Glossary of National MFT Research
Created by AndieSjs
- Selection of measurement and choice of setting to conduct research.
- Ratio Scales
- Interval scales with an absolute zero point.
- Standard of deviation
- A measure of variability
- Dependent Variable
- One that is the consequence of another variable
- Threats to Internal Validity
- Survey Research
- Either descriptive or ex post factor
- Specific collection of the possible outcomes of a random phenomenon
- Frequency of an event
- The number of times an event occurs in a sequence of repetitions of a random phenomenon.
- Relative Frequency of an event
- The fraction or proportion of repetitions during which the event occurs; always expressed as a number between 0 and 1
- Probability of an Event
- When the relative frequency of an event approaches a fixed number, that number is the probability of the event.
- Nominal Scales
- Naming Scales -
Scales which name data and places them into categories.
- Ordinal Scales
- Ordering Scales -
Scales which orders available data but does not measure.
1st 2nd 3rd etc
- Interval Scales
- Measuring Scales-
Measurable, positive and linear
- Ratio Scale
- Measurement provides for an absolute zero which is not an arbitrary point.
- Qualitative Scales
- Nominal and Ordinal Scales
- Quantitative Scales
- Interval and Ratio Scales
- Mean is the arithmetic average. Can be used on interval and ratio scales
- The midpoint of the observations when data are arranged in increasing order.
- The most frequent value.
- A distribution with two most frequently occurring scores
- Two or more most frequently occurring scores
- Absolute Zero Point
- A distinguishing feature of a ratio scale
- Standard Scores
- Observations expressed in the standard deviation units about the mean.
- The basic objects on which the experiment is done.
- Units which are human beings
- A measured characteristic of a unit
- Dependable Variable
- A variable whose changes are being studied.
- Independent Variable
- A variable with an effect upon dependent variables being studied.
- An independent variable in a study
- Any specific experimental condition applied to the units.
- Ability of tests to measure what they are designed to measure
- Internal Validity
- The conclusion of the study for the subjects themselves
- External validity
- Generalization of the conclusion of a study to a larger population
- Double Bind Technique
- When both the subjects and those who evaluate the outcome of the experiment are ignorant of which treatment has been given.
- A Measurement Process
- unbiased if it does not overstate or understate the true value of a variable.
- The random allocation of experimental units among treatments, most simply by assigning a simple random sampling (SRS) of units to each treatment.
- Taking account of extraneous factors in the experiment design, most simply by the use of equivalent groups for comparison
- A number describing a population
- A number describing the sample data
- Duration Counts
- The measure of time a behavior last.
- Frequency Measurement
- The count of how many times a target behavior occurs
- Interval Measure
- Selects a discrete unit of time and observes the time block for the target behavior
- The number of times the value occurs in the data
- Line Graphs
- Show the trend of variables over time
- Bar Graphs
- compare the values of several variables
- Scatter Plots
- Used to graph bivariate data when both variables are measured on an interval/ratio or ordinal scale.
- derived from scores expressed in terms of percentages.
- The mean of the squares of the deviation of observations from their mean.
- Standard Deviation (SD)
- The positive square root of the variance. Describes the variability found within the distribution. A larger SD means a greater number of scores around the mean.
- Highest score minus the lowest score plus 1
- A formula for evaluating the means of two groups.
- Association in Bivariate Data
- Systemic connection links changes in one variable and changes in another
- Face Validity
- Explores whether the item appears to reach the content desired.
- Logical Content Validity
- The method the developer engaged with to ensure the required content was included in the field test.
- Criterion Validity
- Seeks to know whether the measurement instrument correlates significantly with other variables that may be relevant
- Predictive Validity
- Questions whether or the instrument has correlation to a future event
- Concurrent Validity
- references the instrument's correlation to an event occurring simultaneous to the time the measure is taken
- Construct Validity
- asks if the instrument draws from its theorized psychological construct it proposes to measure
- Convergent Validity
- Explores if a construct, such as depression, correlates with a theoretically relevant variable.
eg; the amount of time a person spends sleeping, crying, etc
- Discriminant Validity
- References how theoretically non-relevant variables are not associated with scores on the measurement.
- The degree to which the test is consistent, dependable and repeatable
- Methods of assessing reliability
internal consistency or split half method
- Factors that affect Reliability
- length of test
range of variability in scores
interpretation of reliability coefficient
- Kuder-Richardson Formula
- A mathematical formula used to estimate internal consistency reliability
- When scores pile up on one end of the scale or the other
- Z Scores
Range of SD scores is -3 to +3
- T Scores
- Correlation Coefficient
- Examines the degree to which variations or differences in one variable are related to variations or differences in another
- Perfection Correlation
- +1.00 or -1.00
- Line of Regression
- the straight line vector that connects those points
- the primary statistical tool used for prediction
- Null Hypothesis (Ho)
- statement being tested
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