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Glossary of Normal Female Pelvis

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Created by huffmajl

For a transabdominal scan, what transducer is needed?
3.5 to 5.0
For Transvag, what is necessary and what type of probe?
empty bladder and 7.5 to 10
____is behind bladder and in front of rectum
vagina
Name parts of the external landmarks anterior to posterior
-clitoris
-urethral opening
-vagina
-anus


anterior to urethra and hidden within labia
clitoris
between vagina and labia
urethral opening
False pelvis (_____)
greater or major pelvis
the false pelvis is located ___the iliopectineal line
above
(oblique plane from sacrum to symp. pubis)
False pelvis has how many bones? LIST
4 2 inominate
sacrum
coccyx

true pelvis (_____)
minor or lesser
True pelvis is located ____the iliopectineal line
below
Muscles of False pelvis.
psoas major
iliacus
Muscles of true pelvis.
piriformis
obturator internus
coccygeus
levator ani(pelvis floor)


piriformis (muscle of true pelvis) is located on the
posterior lateral wall
the obturator internus (muscle of true pelvis) is located on the
anterior lateral wall
the coccygeus (muscle of true pelvis) is located
posterior to pelvic floor
parts of bladder:
apex and base
the apex of bladder is located
posterior to pubic bones (most ant)
the base (part of bladder) is located
anterior to vagina
the ____cross anterior to iliac arteries
ureters
The ureters cross ___to iliac arteries, ____to ovaries and ut arteries, _____to vagina, and enter ___bladder at trigone
anterior, posterior, anterior lateral, postinferior
when are urerters normally seen?
not normally seen unless compressed
causes of compression
pregnancy
fibroids
ov masses

vagina extends ___ to __
ext. geni. to cervix
the vagina is ____to bladder/urethra
posterior
the vagina is ____to rectum
anterior
the vagina is ___to cervis
90 degrees
The vagina is ___cm in length
9
In the vagina, there are 4 archlike recesses where the cervix forms called ___
fornices
arterial supply to vagina
vag. and ut arteries
within the vagina, venous drainage,
int. iliac vein
The vagina is the
pathway of products of menstruation
pear shaped largerst organ in pelvis
uterus
uterus size during menarche
6-8 cm long x3-5 AP width
Size of uterus varies with ___and ___
age and parity
parts of uterus
fundus- widest most superior
lower end uterus, isthmus

____or ____is based on isthmus

anteverted or retroverted
2 parts of cervix
endo-inside
exo-outer, continous with vagina
constrictions with cervix
internal os-upper end
external os-lower end
uterine layers
perimetrium-outer, serosa
myometrium-middle, muscular
endometrium-inner layer

2 layers of endometrium
zona functionalis- superficial
zona basilis-deep basal layer
(shed with menses)

uterine ligament that is uterus to pelvic sidewall, lateral
broad
uterine ligament

encloses fallop tube

mesosalpinx
uterine ligament

fold of broad, encloses ov

mesovarium
uterine ligament

hold ut forward

round
2 uterine ligament

supports cervix

cardinal and uterosacral
lateral ov to pelv sidewall

uterine ligament

suspensory
uterine ligament

lateral ov to pelv sidewall

suspensory
medial from ov to uterine cornua

uterine ligament

ovarian
average uterine positions is ___and ___
antevert and anteflex
cervix is 90 degree angle or less with vag. most common position, forward angulation
antevert
body and fundus are folded forward on cx
anteflex
entire ut is tilted posteriorr
retroverted
fund and body folded back on cx
retroflexed
ut is shifted to right
dextro
ut is shifted to left
left
abnormal dropping of ut if muscles are weak
prolapse
fallopian tubes are _cm long; ____mm diameter
10-12; 1-4
fallopian tubes extend from ___of uterus
cornua
fallopian tubes curve over ___
ovary
fallopian tubes are ___to uteroova ligament, round ligament, tuboova lig.
superior
fallopian tubes are supplied by___ and ____
ov arteries and veins
4 parts of fallopian tubes
infundibulum
ampulla
isthmus
interstitial


