Glossary of Models of sport psychology

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Created by tbelshei

social learning theory
human behavior is a function of social learning and strength of the situation

origins of behavoiralism

Humanistic theory
rogers and maslow argued that human nature is inherently health and constructive. at the center of the humanistic theory of perosnality is the concept of self actualization.
the human organizism posses innate drive or tendency to enhance itself and to realize its capcities.

method of psychotherapy, non directive and cleint centered

trait theory
personality traits are considered synonymous with dispositions to act in a certian way
traits are considered stable and enduring and consistent across a vareity of differing situations.
cattel - 35 different traits.

jung theory of personality
individual personality is based on two personality attributes, extra version, introversion

and four function, thinking, feeling, sensing and intuition
myers brigs based on him

the interaction model
the notion that persoality interacts with situation to predict performance

Cognitive Affective processing System

as a way of explain the personality paradox

1) stimuli are encoded and are mentally represented in memory
2) predetermined expectations and beliefs confer meaning on events
3)affects and emotions
4)personal goals and values influence behavior
5) competency and self regulation skills interact with one other four elements to determine Beauvoir.

Baunduras Model of Self Efficacy
four fundamental ways to develop self efficacy
1) successful performance
2) vicarious experince - beginning athletes can exh the
2) verbal persuasion
4) emtional arousal - facotrs that can influence readiness for learning.

self efficacy beleifs are affected by perceived outcome

Harters Competence Motivation Theory
individuals are innately motivated to be competeent in acheivement such as sport, the person attempt at mastery. an individauls perception of sucesses at these mastery attemps develops feelings of postive or negative affect
Vealeys Multidimensional Model of Sport Confidence
sport confidence is multidimensional in nature

sport confidence rectangle- characteristics of a athlete demographic organizational, culture , competence level motivational climate

three sources of domain of sport confidence

self regulation
social climate

three types of sport confidcne

- SC cogntitive effecicency (Deiction making thought management)
- SC physical – skills training
- SC resilience ( overcoming obsticles

antecedents consequences model
in this model the situation antecedent such as a dunk in bbal precpatates perception of psychologicla momentum, resulting in feelings of goal progression and self confidence energy
a integrated theory of motivation in sport exercise
self determination is the driving force behind motivation

self determination theory - psychological needs satisfaction and social factors drives motivation

social factors

experiences toward success and failure

cooperation and competition

coaches attitude,IE is he controlling or facilitating autonomy
mastery approach vs performance approach

psychological needs satisfaction




integrated regulatory mechanisms are well integrated, they become personally valued and freely done. At this level of integration, a behavior previously consider to be externally controlllled becommmes fully assimilated and internally controlled.
identified: particpate in some activity not becuase they want to but becuase it makes them be better at something they do want to do


a motivation


affect sportsmanship, success

Cognitive Evaluation Theory
external rewards can decrease motivation, when motivation is already intrinsically motivated (multiplicative principle) becuase of perception of control from internal to external

however if the reward provides feedback and and enhances a persons sense of confidence (referred to as the informational aspect of external motivation)

goal prospective theory
nature of perceived ability changes as the child gets older

two goal orientations

ego goal orientation

task goal oreintation

early age 2-6
task goal orientation high amounts of effort = equate to high amounts of skill and competence

at 6-7, child begins to become ego oreinted sees his ability in relation to other children

11-12 may exibit either task or ego oriention

from a fundamental perspective, children mature to the level they are able to distiguish between, effort, ability and outcome

matching hypothesis
suggest that high mastery environments and high mastery climate work well together but no a msis match same for the other
goal setting
a theory of motivation that effectively energizes athletes to become more competitive
self concordance model
addresses the process of goal striving within the broad conceptual framework of the self determination theory

1) striving for personal goals is based on autonomous motivational regulation
2)striving for personal controls can also be controlled by external regulation which wont sustain motivation

- Effort mediates the relationship between autonomous goal striving and goal attainment
- Goal attainment mediates the relationship between effort and psychological needs satisfaction.
- Psychological needs satisfaction mediates the relationship between goal attainment and relative well being.

