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Glossary of National MFT Research

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Methodology
Selection of measurement and choice of setting to conduct research.
Ratio Scales
Interval scales with an absolute zero point.
Standard of deviation
A measure of variability
Dependent Variable
One that is the consequence of another variable
Threats to Internal Validity
Maturation
Regression
Experimental Mortality

Survey Research
Either descriptive or ex post factor
Event
Specific collection of the possible outcomes of a random phenomenon
Frequency of an event
The number of times an event occurs in a sequence of repetitions of a random phenomenon.
Relative Frequency of an event
The fraction or proportion of repetitions during which the event occurs; always expressed as a number between 0 and 1
Probability of an Event
When the relative frequency of an event approaches a fixed number, that number is the probability of the event.
Nominal Scales
Naming Scales -
Scales which name data and places them into categories.
Ordinal Scales
Ordering Scales -
Scales which orders available data but does not measure.
1st 2nd 3rd etc

Interval Scales
Measuring Scales-
Measurable, positive and linear
Ratio Scale
Measurement provides for an absolute zero which is not an arbitrary point.
Qualitative Scales
Nominal and Ordinal Scales
Quantitative Scales
Interval and Ratio Scales
Mean
Mean is the arithmetic average. Can be used on interval and ratio scales
Median
The midpoint of the observations when data are arranged in increasing order.
Mode
The most frequent value.
Bimodal
A distribution with two most frequently occurring scores
Multimodal
Two or more most frequently occurring scores
Absolute Zero Point
A distinguishing feature of a ratio scale
Standard Scores
Observations expressed in the standard deviation units about the mean.
Units
The basic objects on which the experiment is done.
Subjects
Units which are human beings
Variable
A measured characteristic of a unit
Dependable Variable
A variable whose changes are being studied.
Independent Variable
A variable with an effect upon dependent variables being studied.
Factor
An independent variable in a study
Treatment
Any specific experimental condition applied to the units.
Validity
Ability of tests to measure what they are designed to measure
Internal Validity
The conclusion of the study for the subjects themselves
External validity
Generalization of the conclusion of a study to a larger population
Double Bind Technique
When both the subjects and those who evaluate the outcome of the experiment are ignorant of which treatment has been given.
A Measurement Process
unbiased if it does not overstate or understate the true value of a variable.
Randomization
The random allocation of experimental units among treatments, most simply by assigning a simple random sampling (SRS) of units to each treatment.
Control
Taking account of extraneous factors in the experiment design, most simply by the use of equivalent groups for comparison
Parameter
A number describing a population
Statistic
A number describing the sample data
Duration Counts
The measure of time a behavior last.
Frequency Measurement
The count of how many times a target behavior occurs
Interval Measure
Selects a discrete unit of time and observes the time block for the target behavior
Frequency
The number of times the value occurs in the data
Line Graphs
Show the trend of variables over time
Bar Graphs
compare the values of several variables
Scatter Plots
Used to graph bivariate data when both variables are measured on an interval/ratio or ordinal scale.
Percentile
derived from scores expressed in terms of percentages.
Variance
The mean of the squares of the deviation of observations from their mean.
Standard Deviation (SD)
The positive square root of the variance. Describes the variability found within the distribution. A larger SD means a greater number of scores around the mean.
Range
Highest score minus the lowest score plus 1
T-Test
A formula for evaluating the means of two groups.
Association in Bivariate Data
Systemic connection links changes in one variable and changes in another
Face Validity
Explores whether the item appears to reach the content desired.
Logical Content Validity
The method the developer engaged with to ensure the required content was included in the field test.
Criterion Validity
Seeks to know whether the measurement instrument correlates significantly with other variables that may be relevant
Predictive Validity
Questions whether or the instrument has correlation to a future event
Concurrent Validity
references the instrument's correlation to an event occurring simultaneous to the time the measure is taken
Construct Validity
asks if the instrument draws from its theorized psychological construct it proposes to measure
Convergent Validity
Explores if a construct, such as depression, correlates with a theoretically relevant variable.
eg; the amount of time a person spends sleeping, crying, etc
Discriminant Validity
References how theoretically non-relevant variables are not associated with scores on the measurement.
Reliability
The degree to which the test is consistent, dependable and repeatable
Methods of assessing reliability
test/retest
alternate form
internal consistency or split half method
brown formula
inter-rate reliability



Factors that affect Reliability
length of test
range of variability in scores
guessing
interpretation of reliability coefficient


Kuder-Richardson Formula
A mathematical formula used to estimate internal consistency reliability
Skewed
When scores pile up on one end of the scale or the other
Z Scores
Mean=0
SD=1.0
Range of SD scores is -3 to +3
Z=rawscore-mean/SD




T Scores
Mean=50
SD=10
Correlation Coefficient
Examines the degree to which variations or differences in one variable are related to variations or differences in another
Perfection Correlation
+1.00 or -1.00
Line of Regression
the straight line vector that connects those points
Regression
the primary statistical tool used for prediction
Null Hypothesis (Ho)
statement being tested

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