Glossary of Nutrition- Chapter 9: Energy Balance

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Overfatness of a moderate degree; defined as a body mass index (BMI) of ____ through ___.
overweight; 25.0 through 29.9
Too little body fat for health; defined as having a body mass index of less than ____.
underweight; 18.5
The progressive, relentless loss of the body's tissues that accompanies certain diseases and shortens survival time.
In the year 2000, ____ percent of people were defined as being _______.
64 percent; obese
An indicator of obesity or underweight, calculated by dividing the weight of a person by the square of the person's height.
Body mass index (BMI)
Apple shape is associated with _______ ________ and is associated with men than women.
central obesity
Pear shape is associated with ___________ ___ and is associated with women.
subcutaneous fat
Excess fat in the abdomen and around the trunk.
central obesity
Fat stored directly under the skin.
subcutaneous fat
3 indicators that influence health related to obesity:
1. BMI reflect how healthy weight is
2. Waist circumference reflects the degree of risk for heart disease
3. Fitness of lungs and heart
BMI range for "Underweight?"
18.5 or less
BMI range for "Normal?"
BMI range for "Overweight?"
BMI range for "Obese, Class I?"
BMI range for "Obese, Class II?"
BMI range for "Extremely obese, class III?"
40 or greater
Change in energy stores = energy in - energy
Change in energy stores equals food energy taken in minus energy spent on metabolism and muscle activities.
Too lose or gain a pound of body fat, you need to be at a deficit or excess-
3500 kcal/week
To lose one pound a week-
500 kcal/day deficit
There are 3 primary factors that account for our energy needs.
1. BMR- this is the base rate at which we burn energy at complete rest
2. Voluntary Activities- really only makes up about 35% of energy needs
3. Thermic effect of food
The body's speeded-up metabolism in response to having eaten a meal; it's a 5-10% increase in our energy need to digest, absorb.
Thermic effect of food
Most of our energy needs come from
BMR, unless you're a professional athlete.
What are 5 things that help with weight loss?
1. Main thing you can do to increase BMR= increase lean body tissue.
2. Increase muscle with strength building exercise
3. Endurance exercise helps burn kcal thus can help lower your fat stores.
4. Both types of exercises are complimentary.
5. No known supplements can safely increase your BMR.
BMR declines with _____.
Fasting and starvation ______ ______.
lowers BMR
BMI has two major limitations:
1. It does not indicate how much of a persons weight comes from fat. It does not measure body composition.

2. It does not indicate where the fat is located.
These limitations make using BMI inappropriate for certain types of people:
1. Athletes
2. Pregnant and lactating women
3. >65 years old due to height loss
Measurement of the thickness of a fold of skin on the back of the arm, below the shoulder blade, or in other places, using a caliper.
Fatfold test
A measure of density and volume used to determine body fat content; most accurate.
Underwater weighing
A technique for measuring body fatness by measuring the body's electrical conductivity; not as accurate.
Bioelectrical impedance (conductivity)
What is the ideal % body weight?

Women? Men?
Women: 20-30%

Men: 12-20%
__________ ___ __________ are clearly more powerful determinants of how likely it is that one will become obese.
Environment and personal choice
Any macronutrient (fat, pro, cho) eaten in excess will be
converted to fat within hours
Weight gain in ADULTS is primarily attributed to 3 things:
1. Increase in Body Fat can be caused by a) eating more kcal than you expend as energy; b) overconsumption of fat, less energy to convert fat to fat, more calorie dense; c) low levels of physical activity encourages fat accumulation
2. Fluid shifts: a) re-hydration after exercise or sleeping; b) increased fluid volume due to Na intake
3. Increased lean body mass which is mostly from muscle due to exercise
Losing weight, lose no more than _______ per week. That is a Kcal deficit of about ____________.
0.5-1% per week; 250-500 per day

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