Glossary of Nutrition Exam #2

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what is the purpose of a carbohydrate?
to provide our bodies with energy/fuel
what are the simple carbohydrates?
complex carbohydrates?
simple = sugars (monosaccharides + disaccharides)
complex = starches, fibers + polysaccharides
these have the same numbers and kinds of atoms, but differnt structure, they are simple sugars
name the 3 monosaccharides
this is the main monosaccharide that goes to the brain and it is blood sugar
this is a monosaccharide that is the sweetest of all, it is used as a sweetener
this monosaccharide is one found in dairy products, it is usually always connected with a glucose
these are 2 monosaccharides linked together
how are the monosaccharides linked together to form a disaccharide?
through condensation (with water)
how are Disaccharides broken down?
through hydrolysis during digestion
what are the 3 disaccharides?
what 2 monosaccharides make up a maltose?
glucose + glucose
what 2 monosaccharides make up a sucrose?
glucose + fructose
what 2 monosaccharides make up a Lactose?
glucose + galactose
this disaccharide is referred to as table sugar
this complex carb contains many glucose units and other monosaccharides strung together
this polysaccharide is how humans store their glucose(energy)
how do plants store glucose?
as starch
what is a starch?
a long chain of glucose molecules
humans energy source?
plants energy source?
how do humans use starches?
we eat them and our bodies break them down it glucose molecules
this polysaccharide is the structural part of plants
why can't humans digest fibers?
because the bonds between the monosaccharides of fiber cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes
this fiber is a part of plant cell walls, and made of glucose molecules
where is fiber found?
vegetables, fruits, legumes
how is fiber used in food processing?
as an anti-caking, thickening, or texturizing agent
this is found in cereal fibers, made of various monosaccharides
what does hemicellulose have?
some soluble fibers
these are also found in fruits and vegetables, and are made of various monosaccharides
how are pectins used in food processing?
added for thickness, texture, and consistency
these are secreted by plants when they are cut
gums and mucilages
how are gums and mucilages used in food processing?
used as additives, and food stabilizers
(guar gum, arabic gum)
this has a tough structure and cannot be digested by humans at all
where is lignin found?
in seeds, and woody parts of veggies
what are the soluble fibers?
gums, pectins, mucilages, and some hemicelluloses
what foods can i eat to get soluble fibers?
fuits(mainly apples and citrus)
what are the insoluble fibers?
cellulose, some hemicellulose, lignin
what foods can i eat to get insoluble fiber?
wheat and corn bran
whole grain bread and cereals
vegetables such as cabbage carrots and brussel sprouts
which fiber is used for weight management?
why is soluble fiber used as a form of weight management?
because soluble fiber slows down transit of food through the digestive track, which means it takes longer for food to pass (you feel full longer)
why is soluble fiber good for diabetics?
because it slows down glucose absorption
whcih fiber helps lower cholesterol?
what does the liver use to make bile?
how does soluble fiber help to lower cholesterol?
soluble fiber binds up with bile, so the bile is excreted from the liver to go meet up with soluble fibers-when this happens your liver needs to make up more bile to replace the bile that just left, so it has to use more cholesterol to make more bile- when it uses this cholesterol to make more bile, your cholesterol level is lowered :0
does insoluble fiber also speed up the digestive tract?
yes it does
which fiber adds bulk to stools?
insoluble fiber is also good for diabetics- how?
it slows down the breakdown of starches (which slows down the blood sugar, helping keep a balanced blood sugar level)
which fiber promotes bowl movement?
how much fiber should we consume daily on average?
25-35% fiber daily
what diseases do fibers help with?
colon cancer
what can happen if one eats too much fiber?
-intestinal discomfort and distention
-mineral absorption interferance
-it displaces energy and nutrient-dense foods
where does the carb digestion start?
in the mouth
what does the mouth do?
crushes food and moistens with saliva
what salivary enzyme is in the mouth?
what does amylase do?
hydrolyzes starch to polysaccharides and maltose
how does food get to stomach?
by way of the esophagus
what is swallowed food called?
once bolus is in the stomach what inactivates the salivary amylase?
the hydochloric acid
when the hydrochloric acid inactivates teh salivary amylase what is it doing?
haulting starch digestion
since soluble fiber cannot be digested what does it do in the stomach?
delays gastric emptying
acidic juice turns this bolus into
where is the chyme going after the stomach?
