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Glossary of Music 101 Final Exam

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compositional technique in which the direction and speed of the notes is determined by the meaning of the words being sung. Example?
Word painiting, thomas weelkes, as vesta wasfrom Latmos Hills descending
German multi-movement church composition of the 18th century, often incorporating pre-existing hymn-tunes
cantata
Diagram of a rondo
ABACADA
Famous builder of violins in the late 17th century
Stradivarius
A single line of music with no accompaniment. Example?
Monophonic, Viderunt Omnes, Anonymous
Period known for Ornamentation in performance
Baroque
Same melody played at different pitches overlapping each other in different parts of the song. Who was best known for this?
Fugue, Bach
A playboy named Don Juan rapes a woman. Woman's father fights Don Juan, father dies in fight. Later on, stumbles across father's memorial statue, invites statue to dinner, statue comes to dinner and asks Don Juan to repent his sins, Don Juan refuses and
Don Giovanni
Differences between Harpsichord and piano?
Harpsichord created before piano, keys would be pluck string rather than have a hammer strike string, harpsichord sounds same volume at all times, piano can be played harder or softer, Harpsichord has less keys, sounds like a guitar
Allegro
Fast
Largo
Slow
Accelerando
Speed up tempo
Mezzo forte
moderately loud
Presto
Very fast
crescendo
gradually increase volume
diminuendo
gradually decrease volume
pp
very soft
fortissimo
very loud

ritardando
to slow down tempo
piano
soft
pianissimo
very soft
Word that describes that aspect of sound that allows us to tell one instrument from another
Timbre
part of an opera that has little music, but much text
recitative
part of music that has little dialogue, but much music
Aria
Who wrote well-tempered klavier?
Bach
Who wrote 41 symphonies?
Mozart
Who wrote water music?
Handel
Differences between opera and oratorio?
Opera's first written in Italian and were based on mythical stories in order to entertain civilians with music and story. Used both Aria and recitative. Oratorios were unstaged and more religious. They were written in Englishand based on biblical stories in order to entertain but also educate civilians
Diagram Sonata Allergro Form
1. Exposition
-Theme 1, Theme 2, Repeat
2. Development
-Theme 1, Theme 2, Fragments tension
3. Recapitulation
-Theme 1, Theme 2




Origins of Opera
Created in late 16th century by Monteverdi during Renaissance, wanted to recapture power of ancient greek drama, wanted to bring ancient greek drama to life through solo song
total art work
Gesamptkunstwerk, Wagner
Melody that represents "her" in a certain symphony from 1830
idee fixe, Berlioz, Symophonie Fantastique
Italian operatic style of early 1800s
Bel canto, Verdi
Brief melody associated with a person, thing, or idea in opera
Leimotif, Wagner
"Night" music, for piano solo
Nocturne, Chopin
Term for art songs, consisting of a poem set to music with one singer and a piano
Lieder, schubert
Strong feelings for one's homeland, expressed through music
Music nationalism
movement for the unification of Italy
Risorgimiento
Group of Russian composers in 1870s and 1880s
Kuchka, Mussorgsky
General term for a performer who is highly skilled to an extreme degree
Liszt
Series of four long operas, dealing with dragons, giants, dwarves, gods, and heroes.
Ring of Neiblings
A symphony, from 1806, which describes nature
Pastoral symphony, Beethoven
Nationalist song by Dvorak inspired by Native American and African American folk songs
New World Symphony
Wrote 600 lieder, died at age 31
Schubert
Wagner had an opera house constructed here. Famous opera house with special effects, stadium seating, dimmed lighting, amplified sound.
Bayreuth
His pen names were Florestan and Eusebius
Schumann
The people’s choice to lead a new, free, unified Italy. Green Party, nationalists

V.E.R.D.I., Giuseppe Verdi
Who wrote songs without words? What were they?
Mendelssohn, German lieder without words, invited listener to use his/her imagination
A short, one movement composition designed to improve one or more aspects of a performer’s technique. Faster scales, more rapid note repetition, etc. Chopin and Liszt made these.

Etudes
General Themes of Romanticism
Emotions, love, death, nature, nationalism, compositions told listeners stories, evoked emotion. Schubert's Elf King tells story of boy dying in woods. Berlioz's Symophonie tells story of tripping in woods, kills woman he loves when he doesn't think she loves him back anymore, was beheaded for his sins
Man and son ride through woods, elf king wants to steal child, father couldn't see elf king, rides away with son, arrive home and son is dead, the elf king has taken the sons life
Elf King, Schubert
Beethoven's 3 creative periods
Early period- played for royalty, wrote sonata pathetique
Heroic period- Became more assertive, bold. Wrote symphony 3 and 5.
Final years- Lost hearing, wrote symphony 9, lots of piano sonatas and string quartets

