Glossary of Oral Anatomy- ALL TERMS

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A small cell or cavity, hence a tooth socket, alveolus dentalis
portion of tooth covered with enamel
Anatomic crown
a division into 2 parts, as any two roots of a tooth
an accessory cusp often noted on the lingual surface of the maxillary molar mesiolingual cusp
Carabelli’s cusp
a relatively broad deep angular valley in the central portion of the occlusal surface of a molar
Central Fossa
a small cusp or tubercle on the lingual face of the tooth
a narrow or constricted portion of a tooth in the region of the junction of crown and root
Cervix (pl. cervices)
a line formed by the junction of enamel and cementum (CEJ)
Cervical line
of or pertaining to a crown; applied by some to the occlusal surface
that region of the mesial or distal surface that touches the adjacent tooth in the same arch
Contact area
the portion of crown visible in oral cavity
Clinical crown
the ridge or tubercle on the lingual face of the tooth near the gingival
Cingulum (pl. cingula)
that portion of the tooth covered with enamel, which is normally visible in the oral cavity. See anatomic and clinical crown
the sinous cusps or enamel ridges on the molars of herbivore; a projecting ridge or structure
a pronounced elevation on the occlusal surface
elevations which extend in a mesial and distal direction from cusp tips. They form the buccal and lingual margins of the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth.
Cusp Ridges
calcareous bodies which serve the purposes of teeth; a concretion which develops in the dental pulp as a part of the aging process.
marks the fushion areas between adjacent cusps and other major parts of a tooth
Developmental groove
a “V-shpaed” space between the proximal surfaces of two adjoining, contacting teeth
a cleft or crevice in a tooth surface resulting from the imperfect fusion of the enamel of the adjoining cusps or lobes
a passage perforating hard tissues that transmits either vessels and
or nerves
Foramen (foramina)
a shallow depression or concavity on the surface of the tooth (see central f, lingual f, triangular f)
Fossa (fossae)
the region of a multi-rooted tooth where the roots divide
a shallow, linear depression on the surface of a tooth (see supplemental g, developmental g)
The incisal portion of an anterior tooth.
Incisal Ridge
A division of a tooth crown formed from a distinct point of calcification.
A broad, shallow depression on the lingual surface of an incisor or canine.
Lingual Fossa
A rounded or conical prominence on the incisal ridge of a newly erupted incisor.
Elevated crests which form the mesial and distal margins of the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth, and the lingual surfaces of the anterior teeth.
Marginal Ridges
A place in which something is nurtured
Nidus (pl. Nidi)
A depression extending longitudinally on the mesial or distal surface of a root
Proximal root concavity
An elevated crest comprised of the triangular ridge of the distobuccal cusp and the distal ridge of the mesiolingual cusp.
Oblique ridge
A sharp depression usually located at the junction of two or more developmental grooves or at the termination of a single developmental groove.
The narrow area of the pulp chamber within the root. (Root canal).
Pulp canal
The expanded cavity within the tooth that contains the pulp.
Pulp chamber
A liner elevation on the surface of a tooth.
See pulp canal.
Root canal
The portion of a tooth covered with cementum and normally embedded in the alveolar process.
That portion or a multirooted tooth between the cervical line and furcation of the roots.
Root trunk
A fold or crease. The irregular ridges of the membrane of the palate.
Ruga (pl. rugae)
A small sac or cyst.
An elongated valley in the surface of a tooth formed by the inclines of adjacent cusps or ridges which meet at an angle.
An indistinct liner depression, irregular in extent and direction that does not demarcate major divisional portions of a tooth.
Supplemental groove
The triangular ridges of a buccal and a lingual cusp that join to form a more or less continuous elevation extending transversely across the occlusal surface of a posterior tooth.
Transverse ridge
A shallow depression on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth located within the confines of the mesial or distal marginal ridges.
Triangular fossa
Prominent elevations, triangular in cross-section, which extend from the tip of a cusp towards the central portion of the occlusal surface of a tooth.
Triangular ridges
A division into three parts or branches, as the three roots of a maxillary first molar.
A small elevation on the crown of a tooth possibly by excessive accumulation of enamel.
the bone-like covering of the root
calcified tissue that comprises the bulk of a tooth. It is covered by the harder enamel and softer cementum
the hard substance composed of 90% hydroxyapatite, and 6-8% calcium carbonate covering the anatomical crown of the tooth
the fibrous and mucous tissues that surround the teeth and cover the alveolar Tissues
the gingival; the soft tissue around the tooth
The bone forming the lower jaw and supporting the inferior teeth.
The bone supporting the superior teeth and forming part of the orbit, hard palate and the nasal cavity.
The collective term for both the mandible and maxilla.
The soft tissue surrounding a tooth.