goal perspective theory
specific high difficulty goal oreintaion mediate the relationship between task orientation and performance on a task
Universal Trait Theory of Leadereship

certain great leaders have innate personality characterisitcs

not possible to demonstrate

functional model of leadership
transformational leadership, inspirational motivation, idealized influence and intellectual stimuluation

transactional leadership: productivity rewards, error montiroing proformance monitoring

theoretically the best manager would excibit both

however behling said it is difficult for a leader to do both at one time, suggested having two different roles on the team two coaches

feilders contignecy theory
suggests that leaders or only effective in certain situations

task motivated leader - good when your team sucks or is really good

relationship motivated leader - best when your team is average

hire accordingly

path goal theory
emphaisis on needs and goals of althete, coaches is role is faciliating the road
life cycle theory
places emphasis on needs and goals of the subordinate not the leader

u function, at low and high levels of maturity task oreinted is imporant, at middle levels of maturity relationshp oreinted style is important

smith sport contingency model
model describes how a leaders personality interacts with the environment to elicit a coaching behavioral response

personality situation interacts


expecations beleifs
emotions affect
self regulation


behavioral response

chelldurais multidimensional model of sport leadership
athletes satisfaction and performance are developed through the thee interactions preferred leader behavior, actual leader Beauvoir, prescribed leader behavior

congruence between all three types of behavoir should yeild the best performance

leadership beahvoiral model
based on situation specific beahvoirs, in the model player perception mediates t
leadership beahvoiral model
based on situaton specific behavoirs player perception mediates the relationship between coaches behavoir and players responce
jowett model of coach athlete relationship
relationship between coach and player is based on postive and negative manifestations of closeness, commitment, and complementary

commitment trust
complemetnary - how they completment eachothers strengths

mastery environment factors
rewards - based on individual improvement

authority - students should be given the opportunity to to participate actively in performance monitoring goal setting process

self test

based on effort and specific performance improvement, self issued tests


students should be placed in groups so they can learn technical skillivs in a cooperative enviroment

highly motivated althetes score highest on mastery climate

universal beahvoir theory of leadership
based on teh tennets of behavoiralism , there are universal good beahvoirs for choaches, these should be identified and taught

transformational: based on motivation idealized infleunce and intellectual stimulation

transaction: based on structure rewards based on performance error montinoring

translational leadership:

sources of coaching efficacy
extent of coaching experince prepration

prior sucess
perceived skill of athletes
community support

coaching efficacy competence dimensions
motivation, technique, character building
STD orignall
people are motivated to do thigns because of psychological needs, comptence, autonomy, and reladeness, the theory is the degree to which this motivates our lives.
leaders are made "universalists approach"
anyone can become a leader by learning situational beahvoirs

some specific beahvoirs

- combination of transformative and trancational

specic to sport
understand sport
organized prepared strong work ethic
provide instructions (technical work ethic
not afraid to make mistakes try new things) - shows that testing limits

develop trust, social norms
make fair decisive decisions

leadership in coaching apply it
analyze the situation
size of team whether its a individual or team, bigger gets more autorctraic
size - larger, less time = more autoctaic
leadership traditions

people followers
group values - winning or fun
coach differently during a win than during a lostt

more task oreinted shit, more social support

why are facial expressions and kinesics important?
be able to read and respond to athletes and others

instruction: interest understanding
intensity of activity easy fatique
anxiety level arousal level
motivation like dislike
stratedy, read oppontent intimitate and so on

why are haptics and proxemics important?
instruction ussage: touche training improves kinesthic awarenss
touch self, touch coach
encourage sporstmanship
riuasl and roles huddle, head butt.
builds cohension betwen athletes, with coach
generates enthusiasm motivation
social support indicators
injury diagnous, arousal induction self or others slapping football players

apply it: sports personality
have knowledge of tests limitations, reliablity, validity: obtain training in adminstering

be aware of personality traits of different positions \

good listening er

be a good observer of athletes in different situations

place your athletes in various situations in practice

- have knowledge and utilize mental strategies to facilitate individual styles of physical learning/performance

as teams advance, expect greater homogeneity

self determination theory: apply it.
find out reason for particapting
be observant for reactions of like dislike
provide opporutnity for self selected choices
vary content of sequence fo activities
record feedfback
porovide opproutnies for differnce senations
group people work on skills in cooperative enviroment
reawrd type shoudl reflect actviity/outcome what size
reward on the basis of icnraesein personal perodfmrance improvments

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