Glossary of N221 Scott Gardner Winter 2006 Unit 5-6-7 Final 02-21-2006
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- What is an ESR?
- A nonspecific laboratory test of the speed at which erythrocytes settle out of unclotted blood.
*Low Values show no inflamation
*High Values show increased inflamation
- The Creatinine Clearence high and low mean what?
- A high value means healththy kidney, low values mean damage to kidney.
- How is Urine Protein used as an assessment?
- Protein Urea indicates a problem.
- What is the ANA?
- Antinucular Antibody test is used when autoimmune disease is suspected.
- When does Osteoarthritis hurt in the morning or the evening?
- When does Rheumatoid hurt in the morning or the evening?
- Define Rheumatoid Arthritis.
- A chronic systemic disease marked by inflammation of multiple synovial joints.
- Define Osteo Arthritis
- A type of arthritis marked by progressive cartilage deterioration in synovial joints and vertebrae.
- Are Aches and Pains a normal part of aging?
- What does an increased sedementation rate mean?
- Non specific inflamation.
- What antibody is responsible for the Autoimmune response?
- Generally, what are C3 and C4?
- They are compliment components.
- When would you traditionally see C3 increased?
- In early inflamation.
- If a cliet has decreased C4 what might that tell you?
- Chronic SLE.
- If a client has Chronic Pain, how should medication be approached?
- Start low then increase.
- If a client has Acute Pain, how should medication be approached?
- Start high, then titrate down.
- Describe some statements by a client with Chronic Pain that their pain is being managed.
- "I can sleep"
"I can exercise and do my ADLs"
- Is loss of control a perceived loss?
- Yes, as the provider, we might not see a problem, but it is in the eyes of the client.
- Who does LOSS of CONTROL affect?
- Both the client and family/caregivers.
- Give the three stages of Grief according to Engel.
- -Shock and Disbelief
- What happens during Engels Shock and Disbelief stage?
- The client finds they care no longer able to normalize, and they cant believe it.
- What happens during Engels Heightened Awareness stage?
- There is an overflow of emotions and the client withdraws
- What happens during Engels Resolution stage?
- THe client begins to use what they have to fix the problem.
- Give three things that nurses can do to help a client Reslove Loss of Control?
- Provide Consistancy, Information, and Involvement.
- Name two chronic infalmmatory Disorders.
- SLE and Rheumatoid Arthritis.
- Generaly, what is SLE?
- Systemic Chronic Infalmmation of Vessels.
- Generally, what is Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Systemic Chronic Inflammation of the Joints.
- What is another way that Osteoarthritis might be described?
- Degerative Joint Disese.
- What are the two types of Lupus?
- What is the Etiology of SLE?
- Unknown. body basically becomes allergic to its own blood vessels, then major problems arise when internal organs like the kidneys become involved.
- What percentage of SLE patients are female?
- What is the age range for getting SLE?
- Attacks 20-40 year olds.
- Do Blacks or Whites get SLE more often?
- What happens with the Lympocytes in SLE?
- There is an increased B Cell Lymphocyte activity.
- What are some drugs that can cause symptom flare ups with SLE?
- INH, PCN, Pronestyl, Apresoline (TB).
- What are General S/Sx of SLE?
- Weakenss, Weighloss and Severe Fatigue.
- Does Sun help SLE clients?
- No, they are photosensative and can get a Butterfly Rash.
- What is the best Rx choice for SLE Joint Pain Treatment
- Salicyiates, like Aspirin.
- Whate are some side affects of Salicyliates?
- Tinnitus and Stomach Problems
- Why is low dose Chemo given in SLE?
- It suppresses the immune system, which decreases the immune response to self.
- When a client has SLE, what type of Prevention would you practice?
- How is the Itching of SLE eliminated?
- It can not be, so be realistic and help the client manage the itching, recognizing that it might not be 100% controlled.
- What is the Number One Loss?
- Loss of Healthy Self.
- What is Loss Number Three?
- Loss of Personal Roles and Values.
- What is the number one Loss, and what does Maslow call it?
- Loss of Healthy Self. Maslow is Self Actualization.
- What is number two loss, and what does Maslow Call it?
- Loss of Control. Maslow is Esteem.
- What is the number three loss, and what does Maslow call it?
- Loss of Roles and Relationships. Maslow is Belonging.
