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Glossary of Music Final 2015

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Acoustics
The science of sounds/the physical basis of music
(instruments that doesn't produce song using electronics)
Monophonic
Music consisting of a single,melodic line and no accompaniment
Polyphonic
Music consisting of two or more melodies sounding at the same time, having equal emphasis
Homophonic
Music consisting of one predominant melody supported by a harmonic or chordal accompaniment
Continuo
A technique for providing a harmonic basis in the new homophonic music of the Baroque period
Cantus Firmus
A term meaning "fixed melody" that denotes a preexisting melody, often a Gregorian Chant
Melismatic
A setting of a text to music in which one syllable of text is given a series of musical notes
Idiophone
A percussion instrument that is struck, shaken, plucked, or rubbed
ex. maracas
Membranophone
A percussion instrument whose sound is produced by vibration of a stretched membrane
ex. Drums
Raga
one of the melodic modes used in Indian classical music
Program Music
Music that shows images, moods, stories, characters, and other nonmusical associations.
Symphony
A multimovement work for symphony orchestra.
Opera
A dramatic stage production that involves soloists who sing arias and recitatives, solo ensembles, choruses,dancing,dramatic action,costumes,staging,and orchestral accompaniment
Recitative
A vocal solo in opera, cantatas, and oratorios that declaims the text in a sung-speech manner, in free rhythm with minimal accompaniment. so all the listeners can understand the words.
motet
A sacred,polyphonic composition with a nonlurgical text
Gregorian Chant
church music sung as a single vocal line in free rhythm and a restricted scale
Lied
art songs (Romantic German poems)
Chance Music
A compositional technique whereby a composer does not control all the details of a composition, allowing the performer to make creative choices through improvisations or other means of selecting within the structure of the composition
Serial Composition
A set of nonrepeated pitches
Sonata Form
A structure that composers in the Classical era and since have commonly used for the first movement of a sonata, symphony,concerto,or string quarter.
Decrescendo
gradually getting softer
Adante
moderate slow tempo
Forte
loud
Allegro
Fast
Largo
Slow tempo
Crescendo
gradually getting louder
Ethnomusicologist
A scholar of music in culture-of world music;one who studies ethonmusicology;one who researches the music of a culture,writes about it, and teaches others about it
Chordophone
a stringed instrument
Strophic
A musical structure in which the same music is used for each stanza of a ballad, song, or hymn
Improvisation
The process of simultaneously composing,performing, and listening to music
Acculturation
The blending of cultures. The process by which one culture assimilates or adapts to the characteristics and pratices of another
Renaissance Period
1450-1600
20th century
1900-2000
Romantic Period
19th century
Avant-garde
Experimental composers who are in the forefront of musical development and are leaders in the development of new & unconventional musical styles.
Concerto
a three movement work for solo instrument and orchestra that emerged during the Baroque period and has been a common instrumental genre ever since.
Overture
A festive opening to an opera or other musical stage production

Mass
The Roman Catholic workship service.
Ornamentation
An embellishment of a melody;adding notes for decoration according to established and commonly accepted performance pratices
Tonality
The gravitational pull of music toward a tonal center; the key of the music
example:C major/C minor
Chromaticism
proceeding by half steps,using sharps or flats
Minimalism
A style of composition whose creator attempts to achieve the greatest effects from the least amount of material.
Motive
A short melodic patter or phrase that is used for further development
Rondo
A musical form consisting of two or more contrasting theme areas, each followed by a return to the opening theme.
Terraced dynamics
a musical style characterized by abrupt volume shifts from soft to loud and back within a piece
piano
soft
oral tradition
the passing down of music by word of mouth from one generation to the next
consort
A group of similar instruments - such as soprano, alto, tenor-that provide a homogeneous sound
Aerophone
A wind instrument
Tala
the rhythm and meter of the classical music of India
Art Music
Music that is formed, sophisticated, urban, and appreciated by an educational elite.
Impressionism
A style of music, exemplified in the works of Debussy, that avoids explicit statement and literal description but instead emphasizes suggestion and atmosphere,evokes moods, and conveys impressions of images and feelings.
Aria
a lyrical song found in operas, cants, and oratorios.
Madrigal
A renaissance secular contrapuntal work for several voices that originated in Italy and later flourished in England.
Reggae
A synthesis of rock, rhythm, and blues, and latin American and African rhythms.
Atonality
the avoidance of tonal centers and tonal relationships in music.
Tone Clusters
three or more adjacent tones sounding simultaneously
Musique concrete
The compositional technique of manipulating tape recorded sounds of existing natural resources.
theme and variations
An instrumental form in which a stated theme is followed by a series of variations on that theme
Minuet and trio
A stately dance movement in triple meter in a b a form.
Nationalistic music
Concert art music that reflects national or regional rather than universal characteristics.
Classical Period
1750-1820
Baroque period
1600-1750
Patronage system
A common source of income for composers
medieval period
590-1400
What genre of music _____ element of Rock and Roll with Latin American and African rhythm and originated in Jamaica?
Raggea
Which romantic composer of Opera was exiled from Switerzland?
Vogner
What is the chant made in the 6th century during the time of the Gregory l ?
Gregory Chant
What type of texture has only one melodic line w/o accompanion?
monophonic
What is the period from 1900 to 2000?
20th century
What is the technique of the baroque era resembling a walking bass line in Jazz?
Basso Continuo
This texture has two or more melodic lines of equal importance, what is it?
Polyphonic
From which period is nationalism important?
Romantic period
What type of texture has one melodic line and accompanant ?
Homophonic texture
What two genres are mediate predecessors for Jazz?
Blues and rag time
Who is the man of Romantic Italian Opera?
Gezeppy
In the classical music of India. What is the basic name for organizing durational aspects like rhythmn and meter
Tala
What term refers to a fixed melody ?
Cantus Firmus
What is a part of the Catholic Litorgy that produced the most important sacred music before 1600?
The Mass
Which famous composer death corresponds end of Baroque period
J.S. Bach
What genre of secular music was popular during the Renaissance?
Madrigal
What romantic era composer wrote 4 symphonies
Brahms
What term refers to a constant source of income for composers in which the courts, churches or wealthy patrons funded composers?
Patronage system
What term refers to music created for its own safe?
Absolute Music

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