Glossary of Motor Control
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- What is motor control?
- The unconsious ability to make continuous postural changes, and to regulate trunk and extremity movements
- What performance components are necessary for motor control?
- -postural tone
-normal MS tone
-Selective movement (normal movement)
- How can an OTR and COTA determine how impaired motor control interferes w/ function?
- By observing during functional tasks (this gives a baseline)
- -Motor control performance component-
Define postural tone:
- -Refers to tonus (MS tension) in the neck, trunk, and limb girdles
- Postural tone must be high enough for what? and low enough for what?
- hi enough to resist gravity and be able to be upright (stability)
low enough for mobility
- What interferes w/Postural Tone?
- Hi or Lo tone interferes w/normal selective movement
- -Motor control performance component-
Define Normal MS tone:
- Continuous state of mild contraction, or a state of readiness of specific MS.
- What does normal MS tone depend on
- the integrity of the PNS and CNS and properties of MS's
- What are the 7 characteristics of a Normal MS tone
- 1 Stabilization of neck and trunk (axial) and limb girdle joints
2 Ability of limb to move against gravity and resistance
3 Ability to keep limb in position once placed
4 Equal amt of resistance to passive stretch between the agonist and antagonis MS.
5 Ability to shift from stability to mobility and visa versa
6 Ability to use MS groups or a particular MS
7 slight resistance to passive movement
- How is MS tone evaluated?
- -Observation with ADL, while upright (sitting or standing)
- Why does Gravity affect tone?
- When gravity is present the tone is higher and when it's eliminated (supine) tone lower
- What is abnormal MS tone?
- -Hypotonicity (flaccid)
- What is hypotonicity?
- -It is when MS feels soft, offers no resistance (or very little)
-Unable to hold position once placed
- What is hypertonicity?
- -Increase resistance to passive stretch
-Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes and Clonus
-Occurs in patterns: UE usually flexor hypertonicity
LE usually extensor hypertonicity
- What is rigidity?
- Increased MS tone in the agonist and atagonist MS SIMULTANEOUSLY
- What are 2 types of rigidity?
- 1 Lead Pipe: CONSTANT resistance throughout the ROM (flex or ext)
2 Cogwheel: Rhythmic give in the resistance
- How do you measure the degree of hypertonicity
- Mild-little resistance, but can move through ROM, and pt can perform ADLs
Moderate-Constant tone through ROM, but attainable, and pt has very difficult time performing ADLs
Severe-Strong resistance, can't move joint through ROM and pt cannot perform ADLs
- What are the occurances that lead to hypotonicity?
- -Peripheral nerve damage
-frontal lobe damage
-this is usually the 1st stage for CVA & SCI, but may not last long.
- What are the occurances that lead to hypertonicity (Usually in upper motor neuron disorders)
-CVA and SCI after hypotonicity
- What are the occurances that lead to Rigidity
(Usually due to lesions of the extrapyramidal system)
- -Parkinson's Disease
- What is the difference between rigid decerebrate and rigid decorticate?
- Decerebrate is the EXTENSION of the full body, where Decorticate is the FLEXION of the full body
- Define Reflex
- the innate motor responses elicited by specific sensory stimuli
- Are reflexes in adults good?
- No, they interfere w/recovery of the automatic protective extension, righting and equilibrium REACTIONS.
- Name 4 reflexes (the ones we need to learn)
- -Asymmetical Tone Neck Reflex (ATNR)
-Symmetrical Tone Neck Reflex (STNR)
-Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex(TLR)
-Palmer Grasp Reflex
- What is the stimulus and reflex for ATNR?
- Stimuli: turning the head over the shoulder
Reflex: Extension of arm and leg on the face side
and flexion of the arm and leg on occipital bone side
- What are the stimuli and reflexes for STNR?
- 1) Stimuli: Neck flexsion
Reflex: Arms flex and legs extend
2) Stimuli: Neck extension
Reflex Arms extend and legs flex
- What are the stimuli and reflexes for TLR?
- 1) Stimuli: Supine (touch back)
Reflex: Full body extension
2) Stimuli: Pronate (touch stomach)
Reflex: Full body flexion
- What is the stimulus and reflex for Palmer Grasp Reflex?
- Stimulus: place something (pressure) in palm of hand
Reflex: flexion of fingers into palmer (close the hand) tightly around object
- What are the influencing factors related to MS tone
- -Environment: positioning of pt; too cold, too loud, stress in room
-Internal Infection (cold, flu, UTI)
-Feelings toward therapist
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