cueFlash

Glossary of Neuro Exam 1 2

Start Studying! Add Cards ↓

What is neuroscience?
is the study of neurons and the pathways they create
NAME
this is the study of neurons and the pathways they create
neuroscience
Neurons create (1)
pathways
What are some fields of science that are part of neuroscience?(2)
(1)neuroanatomy (2)pathology
What are the differ ways that can study neurosceince? (5)
(1)molecular (2)celluar (3)systems (4)behavioral (5)cogintive
NAME
there are 5 ways to study this: molecular, cellualar, systems, behavioral, and coginitive
neuroscience
What is the molecular approach to studying neuroscience?
is the study of ions and neurotransmitters
NAME
this is the study of ions and neurotransmitters
the molecular approach to studying neuroscience
What is the cellular approach to studying neuroscience?
is the study of differ neuropathways
NAME
this is the study of differ neuropathways
is the cellular approach to studying neuroscience
What do you need neurons for?
chemical synapse
What are (2)types of cells in the NS?
(1)neurons (2)glial cells
NAME
there are two types of these cells here: neurons and glial cells
NS
The NS has two types of cells (1)and (2)
(1)neurons (2)glial cells
What is an ion?
has either a positive or negative charge
NAME
this has either a postive or negative charge
ion
What is molecule?
is 2 or more atoms linked together w chemical bonds
What is the differ btwn a ion and a molecule?
(1)ion-has a postive or negative charge (2)molecule-is 2 or more atoms linked together by chemical bonds
NAME
these are the only cells that can tramsit a nerve impulse
neurons
neurons are the only cells that can (1)
transmit a nerve impulse
What are glial cells?
help neurons by keeping neurotissue together and providing a supportive function
NAME
these help neurons by keeping neurptissue together and providing a supportive function
glial cells
What is the differ btwn neurons and glial cells? (2)
(1)neurons are the main cells (2)glial cells help neurons
nerve impulse is also called (1)
action potential
the (1)is also called action potential
nerve impulse
What is glial cells latin for?
glue
NAME
this is latin for glue
glial cells
Give an example of a pathway?
reflex
Reflex is an example of a (1)
pathway
What are 2 pathways that are used in reflex?
(1)motor and sensory
Explain the pathways when you extend your knee
femoral and motor fibers orginate from the lumboscacral plexus which orginates from the spinal cord in the anterior horn
what nerve supplies the quads muscle expt the rectus femoris?
femoral nerve
What is the behavorial approach to studying neurosceince?
the study of the nervous responses of an organism
NAME
this is the stdy of the nervous responses of an organism
behavoral aprroach to neuroscience
Before you can initiate response you need a (1)
stimuli
What is the cogintive appraoch to studying neuroscience?
study of higher learning functions
NAME
this is the study of higher learning functions
the cogintive approach to studying neuroscience
What are some higher learning functions?(6)
(1)learning (2)memory (3)planning (4)language (5)intelligence (6)writing (7)
What are some examples of glial cells? (5)
(1)astrocytes (2)microgilla (3)schwann cells (4)oligodendrocytes (5)ependymal
WHat are astrocytes?
maintain the Blood brain barrier
NAME
these glial cells maintian the blood brain barrier
astrocytes
What are microgilla?
are phagocytic glial cells
NAME
these are phagocytic glial cells
microgilla
What does phagocytic mean?
refers to engulfing debris
What are Schwann cells?
are glial cells found in the PNS that produce myelin
NAME
these are glial cells found in the PNS taht produce myelin
Schwann cells
What are oligodendrocytes?
are glial cells found in the CNS that produce myelin
NAME
these are glial cells found in the PNS that produce myelin
Schwann cells
How are schwann and oligodendrocytes similar?
they both produce myelin
NAME
these glial cells are similar bc the both produce myelin
(1)schwann cells (2)oligodendrocytes
How are schwann and oligodendorcytes different? (2)
Somtimes People Outwit Cats

(1)schwann cells are found in the PNS (2)oligodendrocytes are found in the CNS
Where are oligodendrocytes found?
in the CNS
Where are the schwann cells found?
in the PNS
What is the myelin sheath?
wraps around and insulate neuron's axons
NAME
this wraps around and insulates neuron's axons
myelin sheath
What is Ependymal?
are glial cells that cover or line inside the ventricles
NAME
these are glial cells that cover or line inside the ventricles
ependymal
WHat does the somatic system?
provides voluntary innervation to the musculoskeletal systems
NAME
provides voluntary innervation to the musculaoskeletal systems
somatic system
When you voluntary chose to move you activate what system?
somatic system
What is the autonomic system?
