Glossary of Neuro Exam 3 Fall 04
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- Reinforcing properties of cocaine in experimental animal can be mimicked by electrical stimulation of:
a. prefrontal cortex
d. medial forebrain bundle (and/or nucleus accumbens)
- d. medial forebrain bundle (and/or nucleus accumbens)
- The subjective reasons for continuously using cocaine as reported by the subjects are the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. feeling of strength.
b. feeling of self-confidence.
c. escape from feeling of depression.
- e. escape from hedonia.
- The molecular mechanism for enhancing the dopamine syapse by cocaine is due to:
a. blocking the enzmatic breakdown of dopamine.
b. blocking the D2 post-synaptic receptor.
c. blocking the dopamine reuptake transporter.
- c. blocking the dopamine reuptake transporter.
- One of the paradoxical effects is that intermittent use of cocaine can lead to:
e. Parkinson's disease
- a. sensitization
- The sensitization of cocaine can be blcoked by:
a. ACh blocker
b. GABA blocker
c. NMDA blocker
d. NE blocker
e. 5-HT blocker
- c. NMDA blocker
- Cocaine sensitization is mediated by the glutamate system via the following processes. Which of the following is NOT one of these processes?
a. dopamine is released in the VTA (ventral tegmental area).
b. It stimulates the release of glut
- e. It stimulates the GABAergic neurons to inhibit the nucleus accumbens.
- The "crash" phase of cocaine-abstinenece syndrome usually lasts for:
a. 15-30 min.
b. few hours.
c. few days.
d. few weeks.
e. few years.
- a. 15-30 min
- Characteristics of the crash phase include the following except one? Which is the exception?
d. intense craving
- e. nausea
- The characteristics of the "withdrawal phase" of cocaine-abstinence syndrom include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. intense craving for cocaine.
- a. intense craving for cocaine.
- The failure rate of either pharmacotherapy or behavioral therapy to treat cocaine dependence can be indicated by the statistics that only ____ of subjects remain abstinent from cocaine for more than 6 months.
- e. 5-10%
- The characteristics of prenatal exposure to cocaine are:
a. attention deficit.
c. lowered birth weight and smaller head circumference.
d. Parkinson's symptoms.
e. mental retardation.
- c. lowered birth weight and smaller head circumference.
- The neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS) indicated that crack babies grow up:
a. with ADHD
b. with hypertension
c. with Parkinsons's symptoms
d. without any cognitive or behavioral defects
e. without the ability to e
- d. without any cognitive or behavioral defects
- The defining characteristics of ADHD include the following except one. Which is the exception?
c. combination of a and b.
d. inattentiveness (or lack of focus)
- e. hyper-anxiety
- Executive function requires the following cognitive skills except one. Which is the exception?
a. selective attention
e. emotional expression
- e. emotional expression
- Working memory is:
a. the same as photographic short-term memory
b. dynamic memory used to hold temporary information in order to accomplish a task
c. the same as long-term memory
d. the emotional memory triggered by association
- b. dynamic memory used to hold temporary information in order to accomplish a task
- Which of the following is NOT one of the five functions requiring working memory to accomplish?
c. sense of time
- e. pleasure
- Focusing attention requires not only selective attention to the relevant events, but also
a. inhibition to irrelevant events
b. emitional response
c. motor activation
d. imagination or hallucination
e. hormonal influence
- a. inhibition to irrelevant events
- Which part of the brain is involved in processing executive functions, selective attention and working memory?
a. basal ganglia
d. prefrontal cortex
- d. prefrontal cortex
- Behavioral symptoms of ADHD include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. short attention span.
b. low frustration tolerance.
d. impulsively turn attention to almost everything int he environment.
- e. insomnia
- The behaviroal symptoms of ADD-RT (residual type) include the following except one. Which is the exception?
e. difficulty with work or inter-personal rela
- d. delusion
- The co-morbidity disorders often co-exist with ADHD include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. anxiety disorder
b. Tourette's syndrome
c. reading disability
d. conduct disorder
- e. psychosis
- The neuropathology of ADHD from PET or fMRI imaging studies indicates there is a decrease in metabolism in
a. pre-frontal cortex and basal ganglia
- a. pre-frontal cortex and basal ganglia
- The psychophysics assessment test for impulsivity to resolve a conflict between the color and meaning of a word is called
a. stop task test
b. tower of Hanoi game test
c. fluency task test
d. Stroop test
e. reaction-time te
- d. Stroop test
- ADHD patients often perform with _____ in the stop task test compared to normal subjects.
a. shorter reaction time
b. longer reaction time
c. the same reaction time
d. longer attention period
e. shorter attention period
- b. longer reaction time
- The Tower of Hanoi game tests:
a. the reaction time to stop ongoing action.