into the small intestine where most of absorption takes place
once in the small intestine how do the polycsaccharides get broken down into shorter glucose chains and disaccharides?
pancreatic amylase enters into the small intestine from the pancreatic duct
after the polysaccharides are broken down, what then works on the disaccharides?
enzymes on the outer membranes of intestinal cells
what do the enzymeson the outer membranes of the intestinal tract break the disaccharides down into?
maltose goes down to glucose + glucose
sucrose goes down to glucose+fructose
lactose goes down to glucose+galactose
what enzyme ont he outer membrane of intestinal cells breaks down the maltose?
what enzyme ont he outer membrane of intestinal cells breaks down the sucrose?
what enzyme on the outer membrane of intestinal cells breaks down the lactose?
what happens after the enzymes break down the disaccharides?
the monosaccharides are absorbed by the intestinal cells
in the small intestine, fiber is once again not digested and it can
delay the absorption of other nutrients
what happens to all the rest of the stuff in the small intestine??
it goes to the large intestine
what happens with the fiber in the large intestine?
insoluble fibers
-hold water which softens stool
-regulates bowl movement

soluble fibers
-are digested by bacterial enzymes and turn into gas and fatty acids
what happens to some of the undigested fibers?
once fermented, they generate short-chain fatty acids and then some calories are reabsorbed back into the body
so how many k/cals may some fibers have?
1.5-2.5 kcals
how much CHO (carbs) are reccomended daily??
where is some glucose absorbed?
where is most glucose absorbed?
through the small intestine by active transport
where is galactose absorbed?
in the small intestine throughactive transport
how is fructose absorbed?
by facilitated diffusion
from the intestine, where are fructose and galactose taken?
to the liver
what happens to the fructose and galactose once they arrive in the liver?
they are converted to glucose
what is excess glucose stored as?
where is glycogen stored?
liver and muscle
how much glycogen is stored in the liver and muscle?
liver = 1/3
muscle = 2/3
where is the first place the body will take glycogen from?
the liver
what happens when blood glucose falls?
the liver releases glucose into the bloodstream
what is the primary energy source for the body?
what are the things that only glucose can provide?
energy for brain cells, nerve cells and developing red blood cells
out of the 2000 calorie daily value how many grams should we be getting from carbs?
225-325 grams of carb
if one's diet is inadequate in CHO, what can be used?
fats and proteins
how can proteins be used?
they can be converted into glucose
how are the proteins converted to glucose?
by gluconeogenisis
how are the fats used?
they are broken down
what does broken down fat cause the formation of?
ketone bodies
what are ketone bodies?
the product of incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is unavailable
when there are too many ketone bodies what happpens?
there is a disturbance of acid base balance in the body
what is ketosis?
a disturbance of the acid base balance in the body caused by too many ketone bodies
in order to prevent ketosis, what is the minimun number of grams we should consume of CHO?
min. 50-100 grams CHO daily
what happens if we consume too much CHO?
excess glucose is stored as glycogen, and once glycogen capacity has been reached in teh liver and muscle, the extra energy is stored as fat
how much fat can we store?
an unlimited amount
this type of Diabetes was refered to as "juvinile diabetes"
Type 1 diabetes
why is type 1 refered to in this way?
b/c it was mainly a type of diabetes that was genetic and started at a younger age
what makes insulin hormones?
beta cells in the pancreas
what do beta cells in the pancreas also make?
what does glucagon do?
it stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood
what is the # 1 cause of Type 1 diabetes?
when the pancreas fails to make insulin
what is done to treat type 1 diabetes?
taking exogenous insulin along with a CHO controlled meal plan, exercise, and monitoring one's blood sugar level
what is Type II diabetes refered to as?
"adult onset" diabetes ( but can also have effect if one is overweight)
these 2 are the causes under type II diabetes
resistance to insulin
the liver secretes too much glucose
what is the treatment for type II diabetes?
-CHO controlled meal plan
-stress management
-monitoring one's blood sugar level
What is low blood sugar reffered to as?
who gets Hypoglycemia?
this may occur with people who have diabetes, but is rare in healthy people
what is the treatment for Hypoglycemia?
