Glossary of Module 6 study, GS, Apologia

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Define the following term Catastrophism
The view that most of earth’s geological features are the result of large-scale catastrophes such as floods, volcanic eruptions, etc.
Define the following term Uniformitarianism
The view that most of earth’s geological features are the result of slow, gradual processes that have been at work for millions or even billions of years
Define the following term
The decayed remains of once-living creatures
Define the following term
Inorganic crystalline substances found naturally in the earth
Define the following term
The process by which rocks are broken down by the forces of nature
Define the following term
The process by which sediments and rock fragments are carried away by wind or rain
Define the following term
A surface of erosion that separates one layer of rock from another
Which hypothesis (uniformitarianism or catastrophism) requires that the earth be billions of years old?
The uniformitarian hypothesis requires that the earth be billions of years old, because it assumes that the geological features of the earth took millions and billions of years to form. Catastrophism is more flexible. It can accommodate a young earth or an earth that is billions of years old.
What are the three basic types of rocks?
The three basic types of rock are igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary.
How is each of the three basic types of rocks formed?
Igneous rock is the result of molten rock which cools and solidifies. Sedimentary rock is formed when sediments fuse together. Metamorphic rock is formed when either sedimentary or igneous rocks are exposed to extreme pressure
What agent (thing) is responsible for laying down MOST of the sedimentary rock that we see today
Most sedimentary rock has been laid down by water.
A rock in the desert is constantly bombarded by bits of sand that are carried on the wind. The sand hits the rock so hard sometimes that tiny chips of the rock are broken off. As time goes on,
the constant beating of the sand on the rock wears the
This is physical weathering. The small chips of rock that are broken off are just miniature versions of the original rock. No change in composition has occurred.
When limestone is exposed to weakly acidic water, it breaks down, forming a gas in the process. Is this chemical or physical weathering?
This is chemical weathering. The limestone forms a gas. That changes the composition of what’s left.
A geologist is comparing the erosion that occurs as a result of two different rivers. The first
river flows quickly while the second flows slowly. Which river do you expect to cause the most
You expect the most erosion from the quickly-flowing river. The experiment will show that the faster the water moves, the more erosion occurs.
Two hillsides in the same community experience a very heavy rain. The first hillside is
covered with grass and flowers, while the second is mostly bare. Which hillside will experience
the most erosion?
The barren hillside will experience the most erosion. Remember, your experiment showed that plants reduce the effects of erosion.
Where do a large part of the sediments carried by a river end up?
Many sediments carried by a river are deposited in the river’s delta.
What causes an underground cavern to form?
Underground caverns are formed by erosion caused by groundwater.
What is the difference between a stalactite and a stalagmite?
Stalactites form on the ceiling of a cavern, while stalagmites form on the floor of a cavern.
Be able to identify A-E in figure 6.6 in the text book.
Open your text and study this picture and the labels
Study the pictures in this chapter--they have information that you need to know.
Study, study, study the figures in the book.

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