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Glossary of Nutrition Chapter 3

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Created by mstapleton

Digestion:
the process by which foods are broken down into their component molecules either mechanically or chemically
Absorption:
the process of taking molecules across a cell membrane and into cells of the body
Elimination:
the process by which the undigested portions of food and waste products are removed from the body (Large Intestine, Rectum, Anus)

Heartburn


caused by hydrochloric acid in the esophagus
Celiac disease:
Intolerance for gluten (a protein in wheat, rye, barley)
Causes damage to small intestine
Leads to poor absorption of nutrients
Potential genetic component




Appetite:
A psychological desire to consume specific foods
Food is connected to sense of taste
Food stimulates other senses: sight, smell, touch, and hearing



Hormones:
chemicals produced in cells that travel in the bloodstream to targets in other parts of the body
Digestion: The Cephalic Phase
Earliest phase of digestion
- Brain thinks about digestion
- Brain prepares digestive organs for food



Digestion: The Mouth
- Mechanical digestion/ chewing: breaks food into smaller pieces
- Chemical digestion/ digestive juices:
Saliva: secreted for salivary glands
Moistens food
Contains salivary amylase (an enzyme)
Salivary amylase breaks up some carbohydrates






Digestion: The Esophagus
- Food moves to the stomach by peristalsis (wave of squeezing and pushing contractions that move food in one direction through the GI tract)
Digestion: The Stomach
- Mechanical digestion: stomach churns (mixes food)
Chemical Digestion: Gastic Juice
- Hydrochloric acid (HCL)
- Pepsin (enzyme that digests protein)
- Gastic lipase (enzyme that digests fat)
- Mucus (protects stomach lining)






Hunger
A physiological sensation to eat

Triggered by the hypothalamus- "full stomach"

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