-eating smaller, more frequent meals
-balancing medications,diet,exercise,and blood sugar monitoring
what is auto-immune?
when the body attacks oneself (it's own beta cells)
what type is auto-immune associated with?
type 1 diabetes
what type of insulin is usually taken with type 1 diabetes?
and injection of insulin
when you have diabetes what happens to your risk of stroke?
it is increased, you are 2-4 times more likely to have a stroke when you have diabetes
what is the leading reason of blind adults?
damage to one's eyes from diabetes
what are the damaging effects of having too much blood suagr?
it damages the eyes and the kidneys
what can excess weight contribute to?
insulin resistance
what can a sedentary lifestyle contribute to?
insulin resistance
age contributes to obesity
stress brings on a higer blood sugar level
what 2 things increase blood sugar
stress and food
what decreases blood sugar?
exercise and medication
what is a skill taught to diabetics?
carbohydrate counting
what would an example of carb counting be?
eat 1/3 of your daily carb at breakfast, 1/3 at lunch, and 1/3 at dinner
what are teh questions under "glycemic effect of food"?
-how quickly glucose is absorbed after eating
-how high blood glucose rises
-how quickly blood glucose returns to normal
is the Glycemic effect of food useful?
the usefulness is questionable
cause of lactose intolerance?
born with high level of lactose at birth, but it declines through childhood and adolescence
where is the deficiency of lactose intolerance most common?
in asians, african americans, and native americans
what can cause temporary lactase deficiency?
certain diseases
what are the symptoms of lactose intolerance?
abdominal discomfort
what are some treatment options for lactose intolerance?
-take lactase enzymes
-avoid dairy
-drink lactaid milk (contains lactase enzyme in it)
what are the nutritional concerns of people with lactose intolerance?
-vitamin d
how many decayed teeth does the average U.S. child have?
what acts as a buffer for teeth?
saliva (b/c it has the right ph)
what are 2 cariogenics?
starches and sugars
what are the 3 things that determine hoe cariogenic starches and sugars really are?
- composition
- frequency/exposure
- sequence
explain composition
sticky food vs. foods easily cleared away
explain frequency/exposure time
slowly sipping on soda
explain sequence
eating milk and cheese may minimize acid effects and restore lost enamel
what is the most cariogenic?
what foods should we get our daily carb amounts from?
whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, lowfat or skim milk
how much sugar is suggested daily?
limit sugars to less than 10% or less of total kcals
who told us to limit our sugars to less than 10% daily?
World Health Organization
What are the 4 sugar substitutes?
acesulfame K
what is Saccharin?
sweet n low
how many calories is saccharin(sweet n low)? how many times more sweet than sugar?
0 cal
450 times more sweet
how long has saccharin been in the U.S. ?
100 years!!
what is Aspartame?
equal or nutrasweet
how many calories is Aspartame(equal)? how much sweeter than sugar?
4 cals per gram
200 times sweeter
what is Acesulfame K?
sweetone or sunnett
how long has Acesulfame K (sweetone,sunnett) been around?
since 1980
what is Acesulfame K found in?
pepsi one
what is sucralose?
how many calories in Sucralose (splenda)? how much sweeter??
0 cal
600 times sweeter
when was sucralose (splenda) put out?
1998 by FDA
what sugar substitute gets bitter when heated up?
Saccharin (sweet n low)
what sugar substitue maintains sweetness when heated ( making it ideal for baking with )??
Sucralose (splenda)
which sugar substitute is safest according to the Center for Science and Public Interest?
Sucralose (splenda)
which sugar substitute was tested for safety by using rats and giving them large amounts of it, which caused bladder cancer?
Saccharin (sweet n low)
why is Saccharin (sweet n low) safe for the most part?
b/c a human would no way near exceed they extreme amount of sweetener they fed the rats... it would take a lot for a human to be effected by the Saccharin (sweet n low)
name the 3 types of lipids
what type of fat is in 95% of foods
what 2 foods may have some trans fats naturally?
milk and fats
in what type of fat is every C linked to H
in what fat is there one spot like this C=C-(NO H here)
mono unsaturated fat
in what fat is there something that looks like this (2 places)C=C-(no H)
C=C-(no H)
poly unsaturated fat
what type of fat is body packed fat?
name some foods that contain fats
nuts +seeds
mayo(eggyolk and oil)
grain(small amount)
cream cheese
milk,yogurt,ice cream
what fats are hydrogenated?
trans fats
what makes up the triglyceride?