is the involuntary system that monitors digestion, breathing, and heart rate
NAME
this is an involuntary system that monitors digestion, breathing, and heart rate
autonomic system
(1)and (2)are anatomical classifications of NS
CNS and PNS
What are the anatomical classifications of the NS? (2)
(1)CNS (2)PNS
What are the physical classifications of the NS? (2)
SNS (2)ANS
(1)and (2) are the physical classifications of NS
(1)SNS (2)ANS
SNS and ANS are the (1)class of NS
physical
CNS and PNS are the (1)class of the NS
anatomical
SNS and ANS are part of both (1)and (2)
CNS and PNS
(1)and (2)are part of both the CNS and PNS
SNS and ANS
Can you find nerves in the CNS?
no
nerves are only found in the (1)
PNS
(1)are only found in the PNS
nerves
WHat makes of the CNS?
anything encased in bone including the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord, and cerebellum
NAME
this includes anything encased in bone including the brain stem, spinal cord, and cerebellum
CNS
What makes up the PNS? (3)
(1)12CN (2)31 SN (3)ganglia
NAME
this has 12 CN, 31 SN and ganglia
PNS
How many cranial nerves are there?
12
How many SN are there?
31
there are (1)CN
12
there are (1)SN
31
What is gray matter?
are areas w only cell bodies of neurons that tend to form clusters
NAME
these are areas w only cell bodies of neurons that tend to form clustors
gray matter
What is white matter?
are areas w mylen
NAME
these are areas w mylen
white matter
What is the differ btwn gray and white matter?(2)
(1)gray matter-are areas w only cell bodies of neurons that tend to form clusters (2)white matter-have mylen
in the brain, where is the gray matter?
on the outside
In the brain, where is the white matter located?
on the inside
In the brain, where is white matter located?
on the inside
in the spinal cord, where is the gray matter located?
on the inside
What is the differ btwn where the gray and white matter are located in the brain vs the spinal cord (2)
(1)in the brain, gray matter is on the oustide and white matter is on the inside (2)in the spinal cord, gray matter is on the inside and white matter is on the oustide
What are nuclei?
are clustors of cell bodies in the CNS
NAME
these are clustors of cell bodies in the CNS
nuclei
What are ganglioa?
is a clustor of cell bodies in the PNS
NAME
these are clustors of cell bodies in the PNS
ganglioa
What is the differ btwn nuclei and ganglioa?(2)
(1)nuclei-are clustor of cell bodies in the CNS (2)ganglioa-are clustors of cell bodies in the PNS
NAME
this is the functional unit of the neuron
neuron
What makes of a neuron?(4)
(1)cell body (2)processes (3)dendrites (4)axon
NAME
this consists of cell body, processes, dendrites, and axon
neuron
What are afferent fibers?
convey info into the CNS
NAME
these fibers convey info into the CNS
sensory fibers
Afferent fibers are also called (1)
sensory
(1)fibers are also called sensory fibers
afferent
What are efferent fibers?
transmit info from the CNS to the peripheral structures
NAME
these fibers transmit info from the CNS to the peripheral structures
motor fibers
motor fibers are also called (1)
efferent
(1)are also called efferent
motor fibers
What are interneurons?
they connect neurons to other neurons
NAME
these connect neurons to other neurons
interneurons
NAME
these are non-neuronal cells that provide services to other neurons
glial cells
NAME
these system provides bidirectional communication btwn the brain and smooth muscle, cardic muscle, and gland cells
autonomic systems
NAME
this system transmits info from the brain to skeletal muscles
somatic system
the somatic system transmits info from the brain to the (1)
skeletal muscles
the autonomic system provides bidirectional btwn the (1)and (2)
(1)brain (2)smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland cells
What are (5)main regions of the NS?
(1)peripheral (2)spinal (3)brain stem (4)cerebrellar (5)cerebral regions
The cerebral region contains the (1)
diencephalon and cerebral hemispheres
The (1)region contains the dienceaphalon
cerebral region
CSF fills the (1)
ventricles
(1)fills the ventricles
CSF
What is tract?
is a bundle of axons in the CNS
NAME
this is a bundle of axons in the CNS
tract
What are some other names for tract?(5)
(1)lemincus (2)fasciculus (3)column (4)peduncle (5)capusle
What is gangila?
cluster of cell bodies in the PNS
NAME
cluster of cell bodies in the PNS
ganglia
What is the differ btwn nuceli and ganglia?(2)
(1)nuceli-cluster of cell bodies w in the CNS (2)ganglian-cluster of cell bodies in the pNS
T or F
there are nuceli in the PNS
false
T or F
there are ganglian in the CNS
false
gray matter on the surface on the brain is called (1)
cortex
What is the cortex?
refers to gray matter on the surface of the brain
NAME
this refers to gray matter on th e surface of the brain
cortex
Peripheral nerves have (1)and (2)axons
afferent and efferent
What are (2)main functions of the spinal cord?