b. association skills with multiple objects
c. the ability to plan with intermediate steps using working memory
d. memory task to remember photographica
- c. the ability to plan with intermediate steps using working memory
- Which of the following drugs is used in the treatment of ADHD?
a. amphetamine or cocain-class drugs
- a. amphetamine or cocain-class drugs
- The molecular action of Ritalin (methlphenidate) is:
a. blocking the dopamine post-synaptic receptor
b. blocking the dopamine authoreceptor
c. blocking the reuptake of dopamine transporter
d. blocking the reuptake of norepinephr
- c. blocking the reuptake of dopamine transporter
- The molecular of action of Strattera is:
a. blocking the dopamine post-synaptic receoptr.
b. blocking the dopamine autoreceptor.
c. blocking the reuptake of dopamine transporter
d. blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine transpo
- d. blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine transporter
- Based on the treatment model of ADHD, the nurochemical hypothesis of ADHD is due to:
a. hyperfunction of dopaminergic/noradrenergic system.
b. hypofunction of dopaminergic/noradrenergic system
c. hyperfunction of glutamergic system
- b. hypofunction of dopaminergic/noradrenergic system
- Bipolar disorder is also called:
c. manic-depressive disorder
e. monopolar disorder
- c. manic-depressive disorder
- Characteristics of schizophrenia include the following except one. Which is the exception?
b. distrubance int the form of thought
c. desturbance int eh content of thought
- e. depression
- The cross-modality association, such as seeing sound or hearing light, is called:
- d. synesthesia
- The most common form of hallucination in schizophrenia is:
- a. auditory hallucination
- The disturbances of emotions in schizophrenia include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. inappropriate emotions
b. no emotion
c. no expresion of emotion such as monotone
d. sudden change of emotions
- e. hallucination
- THe catatonic subtype of schizophrenia is characterized by the:
a. emotional disturbances
b. motor disturbances
c. sensory distubrances
d. memeory disturbances
e. cognitive disturbances
- b. motor disturbances
- The disorganized subtype of schizophrenia is characterized by the:
a. disorganization of emotion
b. disorganization of motor response
c. disorganization of thought
d. disorganization of memory
e. disorganization of sensory
- c. disorganization of thought
- Positive sympotms of schizophrenia refer to the:
a. freeze posture
b. devoid of behavior
c. devoid of thoughts
d. devoid of emotions
e. excessive behavior, thought or emotion
- e. excessive behavior, thought or emotion
- Negaitve sympotms of schizophrenia includes the following abnormalities except one. Which is the exception?
d. lack of behavior, emoition or thought
e. excessive bahavior, thought or
- d. lack of behavior, emoition or thought
- The neuropathology of schizophrenia includes the following abnormalities except one. Which is the exception?
a. neural formation
b. neural migration
d. neural prunin
e. head circumference
- e. head circumference
- Pre-pulse inhibition to startle reflex can be explained by the:
a. neurochemical imbalance.
b. gating hypothesis to filter sneosry input when preceded by a soft tone
c. etiology of ADHD
d. inability to response emotionally
- b. gating hypothesis to filter sneosry input when preceded by a soft tone
- Schizophrenic patients often:
a. respond without any startle in the pre-pulse inhibition test
b. respond with a big startle in the pre-pulse inhibition test
c. fail to respond correctly in the Stroop test
d. respond slower in th
- b. respond with a big startle in the pre-pulse inhibition test
- One of the side effects of typical antipsychotics is:
d. extrapyramidal symptoms
- d. extrapyramidal symptoms
- Lactation is one of the side effects of:
a. typical antisychotics
b. atypical antipyschotics
c. antianxiety drug
- a. typical antisychotics
- The following are the environmental stressors for schizophrenia except one. Which is the exception?
a. emotional negativity
b. critical or emotionality over-involved family climate
c. over-stimulation in social environment
- e. positive family problem solving skills
- Blind pane in the Johari window corresponds to the windown pane that is:
a. known to self and others
b. known to self but not others
c. known to others but not self
d. not known to self of others
e. unknown to anybody
- c. known to others but not self
- The dysphoric moodds in depression include the following except one. Which is the exception?
- e. delusion
- Symptoms of depression include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. diminished interst in all activities
b. fatigue or loss of energy
c. decrease ability to think or concentrate or indecisiveness
- d. paranoia
- Sympotms of mania include the folllowing except one. Which is the exception?
a. infalted self-esteem
b. inflated self-confidence
c. increase need for sleep
d. increase goal-directed activities
e. excessive pleasurable activ
- c. increase need for sleep
- Treatments of depression include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitor)
b. tricycliic antidepressant
c. SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)
- e. anxiolytic
- Examples of executive function disorders include the following except one. Which is the exception?
e. Parkinson's disorder
- e. Parkinson's disorder
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