Glossary of Neuro Cortex
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- basically the property of the nervous system that gets things done. eating/walking
- part of brain function that makes us human, thought, contemplation, intuition
- What makes us diffent than lower animals?
- sense of self
prject self into futre
teach and learn lot of info
- How do we know what brain does?
- look at lesions, diseases, animal studies, eeg, pet scans
- PET scan
- functional imaging related to oxygen/metabolic function
- primary motor area
- in precentral gyrus in frontal cortex
- premotor cortex
- another step down from prefrontal cortex. planning for specific movements needed to support a particular action occurs here. after this goes to pons-cerebellum-primary motor cortex
- Primary sensory
- in postcentral gyrus
- Motor vs. sensoy function location in cortex
- motor is rostral while sensory is posterior
- Primary auditory
- in termporal cortex. hear speech
- higher order auditory cortex
- know what is being said
- parietal temporal occicptal association cortex
- actually know what you see
- prefrontal association cortex
- motor activities carried into the future. intution, higher order thinking
- difference is primary sensory cortical areas from lower order animals to humans
- lower ordered animals have a biger primary sensory and motor area. the size of the primary area decreases the higher one goes on the phylogenetic tree bc of the large increae in higher order association areas
- what in cortex makes human differ from other animals?
- frontal association cortex is huge in us, but it decreasees us one goes down phylogenetic tree
- Crebral hemisphere poles
- poles are in contact with bone so named for the bone
1.frontal pole in ant. cranial fossa
2.temporal pole in mid cranial fossa
3.occiptal pole rests on tentrorium NOT in post cranial fossa
- How is cortex divided?
- into sulci and gyri
- Very deep sulci
- what divides cortex into right and left halves?
- longituinal fissure
- what divides brain into the top and bottom halves. It divides frontal/parietal from the temporal lobe
- lateral fissure
- central sulcus
- divides motor from sensory bc it divides frontal and parietal ares
- parieto occiptal sulcus
- seen on medial surface only is is between parietal and occiptal lobe
- Is temporal lobe seen on medial surface?
- not really
- number of sucli in frontal lobe
- what divides ant temporal lobe and post occiptal lobe?
- preoccipital notch
- frontal lobe sulcus
- central sulcus
precentral sulcus in fron
superior and inferior frontal
- what seperates the three frontal gyri
- superior and inferior frontal sulcus
- three gyri of frontal lobe
- superior frontal gyrus
middle frontal gyrus
inf. frontal gyrus
- Subparts of inferior frontal gyrus
- divided into subparts bc language occurs here
1. opercular portion
2. triangular portion
3. orbital portion
- Where is opercular portion of inferior frontal gyrus?
- hidden in insula
- Anterior paracentral lobule
- in medial part of frontal lobe it is posterior to the precentral sulcus and anterior to the central sulcus
- what is directly beneath the superior frontal gyrus?
- cingulate sulcus and beneath the sulcus is the cingulate gyrus
- what is found wi the anterior paracentral lobule?
- motor of lower extremity
- what is medial to olfactory sulcus in the frontal cortex
- the gyrus rectus
- What does parietal lobe contain?
- Posterior gyrus (sensory)
and two lobules, the superior and inferior parietal lobule
- sulcus beneath olfactory tract
- olfactory sulcus medial portion of frontal cortex
- what fissures is the parietal lobe between?
- the lateral fissure and the cenral fissure
- supramarginal gyrus
- in inferior parital lobe it is ascening margin and it surrounds the lateral fissure
- Where is angular gyrus?
- in parietal lobe just anterior and superior to superior temporal sulcus
- what is postcentral gyrus continuous with?
- post paracentral lobule. they contain somatosensory from lower extremity
- What does posterior paracentral lobule surround on lat surface
- surrounds central sulcus
- what divides posterior paracentral lobule from preunceus gyrus?
- marginal branch of hte cingulate sulcus
- two gyrus of inferior parietal lobule
- supramarginal gyrus and anular gyrus
- what is medial bank of precentral gyrus?