(1)to conduct information btwn the peripheral and the brain (2)to process info
NAME
this has two functions: to conduct info btwn the peripheral and the brain to process info
spinal cord
the cord conevys (1)info to the brain and also conveys singals from the brain to control movement
somatosensory
What is the somatosensory system?
conveys info from the skin and musculoskeletal system to areas of the brain
NAME
this coneys info from the skin and musculoskeletal systems to areas of the brain
somatosensory system
the plexus that originate from the upper and lower exterminates originate from the (1)
spine
NAME
this houses vital involuntary functions including RR, digestion, breathing, and alertness
brain stem
What is the brain stem?
this houses the involuntary functions including RR, digestion, breathing, and alertness
how many CN exit from the brain stem?
10 out of 12
How many CN do not exit from the brain stem?
2 out of 12
How are the CN and SN differ?
CN have differ functions while the SN all have similaral functios at differ levels
What is the cerebellum?
coordinates movement such as coordination
NAME
this coordinates movement like coordination
cerebellum
What are the cerebral hemispheres?
provide you with your higher mental functions
NAME
this part of your brain provides you with your higher mental functions
cerebral hemispheres
What are some support systems for the brain?
(1)CSF (2)meninges (3)vascular structures
What is CSF?
modifed version of plasma that tranfsers nutrients and O2 to the brain
NAME
this is a modified version of plasma that tranfers nutrients and O2 to the brain
CSF
What are pendicles?
are large bundles of fibers found in the cerebellum
NAME
these are large bundles of fibers found in the cerebellum
pendicles
What is the vermis?
refers to the "worm" midline that divides the cerebellular hemispheres
NAME
this refers to the "worm" midline that divides the cerebellular hemispheres
vermis
WHat is the epithalamus?
consists primalry of the pineal gland
NAME
this consists primarly of the pineal gland
epithalamus
What does the thalamus do?(4)
relays info to the cerebal cortex (2)process emotional and some memory info (3)intergarte diffterent types of sensation (4)regulate consciousness arousal, and attention
NAME
this relays info to the cerebral cortex, processes emotional and some memory fino, intergrate different types of sensation, and regulates consciousness, arousal, and attention
thalamus
What are some functions of the hypothalamus? (2)
(1)maintains body temperature, metabolic rate, and the chemical composition of tissues and fluids w an optimal functional range (2)regulates eating, reproductive, and defensive behaviors, expression of emotions, growth, and function of the reproductive organs
What is the limbic system?
is involved w emotions and processing of some types of memories
NAME
this is involved w emotions and processing some types of memories
limbic system
NAME
this has limited capacity for healing
CNS
What are the (3)meninges?
(1)dura mater (2)arachnoid mater (3)pia mater
NAME
this has three layer of connective tissue that protects and covers the CNS
menginges
What are the meninges?
are 3 layers of connective tissue that protect and cover the CNS
What is mater latin for?
mother
What is dura latin for?
strong
NAME
this is latin for strong
dura
What is arachnoid latin for ?
spider
NAME
this is latin for spider
arachnoid
What is pia latin for ?
highly vascular
NAME
this is latin for high vascular
pia
THe menginges have (1)btwn each layer
potential spaces that may not be present but can be there
What is the dura mater?
outer layer that is strong bc of elastic fibers
nAME
this is the strong outerlayer of the menginges
dura mater
What is the arachnoid mater?
is middle layer of the meninges that look like spider webs
WHat is the epidural space?
epi=means on top of ...therefore, it is the space btwn the skull and dura mater
NAME
this is the space btwn the skull and the dura mater
epidural space
What is subdural space?
is the space btwn the dura mater and the arachnoid mater that contains CSF
NAME
this is the space btwn the dura mater and the arachnoid mater that contains CSF
subdural space
All of the ventricles communicate through the (1)
cerebral aqueduct
What is the cerebral aqueduct?
is where all of the ventricles communicate
NAME
all of the venctricles communicate through this
cerebral aqueduct
the (1)becomes of the central canal in the spinal cord
central canal
the 4th ventricle becomes the (1)in the spinal cord
central canal
What happens if during development there is a narrowing of the cerebral aqueduct communicate?
the baby gets hydrocepillas
What can cause hydrpcepillias?
when the cerebral aqudect or the other structures that the ventricles communicate to each other become narrowed
What is the circular of Willis?
is the center of vascular structures
NAME
this is the center of the vascular structures of the brain
circular of Willis
iF one artery is blocked branching off from the circle of Willis then(1)
one artery cant get blood to the distal CNS and a stroke of MI occurs
How many venctricles are there?