- Talk about the three stages of Grief according to Engel.
- Shock and Disbelief becomes withdrawn, motionless, Insomnie, fatigue, wandering.
Heightened Awareness is Over Release of emotion or may withdraw and turn into self.
Resolution must relinquish some behavior and move to a higher level of function and self awareness
- What are the five stages of Kubler Ross grief?
- 1-Denial and isolation: "This is not happening to me."
2-Anger: "How dare God do this to me."
3-Bargaining: "Just let me live to see my son graduate."
4-Depression: "I can't bear to face going through this, putting my family through this."
5-Acceptance: "I'm ready, I don't want to struggle anymore."
- Should a nurse support a client relinquishing roles?
- What is a PCA Loading Dose?
- The initial doese to establish medication actually in the client.
- What is a PCA Basal Rate?
- A constant IV rate delivered slowly to the client. It does not require client to Punch the Button.
- What is a Bolus Dose on a PCA?
- A Push of medication delivered by the staff to help reach a decreased level of pain.
- What is the Punch on a PCA?
- When the client gives their own dose of medication by pushing the button.
- Define Neuropathic Pain.
- Pain resulting rom damage to CNS or PNS or from altered processing of pain in the CNS.
- What are the symptoms of Neuropathic Pain?
- Dull Ach
Burning, Numbness or Tingling
- What are the three steps to treating Chronic Pain?
- 1. Eliminate the Source
2. Modify the Signal to the CNS
3. Provide both elimination and modification.
- How many steps are there on the WHO Pain Ladder?
- What is Step 1 on the WHO Pain Ladder.
- Use a Non-Opioid + An adjuvant
- What is Step 2 on the WHO Pain Ladder?
- Provide an Opioid for Mild-Moderate Pain, Add Non-Opioid, Add Adjuvant.
- What is Step 3 on the WHO Pain Ladder?
- Provide an Opioid Moderate-Severe Pain, Add Non-Opioid, Add Adjuvant.
- What are some examples of the actual drugs that might be given in WHO Step 1?
- An Anti-Inflammatory along with an Anti-Pyretic. Steroids or NSAIDS.
- What are some examples of the actual drugs that might be given in WHO Step 2?
- What is an example of a Strong Opiate that might be given in Step 3 of WHO?
- What one factor contribues to good pain relief?
- Not a single factor. Need a combination of factors.
- Are chronic and acute pain behaviors the same?
- No, someone with chronic pain might present s/increased HR, tachypenia, etc.
- In spinal injury, name 6 members of the Interdisclipinary team.
- What age group is most likely to have Spinal Cord Injury?
- Adolescent and 15-25 highest incidence.
- What are the etiologies of SCI?
- MVA, Falls, Sports Injuries, GSW.
- Which two types of SCI are most common?
- Cervical and Lumbar.
- What type of SCI is the most serious?
- If a client has a cervical injury, what is the expected result?
- If a client has a thorasic injury, what is the expected result?
- Chest and Trunk paralysis along with bowel, bladder, and LE function.
- If a client has Lumbar or Sacral injuries, what might be seen.
- Paralysis or weakness of the LE>
- What has to happen before rehab can occur with a SCI?
- Spinal Shock must resolve.
- What is the cause of Spinal Shock?
- Sudden withdrawl of the sensory input of the spine.
- What are the S/Sx of Spinal Shock?
- Decreased Pulse and BP, warm dry extremities, flacid paralysis.
- How long does spinal shock usually last?
- Days or Weeks.
- Why test both motor and sensory responses during a neuro-muscular assessment?
- It helps determine the methods and stratagies for rehab.
- What are some assessments and interventions in dealing with bladder function?
- What was battern a/injury?
What was the hydration pattern.
Can client remain continent s/foley?
Keep record of uncontrolled voids.
Intermittent I/O cath to determine PVR.
Regulate PO intake of fluids.
- How long is skin integrity an issue for SCI patients?
Have client adjust qh (lift with arms if has strength)
Watch splints and braces.
- How do nurses support SCI clients with the grieving process?
- -Promote early counseling for client and family.
-Listen actively to help understand rehabilitation goals.
- How are spastic muscles beneficial?
- -Increase muscle tone.
-Decrease Venous Pooling
-Help tone ABD muscles and support the diaphragm.