- anterior para central lobule contains motor of lower extremity
- medial bak of post central gyrus
- posterior paracentral lobule contains sensory to lower extremity
- most ant portion of occipital lobe
- preocciptiatl notch it seperates precuneus in parietal lobe from cuneus in occiptal lobe
- calcarine sulcus
- t shape in occiptal lobe. it seperates cuneus from lingular gyrus. calcarine sulcus in primary visual info
- what does linular gyrus contain?
- visual association
- primary visual cortex
- calcarin sulcus
- gyrus of temporal lobe
- superior middle and inferior temporal gyrus
- what seperates middle from inferior temporal gyrus?
- inferior temporal sulcus
- what seperates superior from mddle temporal gyrus?
- superior temporal sulcus
- what is superior to superior temporal gyrus?
- lateral fissure
- transverse temporal gyrus
- primary auditory processing and language association center.it is in superior temporal gyrus. it is prminant in LEFT cerebral hemisphere of superior temporal gyrus superior to insula.
- bottom of temporal and parital lobe
- occiptotemporal area
- what stretches from occiptal pole to temporal pole
- occipitotemporal gyrus
- parahippocampal gyrus
- just lateral to uncus. between uncus and collateral sulcus
- most posterior gyrus of brain
- where is rhinal sulcus
- between uncus and temporal pole
- what is collateral sulcus in fron of uncus
- is winds around the front of the uncus as rhinal sulcus
- what divides occipitotemporal gyrus from parahipposcampal gyrus?
- collateral sulcus
- Where are opercular cortical areas?
- buring in lateral fissure
- Descirbe whte matter of cortex
- huge bundles of cortical white matte under the gray matter it is connecting areas
- Area 4
- primary motor cortex
in frontal lobe
very distct layer V
- area 3,1,2
- primary somatosensory area
in temporal lobe
post central gyrus
- area 6
- premotor cortex
- Area 8
- frontal eye fields
on mdial bank of frontal cortex
impt for voluntary gaze
motor cortex so v. prminent V
- Area 44
- motor behavior for larynx and jaw during speec. base of frontal cortex
- Area 45
- imprt for generating words. base of frontal cortex. Area 47 goes with area 45
- damage to area 45
- can vocalize but cannot generate a work bc a pattern generating the word is projected to area 45
- area 41
- primary auditory cortex
- area 17
- primary visual cortex
at calcarin suclus
- area 18 and 19
- 18 surrounds area 17 and 19 surrounds area 18. 18 is a higher visual order. levels of recognition go up the further you get away from area 17
- fibers of cortical white matter
- association fibers go within cortex
Commisural go from one part of cortex to another
Projection fibers leave corex and descend to Basal ganglia or BS
- Two types of association fibers
- short travel from one gyrus to next (example is precentral to postcentral gyrus)
Long go from one lobe to another
- superior longitudinal long associaon bundles
- goes from frontal cortex to occiptal cortex when you see things it makes you think about things
- inferior longitudinal fasicuis
- type of long association bundle. goes from temporal to occiptal lobe
- Uncinate fasiculus
- type of long association bundle. goes from uncus and insula of frontal pole to termporal pole's amygdala. responsible for behavior and components of olfaction
- Arcuate fasiculus
- type of long association bundle. bundle that peals from superior longitudinal to conect the opercular frontal with the superior temporal lobe. connects audiotory to speech.
- cingulum fasiculus
- type of long association bundle. underlies the cingulate gyrus and connects it to the para hippocampus gyrus
- types of long associational bundles in cortex
- superior longitudinal
- describe commissural fibers from cortex
- goes from one cortex to the opposite. two types: homologous and heterologous
- homologous commissural fibers
- go from one area of cortex all the way across the same area on the opposite side
- Heterologous commissural fibers
- frontal cortex goes to sensory or temporal cortex. This has the greatest number of connections within a cortex
- corticofugal fibers from cortex
- leave the cortex and go elsewhere. fibers get into the internal capsule through coronal radiata to form the internal capsule. capsule becomes crus cerebri which passes ponds to pyramids to spinal cord.