4
there are (1)ventricles
4
the lateral ventricles are connected to the 3rd ventricle by the (1)
interventricular foramina
What is the interventricular foramina?
connects the lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricles
NAME
this connects the lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricle
interventricular foramina
What are (2)projections found int the dura mater?
(1)falx (2)tentorium cerebelli
NAME
this layer of the meninges has two projections that falx and the tentorium cerebellis
dura mater
What is the falx?
a projection off of the dura mater that seperates the cerebral hemispheres
NAME
this is a projection off of the dura mater that separates the cerebral hemispheres
falx
What is the tentorium cerebelli?
is a projection off of the dura mater that separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum
What is the differ btwn the falx and the tentorium cerebellis?(2)
(1)falx-is a projection off of the dura mater that seperates the cerebral hemispheres (2)tentorium cerebellis is a projection off of the dura mater that separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum
within the projections in the dura mater are (1)
the dural sinuses
Where are the dural sinuses found?
in the projections of the dura mater
What are the dural sinuses?
return CSF and venous blood to the jugular veins
NAME
these return CSF and venous blood to the juglar veins
dural sinuses
dural sinuses drain into the (1)
jugular veins
STOPED HERE
STOPED HERE
NS comes from (1)
ectoderm
What is ectoderm tissue?
is the tissue that the NS comes from
NAME
this is the tissue that the NS comes from
ectoderm
What are the (3)stages of the development of the NS?
(1)preembroyonic (2)embroynic (3)fetal
When does the preembryonic stage occur?
conception to 2 weeks
NAME
this stage of development lasts from conception to 2 weeks
preembroyonic stage
What is the most important event of the preembroyinic stage?
the implanation of what will be the embyro
NAME
the most important event during this stage is the implanation of waht will be the embyro
preembryonic stage
What are (3)kind of tissue that all forms of life start out w?
(1)embryonic disk (2)ectoderm (3)endoderm
After the embyronic disk, ectoderm, and the enderm form, (1)tissue develops
mesoderm
What is mesoderm?
develops into all types of connective tissue
NAME
this type of tissue develops into all types of connective tissue
mesoderm
What happens during the preembroyinic stage? (6)
(1)the fertilized ovum begins cell division moving down the uterine tube and into the cavity of the utereus (2)a solid sphere of cells called blastocyst form (3)the blastocyst implants into the endometrium of the uterus (4)during this process, the inner cell mass develop into the embroynic disk w two layers-the ectoderm and endoderm (5)the embroynic disk expands (6)later, mesoderm forms in btwn the ectoderm and endoderm
What is the blastocyst?
is a sphere of cells that forms during the preembroynic stage
What will happen to the blastocyst later ?(2)
(1)the outer layer will become the fetal contribution to the placenta (2)the inner cell mass will become the embryo
NAME
this is a sphere of cells that forms during the preembroynic stage
blastocyst
NAME
eventually the outer layer of this will become the fetal contribution to the placenta and the inner cell mass will become the embyro
blastocyst
the embryonic disk consists of two layer: (1)and (2)
(1)ectoderm (2)endoderm
What are the two layers of the embroynic disk?(2)
(1)ectoderm (2)endoderm
NAME
this has two layers: ectoderm and endoderm
embryonic disk
(1)forms btwn the ectoderm and endoderm
mesoderm
the central part of the ectoderm will become the (1)
neural plate
the neural plate will invaginate to become the (1)
neural groove
the (1)will invaginate to become the neural groove
neural plate
(1)will eventually become the vertebrae and muscles of the spine
somite
What happens to the somites during development?
eventually they will become the veretrbrae and muscles of the back
NAME
eventually these will become the vertebrae and muscles of the back
somite
When is the embryonic stage of development?
from the 2nd to the 8th week
NAME
this stage occurs from the 2nd to the 8th week of pregrnacy
embroynic stage
List all of the stages of development of the NS in order
(1)preembroynic= conception to 2 weeks
(2)embroynic stage=2 weeks to 8 weeks
(3)fetal stage= end of the 8th week until birth
When does the fetal stage of development occur?
the end of the 8th week until birth
NAME
this stage of development occurs from end of the 8th week until birth
fetal stage
(1)plays in important role in the closing of the neuropores
folic acid
folic acid plays an important role in the closing of the (1)
neuropores

Add Cards

You must Login or Register to add cards