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Glossary of OBGYN FINAL

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Created by huffmajl

A short cord measures less than:
25 cm
A complex adnexal mass most likely represents:
pyosalpinx
a neural tube defect characterized by the lack of development of the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and cranial vault. This abnormality is incompatible with life.
anencephaly
With endovaginal sonography, te earliest appearance of a normal intrauterine gestational sac should be seen with a serum beta hCG above:
2000 mIU/ml
With endovag. sono, the earliest appearance of a normal intrauterine gestational sac should be seen with a serum beta hCG above:
500mIU/ml
This occurs when the kidney is locaed on the oppostie side of its ureteral orific
crossed renal ectopis
predicors of discordance growth of twins include all excet which of the following:
a difference in biparietal diameter of 10 mm or greater
Sonographic findings in sequestration include all except which of the following:
commonly occurs below the diaphragm
Coiling of the umbilical cord:
toward the right has a higher incidence of fetal anomalies
Which statement about fetal age is false:
measure femur length on femur furthest from transducer
This term indicates the fetal head is toward the fundus of the uterus:
breech
A condition in which the fetus is not growing as fast as normal is termed;
Intrauterine growth restriction
anencephaly is an example of
multifactorial
stuck twin syndrome usually manifests between
16-26 weeks
Cranial anatomy is routinely visualize after which gestational week?
12 -14 weeks
The right of self determination describes:
autonomy
at birth, the mortality rate for diaphragmatic hernia is
high
the gold standard for determination of amniotic fluid volume is
the dye dilution technique
calculating a macrosomic index can be performed by
sub. the biparietal from chest circumfience
which statement about gestational sac is false
blood tests shouldbe positive 7 to 10 hours after conception
the normal lenth of the umbilical cord measures:
40 to 60 cm
frontal bones of the cranium that collapse forward describe
lemon sign
the placenta performs all except which of the following functions:
absorption
which statement about the umbilical cord is false?
the persistance of the left umbilical vein is rare
the most common site for a leiomyoma to occur is:
intramural
ectopic pregnancy most commonly occurs in the
fallopian tube
the uterine anomaly most frequenty associated with a high incidence of infertility is
septate uterus
the cavity in which the fetus exists is the
amniotic cavity
sono findings of severe micromelia, decreased or absent ossification or the spine, macrocephaly, and mircrognathia describe
achondrogenesis
the first site of rbc\'s that will nourish the embryo is the primary
yolk sac
assessing amniotic fluid volume using the sum of the 4 quadrants is called:
amniotic fluid index
What is the discipline that seeks to articulate clear and practical guidelines for conduct character?
ethics
the fallopian tubes are evaluated by sonography/saline to determine
patency
a vein of galen malformation is
a sporadic event
an aneurysm of the galen vein
a rare arterovenous malformation

corpus luteum cysts regress adn typically are not seen beyond
16-18 weeks
complications of placenta previa include all except which of the following:
post partum hemorrhage
irregular acyclic bleeding is defined as
metrorrhea
which measurement is devised to determine the normality of the fetal head shape?
cephalic index
which of the following about the ovaries is false?
ovaries are attached at the anterior aspect of the broad ligaments
abnormally heavy or long menses is termed:
menorrhagia
what muscle group may may be seen in the false elvis along the lateral sidewall of hte pelvis?
iliopsoas
persistent oligohydraminos in the second trimester, regardless of the cause carries a
poor prognosis
the best sono correlation in the dianosis of ectopic preg is the comination o f
free fluid and adnexal mass
this lab test indicates pregnancy when the values are elevated
hCG
the most important determinant for fetal viability is
pulmonary development
uterine contractions typically:
resolve in 20 to 30 min
the primary cause of placentomegaly is
maternal diabetes
when measuring the gestational sac, all except which of the following is true
if the sac is ovoid, measurements cannot be obtained
what is caused by cartilage abnormalities that result in abnormal bone formation and hypomineralization?
achondrogenesis
the abnormal circumference is teh
measurement at the level of teh stomach, left portal vein, and left umb. vein
AFP is found in the fetus in all except which of the following:
brain
twin preg. have a ____median AFI than a singleon preg.
slightly lower
the most common lung cyst detect prenatally is
bronchogenic cyst
a critical part of teh process of closing the abdominal wall is
folding
protrusion of the posterior wall of the urinary bladder which contains the rigone of the bladder and teh ureteric orifices is called
exstrophy of the bladder
using an endovaginal approah, the first structure visualized within a gestational sac is the
secondary yolk sac
which of the following about neck teratomas is incorrect?
usually located posteriorly
a condition in which both ovatrian and testicular tissues are present is
hermaphroditism
twin to twin transfusion syndrome
is an arteriovenous shunting within placenta