Choral symphony
Beethoven, fugue element, longest symphony, carries words in symphony ode to joy, symphony #9
The will that Beethoven wrote when he was about to kill himself
The Heiligenstadt Testament
motive is repeated throughout music from beginning to end
Motivic Unity
Binary Form
It is often necessary for long music to be organized into sections. In binary form, the music is divided into two sections. Big in Baroque era when no words in songs. Split in units consisting of A and B
Opera Seria vs. Opera Buffa
Opera Seria was serious, produced during Handel's time. Opera Buffa was comic, style during the enlightenment, classic era
Concerto grosso
small group of soloists working together, performing as a unit against the full orchestra
Brandenburg Concerto
Bach, harpsichord had a solo, united cadenzas show passage for a soloist toward end of movement, 6 of them, concerto grosso
Four Seasons
Vivaldi, All or part of the main theme – the ritornello – returns again and again, invariably played by the tutti or full orchestra
Basso ostinato
melody, harmony, or rhythm that continually repeats
Music focused on suggestion and atmosphere. Avoided the over-the-top nature of Romanticism. Made listener interpret. Music chords blended together, use whole tone, pentatonic

Impressionism
A scale in which all the pitches are a whole step apart
Whole tone scale, Debussy
5 note scale as opposed to the usual 7 note scales
Pentatonic scale, impressionism
Music with no key center, not in a single key
Atonality, schoenberg
new and unusual or experimental ideas, especially in the arts, or the people introducing them
avant-garde, Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Ives, Cage
in music, a cross between speaking and singing in which the tone quality of speech is heightened and lowered in pitch along melodic contours indicated in the musical notation. Associated with Schoenberg in Pierrot Lunaire
Sprechstimme
study of the effect of music on culture and every-day life, Bartok
Ethnomusicololgy
Doctrine that appeals to the interests and conceptions of the general people, especially those contrasting those interests with the interests of the elite
Populism (popular-pop music)
Style of postmodern music that takes a very small musical unit and repeats it over and over to form a composition
Minimalism, Short Ride in a Fast Machine, Steve Reich
Composer works not with sounds written for voice or musical instruments, but with those found occurring naturally in the world
Musique concrete, Edgar Varese
Emphasized classical forms and smaller ensembles of the sort that had existed in the Baroque and Classical periods
neo-classical, Stravinsky
Song with no music or words, just silence
4’ 33”, John Cage
Put all sorts of stuff in a piano so it made weird sounds, performances were always a little different due to how the piano was prepped and the inconsistencies between that and the previous performance
Prepared piano, John Cage
Claude Debussy
Born a poor French child, became child prodigy on piano at young age, influenced by Wagner, turned poem into songs, wrote orchestras such as Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, spent later years as music critic, died in 50s from colon cancer
Igor Stravinsky
Russian composer, parents wanted him to pursue law school, when dad died became composer, moved to U.S. and was arrested in boston for rearranging the national anthem, worked on hollywood soundtracks, wrote over 100 compositions in life, died in Manhattan
Arnold Schoenberg
Created new musical methods like atonality,serialism, and 12 tone composition. Was Austrian, forced to flee to U.S. because of Nazi terror, taught at USC and UCLA
Bela Bartok
Born in Austria-Hungary, known for ethnomusicology, wrote nationalistic music, abhorred facism, had to fleeo to U.S. to escape Nazi's, had tuberculosis, went to NC sanatorium to try to cure it
Charles Ives
American composer, blended music together, known for polytonality, Yale teachers hated music, thought he was it strange, worked as business executive, had heart attack and survived, stopped playing music after heart attack, won pulitzer prize in 1951
Aaron Copeland
Born in Brooklyn, NY, wrote Appalachian Spring, put American elements in music such as jazz and folk, wrote books as well as film scores for movies like Of Mice and Men
John Adams
American composer born in Massachusetts, used minimalism in music in songs such as Short Ride in a Fast Machine, also used neo-romantic elements in work, won Pulitzer Prize for work done in wake of 9/11 tragedy
John Cage
Born in LA, avant-garde composer with unorthodox and profound ideas, learned 12 tone composition style from working with Schoenberg, practiced Zen buddhism and found all sounds to be music, wrote 4' 33", used a prepared piano so music always sounded differently. Music incorporated minimalism as well
Two or more keys sounding simultaneously, Ives used this
Polytonality
Method of writing music that uses each of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale set in a fixed, predetermined order, created by Schoenberg
12 tone composition
Musical elements (pitch, timbre, and dynamics) come in fixed series- serial music, Schoenberg
Serialism
Depicts objects not as they are, but expresses the strong emotion they generated in the artist. Not to paint a portrait of an individual but to express the subject’s innermost feelings. In music: harsh dissonances, asymmetrical rhythms, and angular, chr
Expressionism

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