- larges targests for cortical porjections fibers leaving the cortex
- baslar pontein n. the second is the basal ganglia
- where does the baslar pons project?
- in opposite cerebellum
- are there any direct coritcal porjections into the cerebellum?
- are there any direct projections from the cerebellum to the cerrbal cortexz?
- no they all go to thalmus first
- cortical efferent pathway
- deep layers of cortex throught internal capsule of gray matter to basal ganglia, thalamus, rednucleus and pretectum of midbrain, reticular formation for face movements, basiclar pontine n., inferior olive, SC
- where does corticospinal tract arise from
- areas 4,3,1,2,6
- 3 types of cortex based upon layers
- 1. archiocortex
part of allocortex
90% of cortex
- cloak or mantle of cereral cortical cells
- how is cortex arranges
- in layers of neurons. kind or weird bc in cortical structures the gray matter is outside and the white matter lies below
- how does cortex form?
- from inside out with multiple layers
- 6 layers of cerebral cortex
- molecular layer
outer granular cell laye
inner pyramidal cell layer
- what does middle cerebral a. off internal carotid supply
- it goes laterally through lateral fissure and sends branches that go to caudate putament and internal capsule called striate a.
- what happens if you block the middle cerebral a.
- loose upper extremity and face control on contralateral side
- what do ant and middle cerebral a. come off of?
- internal carotid
- What does ant cerebral a. supply?
- medial cortex
- what are blood vessels surrounded by?
- arachnoid traelllum. Blood vessels are found is sulcus
- major cell component of cerebral cortex
- pyramidal cells
- what do stellate cells use as NT?
- glutamate bc excitatory
- types of cortical cells
- basket cell uses GABA
pryramidal cell use Glutamate
fusiform cell use Glutamate
stellate cell use glutamate
- projections celss in cortex
- pyramidal and fusiform cells, the rest of the cells in the cortex are interneurons
- six layers of neocortex
- 1.molecular outer
- Describe layer II in cortex (outer granular)
- plays major role in output of cortex along with outer pyramidal cell layer. connects to outer pyramidal cell layer
- describe inner granular layer, layer IV, of cortex
- has granule cells, somatosensory cortex has a v. developed lay IV.
has thalamic projections to go to primary sensory area. input to sensory area. this is where VPL of thalmus projects to
- describe granular cortex
- has big laye IV with pyramidal cells in layer III for sensory
- whats in agraular cortex
- many pyramidal cells in layers III-V for projection
- areas 9/10/11/12
- prefrontal area
- areas 5,7
- somoatosensory association area
- area 23,24
- cingulate area
- most important cortical layer
- layer 4. input layer of cortenx where thalmus projects.
- major output layer of CC
- layer5 goes to basal ganglia, pons, SC, and iferior olive
- what major layer is in primary receptor area?
- layer 4
- prominant layers in precentral gyrus
- lots of big pyramidal cells. layer III and V are predominat here
- Area 22
- auditory association center surrounds areas 41 and 42
- area 44 and 45
- motor speech
- where do cortical association and collosal fibers go to?
- superficail layers
- Where does layer 5 project to?
- outside cortex
- where does layer3 project to?
- outside of cortex or to other side of cortex
- what do superfical 3 layers deal with?
- connections wi coretx itself
- what layers are prominant in association cortex
- supragranular layers
- what layer is prominant in motor cortex
- layer 5
- moment to moment changes in cerebral cortex
- two sites that dopaminergic pathways arise from
- 1. substantia nigra (pars compacta) projects to corpus striatum
2. Vental Tegmental Ara prjects through septum to Medial Fascicular bundle to septum, amygdala, and to frontal lob by the cingulum
- too little dopamin?
too much domapine?
- too little parkinsosn
too much schizo
- oldes has 3 layers limbic hippocampus
- intermediate 3-5 layer associated with olfacion
- new 6 layers 90% of my brain
- ant cerebral a.