- What is the goal in treating Chronic Neruological Conditions?
- Optimal Function and Safety
- With acute neurological problems, what assessments must be done first?
- The ABC's.
- What are the areas of neurological assessment?
Cranial Nerve Function
- What will be seen in the Cortex Assessment?
- LOC and Mentation
- What is an alternative to Sternal Rub to check LOC?
- Spock Pinch to the Neck.
- Does the finger on the nailbed give a good response in a decreased LOC client?
- Jeff says to use a Pencil on the Nail Bed.
- What is the order that orientation fails a client?
- Time, Then Place, Then Others, Then Self.
- What is dementia?
- Progressive loss of mental function secondary to Organic Cause.
- What is confusion?
- Affect on attention, speed, clarity and mental activity.
- What is delirium?
- Short term disorientation, restlessness, hyperirritability, fear & hallucinations.
- As a nurse, do we change a mentation deficit?
- No, we will not change, but will support client and Caregiver with optimal function and safety.
- What is the most common etiology of dementia?
- Alzheimers Disease.
- What are some etiologies of Alzheimers Disease?
- Chromosomes, Environment, Metabolic, or trauma.
- What is the differenece between AD and SDAT?
- 48% of all people above age 85 have Senile Denentia of the Alzheimers Type.
- If you have a client below age 40 with AD, what might be a co-morbidity?
- Downs Syndrome.
- How long does Stage One Alzheimers usually last?
- 2-4 Years
- What are some cognative changes during stage one AD?
- Forgetful, difficulty with concentration, words, subtle personality changes.
Not often seen because client is able to compensate well in stage 1.
- How long does stage 2 AD last?
- 2-12 Years
- What are some characteristics of stage 2 AD?
- AGNOSIA (ăg-nō′zē-ă) [″ + gnosis, knowledge] Inability to recognize or comprehend sights, sounds, words, or other sensory information.
APHASIA (ă-fā′zē-ă) [Gr. a-, not, + phasis, speaking] Absence or impairment of the ability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of brain dysfunction.
APRAXIA (ă-prăk′sē-ă) [Gr. a-, not, + praxis, action] 1. Inability to perform purposive movements although there is no sensory or motor impairment. 2. Inability to use objects properly.
Loss of Social Graces
- When does Agner begin to show in AD? What is an example?
- State 2
"I never said that" or "When did you plan this party without telling me?"
- How long does stage 2 of AD usually last?
- "Can last over a year"
- What is the primary characteristic of stage 3 AD?
- The client becomes unresponsive to environment.
- What are anscillary characteristics of stage 3 AD?
- Bedridden, mute, unaware of self, totally dependant on others.
- What usually causes death in an AD client?
- A compromising situation such as pneumonia.
- What is the pharmacological goal when treating AD?
- Slow progression of symptoms.
- How does cognex work?
- It increases acetylcholine transmission.
- How is prednisone used in AD?
- It helps prevent inflammation.
- Specifically, what does cognex do in AD?
- It treats the memory loss (dementia) component of the disease by inhbiting acetylcholinestrease, an enzyme which prevents ACH tansmission.
- When is Cognex given
- AC PO
- Where is cognex metabolied and excreted?
- In the liver, by urine.
- How is dosing for Tacrine established?
- Start at 10mg QID then increase q6w will blood level 120-160mg/d is achieved.
- What are some side effects of Cognex?
- Name two drugs that increase Cognex effecacy?
- Lecithin and Tagamet
- Name a durg that is contraindicated with Cognex.
- What is an OTC that helps increase cerebral function and prevent memory loss?
- Ginko Biloba
- Do more men or women get Parkinsons Disease?
- What is the prevelence of PD?
- 1/100 over the age of 50.
- What causes 80% of PD?
- They are idopathic.
- Other than the 80% idiopathic PD cases, what are some other causes?
- Drug Induced, CO2, Manganese
- Name 4 Cardinal Signs of PD.
-Rigidity, Rachety motion
-Postural Instibiity (+ Romberg)
- What percentage of clients have mild dementia with PD?
- How do tremors begin with PD?
- They begin Unilaterally, then become bilateral.
- Is depression common in PD?
- What are some secondary signs of PD?
- Blurrend Vision
Neurogenic Bowel and Bladder
- What is hypomimia?