the recipient twin may demonstrate polyhydramnios

both twins are at risk of dying



a sonographer can minimize thermal effets by
not staying in one spot
in early pregnancy, the gestational sac size grows at a rate of
1 mm/day
what sono finding confirms the presence of a diamniotic preg
membrance that separtates the fetuses
what sono finding confirms the presence of a diamniotic pregnancy?
membrane that separates the fetuses
what statement about meiges syndrome is false
it is associated with theca lutein cysts
ultrasound is able to determine all except which of the following?
exact date of delivery
an AFI of 7cm is considered:
within lower limits of normal amniotic fluid volume
which of the following statements about microcephaly is incorrect?
microcephaly is an abnormally large head
an s/d ration of the umbilical artery can be used to evaluate fetal well being
after 30 weeks gestation
a code of ethics for sonographers has been adoped by the
society of diagnostic medical sonographers
which of the following defects is associated with meckel gruber syndrome?
encephalocele
which of the following anomalies is caused by an alkaline phosphatase deficiency?
congenital hypophosphatasia
sonographic criteria for choledochal cyst include all except which of the following?
decrease in size of a cyst and gb on serial examinations
an ovary is generally considered abnormal if is volume is ____the size of the contralateral ovary
twice
gastroschisis is a consequence of atrophy of the
right umbilical vein
common abnomalities associated with plmonary hypoplasia include all except which of the following
macrosomia
oligohydramnioss is associated with all except which of the following?
gastrointestinal disorders
a coma and seizures in the second and third trimester patient secondary to pregnancy induced hypertension is
eclamsia
the most common malformation of the midgut is
meckels diverticulum
S/D ratio cannot be measure when:
diastolic flow is absent
the sonographer providing a detailed explantation of the exam is an example of teh
respecting autonomy
the presence of a pleural effusion may cause
a shift of the mediastinal structures
the ovary receives its primary blood supply from the
ovarian artery
before embryo transfer into the uterus, the oocytes are fertilized and incubate for
48 to 74 hours
the success rae of GIFT and ZIFT are app. ___per cycle
35%
the success rate of gift and zift are app
25%
this indicates teh liver is on right, stomach on left, adn heart apex on left
normal situs
when evaluating the fetal spine, it is important to align the transducer
in a perp axis to spinal elements
normally fetal bladder empties ever
60 min
herniation of an omphalocele is covered by a membrance that consists of
amnion and peritoneum
the development of conjoined twin occurs wehn the division of the egg occurs:
13 days post conception
failure of the anterior abdominal wall to close compleely at the level of the umbilicus describes:
umbilical herniation
which statement about the fetal face is false
maxilla and orbits are well imaged in a true sag plane
which of the following statements about a single umblilical artery is false
right umbilical artery is absent more often than the left umbilical artery
the fetal urinary bladder becomes sono apparent at
10 to 12 weeks
what is the appearance of overlapping of the skull bones indicating fetal death
spaldings sign
an infeciton that involves the fallopian tube and teh ovary is called
tuboovariann abcess
cervical mucus is evaluated by the postcoital test within
24 hours
after birth, the ductus venosus turns into the
legamentum venosum
the optimal gest. age for measurement of NT is
11 to 13 weeks
in the second trimester, guideliness recommend images fo the fetal head include all except which of the following?
sylvian fissure
the ethical prin. that determine the timing of a routine sono exam is
autonomy and justice
beyone 20 weeks of gest. a renal pelvis is considered abnormal when measuring greather than:
10mm
implantation of the blastocyst in the the endometrium occurs at :
7-9 days after ovulation
an embryo is a developing individual from implantation to the end of the
10th gestational week
sono criteria for a simple ovarian cyst include all except which of the following
posterior shadowing
a condition associated with anencephaly in whcih there is comlete or partial asence of the cranial bones is called
acrania
this muscle is best imaged in a transverse plane with a caudal angulation at the most superior aspect of the bladder
levator ani
the derivative of the hindgut include all except which of the following
cecum
what is an infection within the fallopian tube called
salpingitis
a hemorrhage located between the gest sac and the placenta represents
subchorionic hem
sig maternal risk factors for IUGR include all except which of the following? sig hypotension
the fusion of the chorion and amnion occurs between
the fusion of the amnion and chrion occurs between:
16 and 17 weeks
a congenital condtion characterized by decreased mineralization of teh bones is
osteogenesis imperfecta
which one of the following describes situs inversus
heart on right; liver on left; spleen on the right
cause of double bubble sign include all except which of the following:
choledochal cyst
the most common congenital anomaly of the face is
cleft lip
the size and shape of the normal uterus are related to all except which of the following
family histoy
what is a psychological phenomenon ivolving blocked intentions, plans adn projects
suffering
a fetus with dilated loops of echogenic bowel should be evaluated for all except which of the following
duodenal atresia
the term for a mltiple preg within one chorionic sac is
monochorionic
the prognoisis for gastroschisis is
excellent
the chorion around the gest sac on teh opp side of implantation is teh
chorioin laeve
fetal interests in sono are understood exclsively in terms of
beneficience
if omphalocele adn scoliosis are fund in the fetus, what anomaly
limb body wall syn.
all except which of the following statements are correct about a true knont of the cord?
it does not affect mortality rate
a postterm preg is defined as a gest age of
42 weeks or more
cord prolapse problems can be produced during all except which of the following obstetric procedures
velamentous insertion
placental insertion encroaching upon the lower uterine segment is termed
placenta previa
velamentous umbilical cord insertion is associated with all except which of the following
large for gest. age
The term that describes a group of conditions in which ydrops is present in the fetus but not a result of fetomaternal blood group incompatiblity
nonimmune hydrops
The blastocyst typically enters the uterus
4-5 days after fertilization
Which statement about infertility is false?
infertility affects one in three couples in the us
The normal diameter of teh fetal small bowel is less than or equal to
5mm
Which of the following anomalies is associated with micromelia and a hitchhiker thumb?
diastrophic dysplasia
which of teh following is the most likely diagnosis when multiple fxs and compressible calvarium are identified
osteogenisis imperfecta
false knots of an umbilical cord
occur when the blood vessels are longer than the cord
a small endocrine structure that develops within a ruptured ovarian follicle and secretes progesterone and estrogen is a
corpus luteum cyst
sono signs of polyhydraminos include all except which of the following
amniotic fluid index greater than 15 cm
scars within the uterus, secondary to previous gynecologic surgery are called
synechiae
extensive facial screening may be hindered by all except which of the following
polyhydramino
uterine arteriovenous malformation
involves the myometrium
which of the following statements abut the fallopian tube is false
tube is best seen transabdominally
the purpose for certification:
experiance to perform
skills to perform
knowledge