- supplies small amt of cortx along longitudinal fissure and all of ant cortex in midsag section. If stoke here causes a sensoimotor deficit in legs only bc of paracentral lobule
- middle cerebral a
- supple the ant and lat (frontal and parietal)surface cortex. lesions here will cause a sensoimotor deficit in the head and arms only
- post cerebral a
- supplies the post and inf cortex (occiptal and bordering parts) and inf temporal cortex. Supples enteire occipital and temporal cortex in midsag. Lesions here effect vision, vestibular sensse, emotion, and memory
- fusiform cell
- afferent cell in cc. appear to be in the infragranular laye and involved in the corticothalmic output
- Noradrenergic pathway in cc
- noraderengic pathways arise from locus ceruleus moves rostrally in medain forebrain bundle and supplies many ares of cortex by cingulum from basal forebran
- what are noradrenergic projections in cortex important for?
- learning and plasticity of the brain
- serotonergic pathway in CC
- serotoergic fibers arise from Raphe nuclei. The ones going to cortex arise from the midbrain and run in the median forebrain bundle and go lots of places
- importance of serotnonin in the CC
- plays role is slee/wake cycle and mood.
Use of SSRI for depression
- Cholinergic pathways
- cholinergic pathways arise in nucleus basalis and septal areas and project via cingulum to cortex and via fornix to hippocampus
- What cells in pons project to the thalmus?
- dorsal tegmental area
- What is cholinergic pathways in CC important for?
- learnging and memory, involved in dementia
- what is most all corticla structure related to
- columsn of cells with similar connecetions
- What is important fo CC columnsto form?
- sensory input during development
- representaion of body in groups of neurons in the NS
- What happens if you suture two finger togerher ? what does this mean?
- receptive fields change to new receptive fields the columns can change from moment to momonet
- difference between primary and premotor parts of cortex
- premotor is association
- What makes your personality and who you are
- prefrontal association cortex
- parietal temporal occipital association cortex
- vision and hearing very important with language
- CNS main purpose
- movement. all activity in NS must be expressed as movement
- where does premotors send info to?
- pons and basal ganglia to motor cortex so movement occurs
- What is localized in the frontal cortex?
- ROSTRAL frontal cortexx is highre order. intuition, imagination future.
- fiber bundle ging from the occipital cortex to the frontal cortex
- superior longitudinal fascisulus os this fiber bundle givesyou some idea as the relationship of highter cortical functions
- prefrontal cortex
- program advanced intended movements
- primarey sensory cortex
- sense of touch, temp discrete movement of limbs. It is contralateral
- parietal association cortex
- behind sensory cortex. sense of who you are.
- Lesion in Right parietal cortex
- hemineglect. causes a person to completely neglect the left side of their body. they take no ownerdhip of that side. wont bathe it, look it, nothing.
- what is lower part of parietal cortex involved in?
- speech and language. What you say comes from the right hemi and how you say it comes from the left hemi
- what is precentral lobule continuous with?
- precentral gyrus and postcentral lobule is continuous iwth postecental gyrus
- visual cortex
- primary visual is 17
18 and 19 are visual association
- temporal lobe and temporal association cortex
- limbic functions. feelings. auditory
- where does the affective component of emotioni come from?
- temporal association cortex and goes to amygdala
- auditory recogingiton centrer
- in temporal lobe. Music is in right cortex and language is in left.
- what is in superior tempoal lobe?
- brocas area
- premotor to speech
- where is vision and short term memory?
- posterior cerebral cortex
- can you talk if damage to broca
- yeah but not intelligently bc it is premotor. plan what you say
- what supplies areas of cortex concerned with lower extremity?
- anterior cerebral a.
- what supplies areas of cortex related to face and upper extremity and language and words?
- middle cerebral a.
- what supplies areas of cortex related to viion, emotion, and memory?
- posterior cerebral a.
- lesion in middle cerbral a.