The soft tissue within the pulp cavity consisting of connective tissue containing blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics.
toward the front of the body
the junction of 2 or more surfaces
the terminal end or tip of the root
toward the apex of the root
the contact relationship of the occlusal surfaces of the teeth during jaw movement
pertaining to the longitudinally (long) axis of the tooth
next to or toward the cheek in posterior teeth
toward the cheek
from the posterior tooth surface facing the cheek to that facing the tongue
junction of enamel and cementum; cervical line (CEJ)
Cementoenamel Junction
away from the median line
the surface of the tooth facing away from the median line following the
curve of the dental arch
Distal surface
relating to the distal and buccal portion of the tooth
relating to the distal and lingual portion of the tooth
the labial and buccal surfaces collectively
Facial surfaces
The cutting edge of the anterior teeth, particularly the incisors.
Incisal Surface
Between adjoinging surfaces; the proximal surfaces.
Next to or toward the lips; of, or pertaining to the lips.
From the anterior tooth surface facing the lips to the surface facing the tongue.
The surface of an anterior tooth positioned immediately adjacent to the lip.
Labial Surface
That angle formed by the junction of two surfaces along a line, e.g., the mesiobuccal angle.
Line Angle
The surface of a tooth which faces the tongue; opposite of the facial surface.
Lingual Surface
Next to or toward the tongue; pertaining to the tongue.
Toward the median line.
The surface of a tooth facing toward the median line following the curve of the dental arch.
Mesial Surface
From the surface facing the midline to the surface facing away from the midline following the arch curvature.
A line passing through the center.
To bring the mandibular tooth into contact with the maxillary teeth.
Toward the biting surface of a posterior tooth; pertaining to occlusion.
The surface of a premolar or molar contained within the marginal and cusp ridges.
Occlusal surface
The relation between the incising and occluding surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth when they are shut; Any contact between the incising or masticating surfaces of the teeth.
The angle formed by the junction of three surfaces at a point, e.g. the mesiolabioincisal angle.
Point angle
The surface of a tooth that faces toward an adjoining tooth in the same arch, i.e., the mesial or distal surfaces.
Proximal surface
Imaginary divisions of a tooth crown or root as to length (i.e., occlusal, middle, and gingival thirds) or mesiodistal breadth (i.e. mesial, middle, and distal thirds).
the result of the initial splitting of the eocone as theorized in the premolar-molar analogy theory.
having the upper molars unlike the lower in size and pattern
fusion of teeth to the jaw bones in some animals, rarely in humans
even-toed ungulates ex. Cattle, hog, sheep, deer
A lack of similarity in shape or size between two parts
having ridges of crests on molar crowns
the length of the root exceeds that of the crown
the tooth crown supports low rounded cusps
Bunodont tooth
long bladed premolars and molars especially P4/M1 of the carnivore
flesh eating mammals
the structural union of like parts, as the coalescence of the root
having a depressed or hollow surface
a union of previously separate parts; uniting of teeth by cementum only
shaped like a cone
to come together
bulging outward
having the form of a cross, cruciform
Crucial or cruciate
Triassic reptiles that possessed some mammal-like features of skull and teeth
having teeth
finely notched or serrated; having small teeth
Denticulate, Denticulated
having two sets of teeth
bearing or supporting teeth; supplied with teeth; also containing teeth, as a dentigerous cyst
the distolingual cone or cusp of the talonid of the mandibular molars
the first, single coned tooth observed in prehistoric reptiles according to the premolar-molar analogy theory
hinged, as the jaw articulation of the carnivore; a joint that allow motion around an axis
pertaining to the jaw cheek
attachment of the teeth by implantation in a bony socket or alveolus
having undivided or simple tooth crowns in the shape of a single crown
an animal whose diet consists principally of plants
having teeth that are morphologically different
having teeth that are morphologically the same
the distolingual cusp of maxillary molars
the distobuccal cusp of mandibular molars
the distal cusp, the fifth cusp of mandibular molars
Having maxillary and mandibular teeth of the same size and pattern.
Isognathous –
Having the crowns of the teeth formed in transverse or longitudinal crests or ridges, as in the herbivore.
Lophodont –
The distobuccal cone or cusp of the maxillary molars.
The distolngual cone or cusp of the primitive mandibular molars, becoming mesiolingual due to the loss of the paraconid cusp in the Primates.
Metaconid –
Small, intermediate cusp between the metacone and the protocone of the maxillary molars.
Metaconule –
Having only one set of teeth
Monophyodont –
The study of the shape and structure of an organism
Morphology –
A tooth crown having many tubercles or cusps
Multitubercular –
Deviating from square by having one long dimension.
Oblong –
A description of the teeth.
Odontography –
The mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary molars.
Paracone –
The mesiolingual cusp of mammalian mandibular molars. (This cusp has been lost in primates).
Paraconid –
Odd-toed ungulates such as the horse, tapir, rhinoceros.
Having multiple lophs or cusps.
Polylophodont –
Having multiple sets of teeth.
Polyphyodont –
Leaning or extending forward; like the incisors in Insectivores.
Procumbent –
The lingual cusp of a maxillary premolar, the primitive reptilian cone or cusp of a maxillary tritubercular molar, i.e., the lingual cusp or the mesiolingual cusp of a maxillary molar.
Protocone –
The primitive buccal cusp of a mandibular premolar; the primitive reptilian cone or cusp of a mandibular tritubercular molar, or the mesiobuccal cusp of a mandibular molar.