amount of amniotic fluid is refulated by all except which
fluid exchange within heart
which of the following anomalies is associated with the Amish
ellis van creveld syndrome
the crown rump length measurement may be used up to the ___gestational week
12
the normal amniotic fluid index should range between
5 to 22
the following sonographic findings of increased nuchal thickening, shortened femurs, cardiac anomalies, and pyelectasis may be found in
trisomy 21
in transabdominal scanning a normal gestational sac can be consistently demonstrated when the beta hCG level is
1800
the distinction of the large bowel from the small bowel is possible as early as
24 gestational weeks
haustral folds can be found within teh
colon
which of teh following demonstrates enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts, abdominal ascites, and pleural effustion
ovarian hyperstiulation syndrome
normally the primitive diaphragm is intact by the end of the
8th gest. week
a ____cyst occurs when a dominant follicle does not succeed in ovulating and remains actie although immature
follicular cyst
the normal fetal lungs appear on ultrasound as
homogenous with moderate echo
teh superficial layer of glans and stroma of the endo is called
the zona functionalis
the endo should be measured from
hyper to hyper
an abnomal protrusion of the eyeball is
exophthalmia
a group of lethal skeletal dysplasias characterized by bowing of long bone is
camptomelic dysplasia
what is a physiologic phenomenon involving teh cns processing of tissue damage
pain
hydrometra appears sono as
a sonolucent fluid collection in the uterine canal
AFP is produced in early gestation by the
yolk sac
teh pelvic recess between the anterior bladder wall and the pubic symphysis is
space of Retzius
which statement about the embryo heart rate is false
early development has heartrate over 190
the total number of pregnancies is called
gravidity
which of the following signs are characteristic of arnold chiari malformation
banana lemon
the urteric bud gives rise to all except which of the followning
bowman capsule
the most common adnexal mass found during early pren is a
corpus luteal cyst
the diameter of normal yolk sac should never exceed
6mm
renal agenesis, oligo, pulmonary hypoplasia, abnormal facies, and malformed hands and feet may be found in:
potters
congenital bronchial atresia is fund most commonly in the
left upper lobe
which of the following is associated with a cloverleaf skull
tanatophoric dysplasia
truthfulness with respect to abilities and limitations is an example of
veracity
normla sonographic appearance of the fetal chest include all except which of the following
lungs serve as medial borders to heart
normal size fo menarchal uterus should be
8 by 4 cm
transposition of liver and stomach, absence of gb, multiple spleens, and disruption of ivc describes
polysplenia
adherence to moral and ethical principles is called
intergrity
attachment of the placental membranes o the fetal surface of the fetal surface of the placenta descibes:
circummarginate placenta
whch of the following is not an ethical issue
family traditions
a common condtion in which funtioning endometrial tissue is present outside of the uterus is
endometriosis
because of low density of brain tissue, the texture of the brain may appear
hypoechoic
ovarian carcinoma is classidfied into four stages. Stage 11 is
limited to pelvis
the spleen is visualized on a trasverse plane just
posterior and left to stomach
sono findings of PID include all except which of the following
endometriosis
when evaluation the infertile pt. in addition to assessing structural anatomy the sonographer should evaluate the
endometrium
a fetus with partial situs inversus demonstrates the
stomach on the right, heart on the left
an acquired condition with ovstruction of the cervical canal is most likely a result of
cervical stenosis
evaluation of the fetal abdominal wall demonstrated evisceration of the bowel to the right of the umbilical cord. This is most rep of:
gastroschisis
the function of the hCG is to:
maintain the corpus luteum in early pregnancy
what refers to a persons capacity to formulate express and carry out value based preference
autonomy
a 3 day post partum woman complains of intense pelvic pain. Sono the uterus appears hypoechioc with irregular endo. This is most likely