- increase faxcity(muscle tone) hyper reflexia, gaze parlysis, problem moving eyes in frontal eye field
- broca lesion
- non fluent aphasia. Cant say something and patient knows they cant say it.
- orbital/frontal bilesions
- unstatble emothions
- bilateral lesion of parhip/hip
- no new memories formed this can be cuased by anoxia
- are cortical functions symmetrical?
- NO WAY
- when does laterization occur?
- early and is reinforced by growth, development, and experience
- most obious example of assymentry in cortex
- language. R side is nonverbal language can recognize tone and guesture, this is called procodyy. So lesioin in R side cant understand what others feel.
- What side of cortex does handwrinting? drwing?
- handwriting on L
drawing on R
- Symptoms of right parietal lobe lesion
- ignore left field
loss of recognition of space
loss of prosody. they serioously pay no attention to L side. This differs from L parietal lesion bc with L parietal lesion, you cant talk but know what others are saying
- What causes lateralized verbal language function?
- large plenum on L side for speech recognition
- two components of language functin
- 1. verbal-this is the use and understanding of words spoken or read (this is in L)
2. nonverbal- this is affective part of speech. expressioin, emotion of speech. Prosody. This is in R
- EEG during sleep
- very active bc cortical activigy during sleep is not translated into action bc pons uncouples the circuits
- huge excitatory discharge. it isthe loss of inhibitory circuits
- active process of brain bc brain surpresses stuff
- visual system
- you have temporal visual fields and retinal visual fields. the nasal retinal fields up temporal visula field. If i look at dot, everyghing on my left goes to R cortex and everythng on my R goes to the L cortex. So look at dot to stimulate R and L brains to see what is going on with each
- Macular field
- look at represention of the calcarine sulcus. the maula have a v. large disproportionate representaion. So with sproke, it is ususally macular sparing so you get tunnel vision
- Where is upper visual field
- in lower bank of calcarine
- Where is lower visual fieldd?
- in upper bank of calcarine
- what side of cortex controls L hand? Rhand?
- R cortex controls L hand
L cortex controls R hand
- SIde of brain to process shapes?
- SIde of brain to process workds?
- lesion in L cortex. PU ball. What do you see?
- nothing bec the word ball is in the L cortex
- facial chimera experiemtn
- split brain. Look at the face. man on R, girl on L. look at center. if verbal response, pt sees man because meens R brain problem. If nonverbal response, pt sees woman means L brain problem.
- What functioni is most broadly distributed among cortex?
- angular gyrus
- creates speech
- language cortex
- start in auditory cortex hear
wenickes area integrates it into language, angular gyrus allows us to create speech and read, and motore cortex actulay allows us to say it
- How does language flow/
- FROM SUPERIOR TEMPORAAL GYRUS TO INFERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS VIA ARCUATE BUNDLE
- lesion in arcuate bundle
- you can read and understand language but you cannot make sense and you dont know it called fluent aphaga.
- Lesion in Wernikes
- werknikes aphasia. pt does not understand and they dont know they dont understand. person can form words but they are craxy words. problem in parietal cortex
- conduction aphagia
- arcuate bundle in interrupted. hear words andunderstand and can generate a response but response makes not sense. Pt knows there is a problem
- How does problem in Wernickes and Brocas differ?
- Wernickes is a global disruption of language bc of lesion on parietal cortex. Brocas is disruption of expressive componoent of language bc of lesion in frontal cortex
- loss of task peformance wo loss of movement. Cant write words but can still use hands
- loss of sense. significance is lost.
- Rective Apahsia
- due to Wernickes problem cant understand spoken language but can hear. pt use disordered syntax. no insight to problem
- Expressive Aphasia
- in brocas. halmark is ability to undertand written and verbal but unable to gerate right words. Pt is aware of problem
- brain takes in whole and does not need parts to complete picture
- How are memories moved from transient to permanent place/
- association cortex to hippocampus and back by papez circuit
- How do you lose short term mem?
- Frontal lobe slsion
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