerial photography, powerline or pipeline control


what is meant by the term commercial operator
comm operator means a person who, for comp or hire, engages in the carriage by aircraft in air commerce of persons or property, other than as an air carrier for foreign air carrier
define common carriage
common carriage refers to the carriage of passengers or cargo as a result of advertising the availability of the carriage to the public
a carrier becomes a common carrier when it ___ to the public
holds itself out
what are the 4 elements in defining common carrier
a holding out or willingness to
transport persons or property
from place to place
for compensation


define holding out

what is the most direct form of holding out?

holding out implies offering to the public the carriage of persons and property for hire either intrastate or interstate

signs and advertising are the most direct means

define private carriage
carriage for hire which does not involve holding out
describe FAA reg 119
Certification: air carriers and commercial operators
Part 121
Operating requirements-domestic, flag, and supplemental operations
Part 125
Certification and operations-airplanes having a seating capacity of 20 or more passengers or max payload of 6000 lbs or more
Part 135
operating requirements-commuter and on-demand operations
Part 137
agricultural aircraft operations
what limitations on newly certified commercial pilot without an instrument rating
prohibit flights more than 50nm
prohibits carriage of passengers at night
to act as pic or in any other capacity as a req'd crew member- what must a pilot have in his/her possession
valid pilot certificate
current and appropriate medical certificate


if a pilot changes their address and fails to notify the FAA, how long is the pilot entitled to exercise their pilot priveledges
30 days after the move
to act as pilot in command of a high performance airplane a person must have
1. received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized instructor in a high perf. airplane or simulator
2. been found proficient in the operation and systems of the airplane
3. received a one time endorsement in pilot's logbook

to act as pic of a pressurized aircraft what flight exp. must be met
ground and flight training and endorsement in logbook

ground training incl. high-alt aerodynamics, meteorology, respiration, hypoxia, etc

received and logged training in a pressurized aircraft



to act as pilot in command of a tailwheel airplane what requirements must be met
received and logged flight training from an authorized instructor in a tailwheel airplane, logbook endorsement,

training must incl-normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings, wheel landings and go around procedures

when would a commercial pilot be required to hold a type rating
when acting as PIC in
large aircraft over 12,500 lbs
turbojet powered airplanes
other aircraft specified by the administrator through aircraft type certificate procedures


define category, class, type
category-a broad classification of aircraft, ie, airplane, rotorcraft, glider
class- a classification of aircraft within a category, ie single engine land, multi engine land
type- a specific make and basic model, cessna 182

give three examples when a commercial pilot cannot carry passengers
Multi engine pilot in a single engine when not certificated

in a formation flight

in a restricted, limited or experimental aircraft



when may a commercial pilot log flight time as SIC?
1. is qualified according to the SIC requirements of 14 CFR 61.55, and occupies a crew member station in an aircraft that requires more than one pilot by the aircraft's type certificate
2. holds the appropriate category, class and instrument rating for the aircraft being flown and more than one pilot is required under the type certification of the aircraft or regulation under which the flight is being conducted
what are the requirements to remain current as a commercial pilot?
flight review in aircraft for which pilot is rated within preceding 24 months

3 takeoffs and landings 90 days

at night 3 t&l to full stop



what class medical is required for commercial pilot
2nd class medical-good for 12 months
what documents must be on board aircraft?
A-airworthiness
R-Registration
O-Operating Handbook
W-Weight and balance


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