endometritis
the fetal orbits should be measured
in a plane slightly caudal to BPD
which of the following is the most common nonlethal skeletal dysplasia
achondroplasia
when fetal pleural effusion is enountered a careful search of the
diaphagm
app ___% of all pregnant women in the us are examined with sono?
65
the placenta of the macrosomic fetus can become:
significantly large
teh normal maternal serum alpha fetoprotein value varies with
gestational age
a high or superumbilical omphaocele is usually the primary finding in
pentalogy of cantrell
all except whicch of the following findings are seen in hydronephrosis
renal enlargement
polyhydraminos is defined as an amniotic fluid volume greater than
2000ml
a common reason for elevation in maternal serum AFP is
incorrect dates
which of the following does not describe sono features of a right sided diaphramatic hernia
the stomach lies superior to the diaphragm
amniocentesis may be used for all except which of the following?
prediction of cardiac anomalies
the single most useful biometric parameter to assess fetal growth is
abdominal circuference
simple ovarian cysts in postmmenopausal women are not likely malignant when measuring less than
5
which of the following statements about cleft lip and palate is false
a complete bilateral cleft lip and palate is a small gap in the left upper lip on modified coronal view the nose is flattened and widened
the structure that lies above the uteroovarian ligament, round ligament, and tuboovarian vessels is the
fallopian tube
what forms early in gestation adn surround the embryo
amniotic cavity
dilation of teh entire ventricular system including the 4th vent is associated with
spinal defects
a gestational sac in which teh embryo fails to develoop describes
blighted ovum and anembryonic pregnancy
the differential consideration of anencephaly include all except whihc of teh following
arachnoid cyst
an isolated unilateral cleft lip defect comonly originates
on the left side of the face
skeletal and central nervous system congenital anomalies in infants of diabetic mothers include all except which of the following
macrocephaly
cleft lip with or without cleft palate is seen more frequently in
native americans
a dominant follicle grows at a rate of
2 to 3
this structure carries oxygenated blood from teh umbilical v. to the ivc
ductus venous
an early noninvasive means of assessing the risk of aneupleuidy is
nuchal transluceny
the permanent kidneys arise from teh
metanphros
common anomalies coexisting with gastroschisis include
none
a mature follicle typically is ____cm n size right before ovulation
2.0
fetal anatomy may be assessed accurately after ____menstrual weeks
18
using the maximum vertical depth method of assessing amniotic fluid volume
a pocket between 2 and 8 cm is norm
karyotype results can be processed within 2 to 3 days with this test
cordocentesis
a defect in the lower abdominal wall and anterior wall of the urinary bladder is
cloacal estrophy
normal lateral vent is less than
10
the abdominal circumference on a transverse view is measured at the level of all structures except which of the following
fetal kidneys
the presence of one or more accessory lobes connected to the body of he placenta by blood vessels is
succenturiate placenta
which of the following statements about a pseudogestational sac is false?
a pseudogestational sac is eccentrically located within the endometrium
which of the following is not a parameter of a biophysical profile
fetal swallowing
peritoneal calcifications are noted in a 30 week fetus. This may represent
meconium perionitis
protrustion of the brain from the cranial cavity is called
a cephalocele
a group of disorders tat have in common the coexistence of omphalocele, macroglossia, and visceromegaly is the
Beckwith Wiedmann syndrome
geststational age can best be prediceted from the
binocular distance
the most common cause of uterine calcification is
myomas
the most common sono finding in endometrial carcinoma
presents with abnormal thickening of the endo cavity, usually presents with irregular bleeding in perimenopausal and postmenapausal
which of the following shunts blood away from the lungs
the ductus arteriosus
the most likely cause of bilateral hydronephrosis in the fetus is
bladder outlet obstruction

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