Glossary of NDBE Physiology

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Where are the 2 places that FA OXIDATION does not occur?

What organelle does FA oxidation occur
Brain and Mature RBC's

What is the one place where the KREBS cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation does not occur?

What organelle in the cell does the KREB cycle occur?
Mature RBC's

What is the one place where protein synthesis does not occur?
Mature RBC's
Fatty Acid (LIPID) synthesis occures primarily in what 2 tissue types
Liver and Adipose Tissues
Gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose) primarily occurs in what 2 tissue types

What organelle(s)?
Liver and Kidney; Partially in the mitochondria and partially in the cytosol (like urea cycle)
Heme synthesis occurs where?
Bone Marrow
Hexose Monophosphate Shunt (HMP-shunt) occures in what 5 sites and where in the cell
liver, adipose, rbc, adrenal cortex, mammary gland

Amino Acid Synthesis// Breakdown primarily occurs in
Urea Synthesis occurs where and in what/which organelle(s)
Liver; Part occurs in the Mitochondria and the other part in the cytosol
Cholesterol and Bile synthesis occurs where
Steroid and Hormone Synthesis occurs where (2 places)
Adrenal CORTEX and Gonads
Formation of Acetyl CoA occurs where?
What happen in the Golgi
Synthesis and Packaging of Complex molecules like:
Glycolysis occurs where in the cell

What also occurs there

-FA synthesis, Protein Synthesis, HMP shunt, Part of Urea and Gluconeogenesis pathway
Molecules are degraded in this organelle

DNA and RNA synthesis occurs here?

Glucose above this level will lead to glucose in the urine
ENDOcytosis requires ATP. T or F

Proteins are ENDOcytosed
Blood Pressure is the measure of what?
Brachial Artery Pressure
What is the normal BP of an adult
Out of the #'s 120 and 80, which is Systolic and which is Diastolic?
120= Systolic

80= Diastolic
What does systolic mean?

What does diastolic mean?
Systolic= Contraction
-Arterial Pressure @ Contraction (thus it is a higher number b/c there is more pressure)

Diastolic= Relaxation
-Arterial pressure when cardiac ventricles are relaxed (lower number, less pressure)
Hardening of Arteries is know clinically as:
What type of blood pressure would one expect to see in a sperson w/ Athersclerosis
Higher Systolic and Lower Diastolic
-Ventricular Walls are RIGID thus less flexible of vessels so when the ventricles contract A LOT of pressure is seen (b/c or more resistance of the vessels to contract) but when it is diastole there is a DRAMATIC drop (extreme contraction pressure to lower pressure- less resistance)
Aortic Regurgitation is when blood seeps back into the the aorta due to a faulty aortic valve. What do you expect to see in regards to systole and diastole?
Low Diastole due to blood running back (less blood thus less pressure) BUT HIGH Systole b/c of added volume that the heart has to pump w/ each beat to meet the demands of the body
What is the ductus arteriosis?
Shunt during fetal development in which blood flow from the pulmonary artery directly to the aorta

(Fetus does not oxygenate its own blood)
What is the condition called if the ductus arteriosis never closes @ birth

How will blood flow?

What is the result
Patent Ductus Arteriosis

OXYGENATED Blood from the AORTA will flow into the Pulmonary Artery producing High CO (which means more blood in the aorta, which means a HIGH Systolic PRESSURE)

Diastolic pressure is LOWER than normal b/c there is little resistance to blood flowing from aorta into pulmonary artery
Mean Blood pressure in major arteries is about ____ @ AORTA and mean blood pressure near the vena cava is ____.

Why is this important?
100 ; 0

Blood pressure difference is why blood flows (blood flows from a higher pressure to a lower pressure)
If the mean blood pressure were 100 in all the circulatory system what would happen
NO BLOOD WOULD FLOW (must have differenc)
In a standing person I would expect to see a higher mean blood pressure in the brachial artery/arteries of the feet?
Arteries of the Feet
Korotkoff sounds are what is heard when taking blood pressure. The first sound heard is the ___ pressure and they when the sounds disappear this is called the ___ pressure
Systolic; Diastolic
What happens if BP is too high?
Blood vessel may break and cause a stroke (blood loss to the brain)
What two factors control BP?
-Increases in these will cause what?
Peripheral Resistance and Cardiac Output
-Increases in either of these will cause an INCREASE in BP
Peripheral Resistance is controlled by ____.

What is the equation for CO
Vessel Constriction

-Generally 5-6 liters/min
How does Peripheral Resistance increase BP?
-At what level of arterial circulation does this occur?
Impedes Blood Flow by Vasoconstriction - blood builds up in arteries (where BP is measure)

-This occurs at the Arteriole level
What is the Mean Circulatory Filling Pressure? What is its value
BP that one would find if the heart were to stop (5-10mm Hg)
In a normal individual excercising there would be a rise in CO. You would see a rise in ___ but not in ___.
Systole=Higher BP; Diastole
In atheletes one will see a rise in ___ but LOW___.
Rise in CO; LOW BP (b/c they have trained there bodies to have a relatively low vascular resistance during excercise)
Increasing Blood volume will increase BP by increasing ___.

Increase Blood Volume= Increase CO= Increase BP
What is the normal adult Blood volume?
5-6 liters
How do Na and H20 correlate with each other.
Water follows Na so an increase in Na will increase H20 retention
Na is found in the ___. It is its most abundant electrolyte
BP, Peripheral Resistance, CO and Blood volume all are under POSITIVE FEEDBACK control. T or F.

Increase in BP will lead to a DECREASE in homeostatic BP

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