- HYPOMIMIA (hī″pō-mĭm′ē-ă) A reduction in the expressiveness of the face, as occurs in patients with Parkinson's disease.
- List the Five Stages of PD.
- Stage I - Unilateral Signs
Stage II - Bilateral Signs
Stage III - Postural Instability
Stage IV - Severe Disability cant walk or stand unassisted
Stage V - W/C Bound or Bedridden
- What is the pharmalogical goal of PD?
- To slow the progression of Sx.
- What is Sinemet?
- A PD drug that combines Carbidopa and Levodopa.
- What is Carbidopa?
- It allows Levadopa to X the blood Brain Barrier and become dopamine.
- How is Bromocriptine used in PD?
- It is a dopamine agonist which slows the uptake.
- How is Eldepryl used in PD?
- Prevents the fluctuations of levodopa and helps with depression.
- What should be watched with Eldypryl?
- Never give with Demerol. Some physicains will hold all opioid with Eldypryl.
- When are MAO contraindicated?
- Whe given with Haldol, Reglan, BuSpar.
- What is Huntington's Chorea?
- A dominantly inherited disease of the central nervous system, marked by choreoathetosis (involuntary writhing, ballistic, or dancelike movements), gradually worsening emotional and behavioral disturbances, and eventual dementia.
- When does Huntington Chorea begin?
- Huntington Chorea more men or women?
- What type of examination can help determine the extent of brain stem function?
- Cranial Nerve.
- List the Cranial Nerves.
- I Olfactory Nerve Smell
II Optic Nerve Vision
III Oculomotor Nerve Eye movement; pupil dilation
IV Trochlear Nerve Eye movement
V Trigeminal Nerve Somatosensory information (touch, pain) from the face and head; muscles for chewing.
VI Abducens Nerve Eye movement
VII Facial Nerve Taste (anterior 2/3 of tongue); somatosensory information from ear; controls muscles used in facial expression.
VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerve Hearing; balance
IX Glossopharyngeal Nerve Taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue); Somatosensory information from tongue, tonsil, pharynx; controls some muscles used in swallowing.
X Vagus Nerve Sensory, motor and autonomic functions of viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate)
XI Spinal Accessory Nerve Controls muscles used in head movement.
XII Hypoglossal Nerve Controls muscles of tongue
- If a client has damage to lower brain stem, what type of support will be needed?
- If a client has damage to Higher brain stem, what type of support will be needed?
- What S/Sx are common to both Upper and Lower Neuron problems?
- Weakness and Atrophy.
- What S/Sx are unique to Upper Motor Neuron problems
- What S/Sx are unique to lower Motor Neuron problems
- What is the most common Neruomuscular Disease?
- What is another name for ALS/Lou Gherigs disease?
- Charcots Disease.
- What decades are usually the start of ALS?
- 4th and 5th.
- How does ALS inpact cognition?
- It does not.
- What is the apparent genetic link in ALS?
- There is none.
- What is the normal time of disease progression of ALS?
- 3-5 Years
- What percentage of people with ALS live longer than 10 years?
- What is the usual cause of death with ALS?
- Pulmonary infectio or Respiratory Infection.
- What differentiates between a longer and shorter course with ALS?
- Longer is with primarily limb involvement.
Shorter with Bulbar Symptoms
- What is Bulbar Palsy?
- Palsy caused by degeneration of the nuclear cells of the lower cranial nerves.
- What is the primary presentation of bulbar palsy?
- Affects muscles of the jaw, face, tongue, pharynx and larynx.
- What is dysarthria?
- Impairments or clumsiness in the uttering of words due to diseases that affect the oral, lingual, or pharyngeal muscles.
- When does death come from Bulbar Palsy?
- When the disease progresses to the respiratory muscles.
- What is one possible etiology of ALS?
- Excess amino acids result in nerve excitability leading to cell death.
- What are some pharmalogical things being tried for ALS?
- Glutamate antagonists and Intrathecally administered Growth Factors.
- What Is Multiple Sclerosis?
- MS is thought to be an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS consists of the brain, spinal cord, and the optic nerves. Surrounding and protecting the nerve fibers of the CNS is a fatty tissue called myelin, which helps nerve fibers conduct electrical impulses.