Protoconid –
Having four tubercles or cusps.
Quadritubercular –
Having five tubercles or cusps.

Ruminantia or Ruminants - Artiodactyl animals that chew the cud, as oxen, sheep, goats, deer, and others.

Sectorial tooth – The cutting tooth of the Carnivora - a long-bladed premolar or molar; a ca
Quinquetubercular –
Artiodactyl animals that chew the cud, as oxen, sheep, goats, deer, and others.
Ruminantia or Ruminants -
The cutting tooth of the Carnivora - a long-bladed premolar or molar; a carnassial tooth.
Sectorial tooth –
To cut as with a pair of scissors.
Shear –
Having longitudinal crescent shaped ridges, as a molar tooth of the Artiodactyla (ox, deer, sheep, hog, etc.).
Slenodont –
Having the same shape or size on both sides.
Symmetrical –
The distolingual prominence or heel of a maxillary molar crown, bearing the hypocone, or distolingual cusp.
Talon –
The heel, or distobuccal portion of a mandibular molar crown, upon which may develop the entoconid, the hypoconid and the hypoconulid.
Talonid –
Persisting alveolar sockets that are independent of the presence or teeth, as in crocodiles and alligators.
Thecodont –
See triconodont.
Tribosphenic –
Having three cones or cusps in a linear arrangement, the central one the largest.
Triconodont –
Jurassic animals, unmistakably mammals, which show a triconodont condition of the molars.
Triconodonta –
The arrangement of the first three cones or cusps of a maxillary molar (Metacone, Paracone + Protocone).
Trigone –
The arrangement of the first three cones or cusps of a mandibular molar (Protoconid, Paraconid + Metaconid).
Trigonid -
Having three tubercules or cusps on the occlusal surface.
Tritubercular -
Cut off or terminated abruptly.
Truncate, or Truncated –
A prominent incisor or canine tooth which protrudes some distance beyond the lips, as the tuck of an elephant, narwhale, or a walrus.
Hoofed mammals.
Ungulates –
Teeth attached to the vomer in the roof of the oral cavity of certain fishes, amphibia, and reptiles.
Vomerine teeth –
the incisors and canines
Anterior teeth-
the set of arches formed by the teeth
the curved composite structure formed by the teeth
having 2 cusps; inappropriately used for all premolars
the first tooth posterior to the intermaxillary suture above and its opponent below; preferable to “cuspid”
Canine tooth-
The posterior (distal) 3 teeth in each quadrant of the oral cavity in homo sapiens
Molar teeth
the molars and premolars, posterior teeth
Cheek tooth-
One of the cutting teeth in humans; the most anterior (mesial) teeth in the jaw.
Incisor –
the natural teeth considered collectively in the dental arches
the first set of a series of teeth that are replaced by a permanent set
having a cusp or point; inferior term for canine teeth
The premolar and molar teeth.
Posterior teeth –
The set of teeth that replace the first (deciduous) set of teeth in humans.
Permanent teeth –
The 2 teeth anterior (mesial) to the molars in homo sapiens; mistakenly termed the bicuspids
Premolar tooth –
One quarter of the oral cavity, i.e., the maxillary right and left quadrants and the mandibular left and right.
Quadrant –
Sectorial or cutting teeth.
Secodont –
Those permanent teeth that succeed or take the places of the deciduous teeth.
Succedaneous –
the clenching or grinding of the teeth
physiological wearing of a tooth caused by mastication
recurrence of a peculiarity of an unknown ancestor
Attivism; Atavistic-
unusual variations in position, number and conformation of dentition
failure of the teeth to form
tooth wear that is the result of non-masticatory movements
the loss of deciduous teeth after the physiological resorption of the roots
the loss of tooth substance by non-bacterial chemical action
a supernumerary tooth found to the distal of the molars
abnormal curvature of the crown or root
Dilaceration –
a space between 2 adjacent teeth in the same dental arch, especially the space between the upper lateral incisor and the canine in the carnivora or; in humans, a space between the maxillary central incisors.
Diastema (pl. diastemata)-
the flattened area of enamel or dentin produced by wear
the condition of excess teeth; supernumerary teeth
Having long teeth; a marked elongation of the crown or body of the tooth; a marked elongation of the cusps.
Hypsodont (Hypsodonty) –
partial absence of teeth
The most common supernumerary tooth usually appearing between the maxillary incisors.
Mesiodens –
Relatively large teeth (generalized); a large single tooth; also occasionally referred to as “megadont”.
Macrodontia –
Flattened areas on interproximal surfaces that result from wear.
Interproximal Contact Facets –
An unknown cause.
Idiopathic –
The development and formation of the teeth.
Odontogenesis –
Absence of many teeth.
Oligodontia –
Having an abnormally small tooth or teeth.
Microdont –
Having medium-sized teeth.
Mesodont –
A tooth with a large pulp chamber in relation to the crown
Taurodont –
Having more than the usual number (of teeth).
Supernumerary –
A supernumerary found to the buccal or lingual of the molars.
Paramolar –

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