1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
what 3 elements make up lipids?
what type of fatty acid makes up dairy products
short chain fatty acids
what type of fatty acid makes up meat products?
long chain fatty acids
medium fatty acid chains are__________
hard to find
what products are saturated fats?
animal products
saturated fats are more stable and less_____
what type of fats are oils?
unsaturated fats are oils, they have a greater chance of becoming rancid
what can you add to saturated meat fats to prevent them from spoilage?
unsaturated fats are mostly
saturated fats are mostly
whta do you add to foods to make them more shelf stable
in an omega 3 fatty acid where is the 1st point of unsaturation?
at the 3 carbon in the chain
in an omega 6 fatty acid where is the 1st point of unsaturation?
at the 6th carbon in the chain
what is margarine made of?
liquid vegetable oils (unsaturated fats)
why is margarine better to buy in the tub?
b/c there is less oil, more water and air whipped in ( there is less trans, sat and un sat fats total)
what makes up a fatty acid?
chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms with methyl group at the end(CH3)
memorize table 5-6 on page 146
memorize table 5-6 on page 146
this is similar to a triglyceride, in that it has 1 glycerol but only 2 fatty acids
are phospholipids soluble in fat?
phospholipids are very
because the phospholipid has the phosphate group what can it do?
be soluble in fats
what can phospholipids act as?
emulsifyers in foods
what food contains phospholipids?
what is found in eggs, liver, soybeans, wheatgerm, peanuts?
how many cal per gram is lecithin?
9 cal/g
these are parts of the cell membrane in the body(outside the cells)
can phospholipids travel across the cell membranes?
how are the phospholipids helpful in the cells?
they allow hormones that are based on fat to get in and out
all cell membranes need ____
where does our lecithin come from?
the liver makes all that we need
why can lecithin be marketed as a fat loss product?
b/c it has emulsifying qualities
in the phospholipid, it has 1 gycerol, and 2 fatty acid, what makes up for the missing fatty acid?
a phosphate group
how do phospholipids act in food?
as emulsifyers (lecithin)
phospholipids help keep fats
suspended in blood and body fluids
these are ring shaped CHO
where are sterols found?
animal and plant based foods
what is the best known sterol?
where is cholesterol found?
only in animal products
what makes the cholesterol we need?
our liver
name some other sterols besides cholesterol
bile acids, sex hormones, adrenal hormones, vitamin D
what are the 2 reasons for high cholesterol?
-we eat too much of it
bile acids, sex hormones, adrenal hormones, and vit. D are important_________
body compounds as sterols
what is the cholesterol called that is made by our liver?
endogenous cholesterol
what is the cholesterol called that we eat from animal products?
exogenous cholesterol
this type of fat is -hydrogenated, shelf stable, and used in lots of baked goods
trans fats
trans fat is just as bad as
saturated fats~!
trans and sat fat raise our
LDL cholesterol
99 % of our bodies is
this enzyme plays a small role in the digestion os fats
lingual lipase
where is lingual lipase released from?
the toungue
this hydrolizes one of the fatty acids of the triglyceride
gastric lipase
where is the gastric lipase found?
in the stomach
after the triglyceride leaves the stomach what is it?
a diglyceride
where is most the fat digested?
in the small intestine
what hormone does fat in the small intestine trigger the release of?
what does cholecystokinin trigger the release of?
it signals the gallbladder to release bile
the bile that is released is used as an
what does bile do?
draws fat into fluids
fat encounters lipase enzymes from ____ and ________
pancrease and small intestine
at the end of fat digestion in the small intestion we are left with
digestion breaks down lipids into_________
fatty acids
what happens to teh short and medium fatty acid chains?
they are absorbed directly into the blood stream through the intestinal cells
what happens to long chain fatty acids and monoglycerides?
they become micelles
these are spheres of emulsified bile and fats
micelles are soluble in watery digestive fluids
micelles are soluble in watery digestive fluids
micelles move into intestinal cells where
monoglycerides and long chain fatty acids are made into new triglycerides
what are these new triglycerides called?
what are chylomicrons?
triglyceride and protein
where are chylomicrons released?
into the lymphatic system
where do the chylomicrons go after they are in the lymphatic system?
they enter the bloodstream for travel around the body
what does the same job as the chylomicron?
what does a lipoprotein act as?
a transport vehicle
what is a lipoprotein?
a cluster of lipids with protein
what does the lipoprotein transport?
lipids through lymph and blood
this transports triglycerides around the body
as the chylomicron travels around the body, what happens?
the cells grab bits as they need it and in the end teh chylomicron is shrinked down
when the chylomicron is shrunk at the end what happens to it?
the liver can get rid of it
what is another transport vehicle?

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