In MS, myelin is lost in multiple areas, leaving scar tissue called sclerosis. These damaged areas are also known as plaques or lesions. Sometimes the nerve fiber itself is damaged or broken.
Myelin not only protects nerve fibers, but makes their job possible. When myelin or the nerve fiber is destroyed or damaged, the ability of the nerves to conduct electrical impulses to and from the brain is disrupted.
- What are some common S/Sx of Multiple sclerosis?
- Bowel and Bladder Dysfunction
Dizzyness and Vertigo
Depression and Emotional Changes
- What is the trajectory of ALS?
- A series of plateaus and declines.
- What is the progression of ALS?
- What are four parts of the Motor Exam?
- Look at:
Station (General Posture)
- What is the five point scale of muscle strength and tone.
- 5/5 Full Resistant
4/5 Mild Resistance with some Weakness
3/5 No Resistance
2/5 No Gravity
1/5 No Movement
- What is the general progression of NMD's?
- From Peripheral nerves to the brainstem.
- What is the number one nursing intervention with NMD?
- Provide Safety.
- How high does the HOB need to be to prevent swallowing aspirations?
- Greater than 45 degrees.
- What is a food that increase saliva?
- What are two things that will help cut thick phlegm?
- Papaya Extract, Acidic Juices.
- What os Dusartjroa
- S;irred Speach
- What is an early warning sign that swalling problems might be increasing?
- Slurred Speach.
- What are some indications that it is time to instill a feeding tube?
- Weight Loss More than 3lb/Month
Increased Choking Episodes
Eating takes more than 2h
- Who ultimately needs to determine when a feeding tube is placed?
- Frequently the caregiver rather than the patient.
- What two things should be tried in CRF before beginning HD?
- Diet and Medications
- What is GFR?
- GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE
The rate of urine formation as plasma passes through the glomeruli of the kidneys.
- Name three imbalances that Renal Failure Causes.
- -Fluid & Electrolyte Imballances
-Acid Base Balance. Cant Clear Acids
-Retention of Waste Products
- Describe the Phosphate/Calcium Imballance.
- Phosphate is excreted by the kidney. If they kidneys cant get rid of the phosphate, the increased serum phosphate tells the parathyroid to release calcium from the bones which causes osteoporosis or bone demineralization.
- Why does anemia occur in CRF?
- The kidneys are responsible for regulating EPO to stimulate the RBC. When the kidneys dont function proberly, there is a decrease in RBC.
Urea is toxic to RBC.
Hemolysis in HD?
- What affect does uremia have on the CNS?
- What affect does uremia have on the PNS?
- Pain, Electroyte imbalance cause tingling, burning sensation or numbness in the legs.
- Why are renal patients suceptible to infection?
- Decreased Leukocyte function.
- How is diet maniuplated in CRF?
- Low K, Low Phosphorus, Protein and fluid restrictions.
- How are diuretics used in CRF?
- Early they might help water excretion, but may not be beneficial once complete anuria happens.
- Name three substances that will not cross the Semi-Permeable Membrane in a HD machine.
- Define Diffusion.
- The tendency of the molecules of a substance to move from a region of high concentration to one of lower concentration.
- Define Osmosis.
- The passage of water through a semipermeable membrane that separates solutions of different concentrations from an area of lesser to greater concentration.
- Define Ultrafiltration.
- Fluid movement across a semi-permeable membrane from an artificially produced presure gradient.
- Name three access devices for HD.
- AV Fistual
Double Lumen HD catheter.
- What is the access device in PD?
- PD Catheter. A synthetic tube placed in the abdomen which is allowed to heal, and be a conduit for instilling and draining diasyliate solution.
- What are the factors which determine HD over PD?
- The level of kidney function. HD is more effective than PD.
PD is easier to do at home.
- What must you be cognicent of with regard to vitals, blood draws or injections with a CRF client?
- Which are their graft/fistual is, so that you use the other arm.
- Give the important BUN numbers.
- Healthy 10-20
CRF may be over 100
CRF Goal <80
- What is BUN?
- Nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea, the metabolic product of the breakdown of amino acids used for energy production. The normal concentration is about 8 to 18 mg/dl. The level of urea in the blood provides a rough estimate of kidney function. Blood urea nitrogen levels may be increased in the presence of dehydration, decreased renal function, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, or treatment with drugs such as steroids or tetracyclines.