most lateral, overlies the ovary has fimbrae

part of fallopian tube

infundibulum
longest part , fertiliz occurs here

fallopian tube part

ampulla
fallopian tube part

hardest, ust lateral to uterus

isthmus
fallopian tube part

pierces uterine wall at cornua

interstitial
ovaries are ___shaped
almond
ovaries are ___to uterus at level of cornua
posterior
ovaries are ___cm long in menarche
3
ovaries are ___to internal illiac, and ___to ext illiac
anterior and medial
ovaries get blood flow from
ov arteries and ut artery
ovaries are drained by
ovarian vein
ovaries produce the
ovum
ovaries produce 2 hormones
estrogen and progesterone
estrogen is secreted by
follicles
progesterone is secreted by
corpus luteum
progesterone is responsible for what 3 things:
gender characteristics
prepare ut for implanting fertiliz ovum
deve. of mammary glands

3 layers of ovaries:
cortex- outermost
medulla-inner
tunica albungia- innermost

uterus is supplied by
uterine artery
brances of uterine artery
arcuate vessels
radial arteries
spiral and straight
spiral




outer third of ut myometrium

branches of ut artery

arcuate vessels
from myo to endo

branches of ut artery

radial arteries
supply zona basalis

branches of ut artery

spiral and straight

supply zona functionalis

branches of ut artery

spiral
average days of menstrual cycle
28 days
occurs less than 21 days
polymenrrheic
prolonged over 35 days
oligomenorrheic
prepuberty, premenses
premenarche
after puberty having menses
menarche
cessation of menses
menopause
absence of menstruation
amenorrhea
painful periods
dysmenorrhea
abnormally heavy or long
menorrhagia
in follicular development/ovulation. What happens
one of the two ovaries releases an ovum monthly; normally midcycle ovulation occurs; alternates 200,000 oocytes at birth;
ovulation is regulated by
hypothalamus
releases gonadotropin releasing hormones at puberty
hypothalamus
Pituitary then releases ____
gonadotropin
____causes 5-8 follicles to develop first 14 days of cycles (from menses start) yet only one matures.
FSH
1-13 days
Follicular Stage
14 Day
Ovulation
name of a mature follicle (2 cm)
graafian follicle
_____then inhibit FSH and LH kickss in
High estrogen levels
LH rises ______hrs prior to ovulation
24 to 36
LH surge ____before ovulation
10-12hrs
WHen LH 10-12 hrs. before ovulation triggers ovulation
the release of ovum from ruptured graafian follicle
Ovulation is assoc with
post cul de sac fluid
Mittelschmertz is german for
middle pain
Days 15 -28
luteal phase
which phase does not vary in length
luteal
which phase?

cells in ruptured graafian multiply and form corpus luteum or yellow body

luteal phase
which phase?

secretes progesterone

luteal
produced by corpus luteum
progesterone
If fertilization occurs, ___will remain and release progesterone to maintain preg. up to sixteen weeks
corpus
endometrial changes vary according to
estrogen and progest.
3 phases of endometrial
menstrual
proliferative
secretory

phase of endometrium lasts up to 5 days
menstrual
days 1-14(3 line phase)
proliferative
thin endo
increasing estrogen causes lining to thicken
ovulate on day 14

proliferative
15-28; luteal phase; endo thickens
secretory
menstrual phase- sono app. of ut
fluid debris in endom
sono appearance of ut in early proliferative
thin line
sono app. of ut. in mid proliferative
three line
sono app. of ut

near oulation

endom is iso with myometrium
sono app. of ut. secretory phase
after ovulation, thickest, brightest endo, post enhancement
endometrium variants

IF on BC, post menopausal

endom. is thin, echogenic

post. not on hormone should have endom. Less than 5mm

Post meno. on HRT or tamoxifen can have thickness up to 8



vesicouterine recess or ant cul de sac
ant to fund. beteen bladder and ut
post to ut, ant to rectum, pouch of douglas
rectouturine recess
retropubic space between ant bladder and pub, symp.
space of retzius
peritoneal pelvic recesses

anterior to fund., between bladder and ut

vesicouterine recess ant cul de sac
peritoneal pelvic recesses

posterior to ut, ant to rectum
also known as pouch of douglas


rectourine recess or post cul de sac
peritoneal pelvic recesses

retropubic space,between ant bladder and pub. symp.

space of retzius

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