- What is in dialasate solution that facilitates dialysis?
- Dextrose in 1.5 2.5 or 4.25% with added electroyles that make it similiar to plasma.
- What is the best way to prevent infection in PD?
- Hand Washing.
- What is effluent?
- The dialsylate when it leaves the peritoneal cavity.
- What should the effluent look like.
- Clear, or yellow without any odor.
- What are the estimated times for Fill, Dwell, and Drain?
- Fill 10min/2L
- Why is solution instilled immediately after the PD is placed?
- So that the catheter does not stick to the abdominal organs during healing.
- If a client experiences pain during PD exchange, what should they do.
- Slow the flow or change positions.
- Where is used PD solution discarded.
- Just like urine. In a toilet.
- What are the two mechanisms that the body uses to support homeostasis?
- Regulatory Functions
- What system is used to control blood pressure?
- What is the first thing that happens when circulating blood volume is low?
- The juxtaglomerular appratis secretes Renin.
- What two substances make Angiotensis I?
Where does this happen?
- Renin + Angiotensinogin
In the Lung
- What makes Angiotensin II?
- Angiotensin I + Converting Enzyme.
- What is the role of Angiotensin II?
- A powerful Vaso Constrictor.
- What does the creation of Angiotensin II cause?
- Aldosterone Secretion.
- What is Renin?
- An enzyme produced by the kidney that splits angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I, which is then transformed to angiotensin II, which stimulates vasoconstriction and secretion of aldosterone.
- What does Aldosterone do?
- Causes Reabsorption of Na+ which retains water, which increases the blood volume.
- What is REF?
- Renal Erythropoetin Factor which is released in the Kidney as a result of hypoxia.
- What are the four roles of Excretory Function?
- Water Balance
Acid Base Buffer Balance
Purify blood of Toxins and Wastes.
- Where is ADH Made?
- Posterior Pituitary.
- What is ADH?
- A peptide hormone that plays a crucial role in limiting the amount of water excreted by the kidneys.
- What is Azotemia>
- Presence of increased amounts of nitrogenous waste products, esp. urea, in the blood.
- What is the mortality rate of ARF?
- What is the goal of ARF Treatment?
- Keep the client alive until the lesions of the kidneys heal.
- What is the goal of CRF Treatment?
- Preserve renal function for as long as possible and prevent complications.
- What is the mortality rate of CRF without a transplant?
- What is hydronephrosis?
- Stretching of the renal pelvis as a result of obstruction to urinary outflow.
- What is the #1 cause of Prerenal CRF in African Americans?
- What is the overall #1 cause of Prerenal CRF?
- What are some Intrarnal causes of CRF?
- Glomerulonephrits, Polysystic Kidney Disease, Collagen Disorders, Lupus.
- What are the three phases of the clinical course of CRF?
- -Initial attempts focus on Correcting Pathology
-Second Preserve Some Kidney Function
-Last Symptom Management of kidney failure.
- What is the term to describe Stage I renal failure?
- Decreased Renal Reserves.
- What is the term to describe Stage II of CRF?
- Renal Insufficiency
- What is the term to describe Stage III of CRF?
- End Stage Renal Disease.
- In Stage I (Decreased Renal Reserves), what percentage of renal function still exists?
- In Stage I (Decreased Renal Reserves), what are the symptoms?
- It is asymptomatic. Homeostasis is maintained.
- In Stage II (Renal Insufficiency), what percentage of renal function still exists?
- What are the S/Sx of Stage II Renal Failure?
- Anemia, Nocturia, Polyuria, BUN and Creatine Increases. Homeostasis continues to be maintained, but is Fragile.
- What is the renal function percentage to be deemed at ESRD?
- Less than 15%
- What is Uremic Syndrome?
- Regulatory imbalances and build up of toxins occuring in the last stage of CRF.
- What are the three Tx options for ESRD?
- Dialysis (HD or PD)
- What are some Nursing Interventions for Renal Nutritional Deficits?
- Gum, Sour Candies, Stool Soften.
- What kind of laxatives are bad for Renal clients?
- Mg+ Based
- Three End Stage Tx Options for Renal Disease.
- HD or PD
- What percentage of clients die before a transplant?
- What Glasgow score warrents a call to the OPO?
- Less than 5
- What is an OPO?
- Organ Procurement Organization
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