Glossary of Micro Test 3
Other Decks By This User
- NAME REACTION
- NAME REACTION
Breaks dowm molecules
- NAME Reaction
molecules are syhtesised using dehydration
- NAME REACTION
- NAME REACTION
uses hydrolysis in order to break down molecules
- NAME Reaction
Energy is released
- What is Anabolism?
- the dehydration synthesis of macromolecules which requires energy
is the dehydration synthesis of macromolecules which requires energy
- What is Catabolism?
- is the breaking down of molecules during which energy is released
is the breaking down of molecules during which energy is released
- Catabolism is also called ( ).
- Anabolism is also called ( ).
- Give ex a of Anabolic reaction (2)
- formation of sucrose or ATP
- Give a ex of a Catabolic reaction? (2)
- the synthesis of Fatty acids or the cell wall
- The synthesis of fatty acids or the cell wall is a ex of a ( ) reaction
- The formation of sucrose or ATP are ex(s) of a ( ) reaction
- synthesis refers to the ( ).
- formation of something
- ETC stands for ( ).
- Electron transport chain
- T or F
enzymes are gentically determined
- Anabolism and Catabolism are ( ) by ATP
- Enzymes function as ( ).
- Enzymes have ( ) that bind to substrates
- active sites
- Enzymes have active sites that ( ).
- bind to substrates
- T or F
Enzymes are all used up during each chemical reaction
- A enzyme is a ( ) that is either a apoenzyme or a holoenzyme.
- What is a apoenzyme?
- is a protien that is inactive and does not have a cofactor
- What is a holoenzyme?
- is the whole enzyme which includes the cofactor or a coenzyme,and Apoenezyme
is a protien that is inactive and does not have a cofactor.
is the whole enzyme which includes the cofactor or a coenzyme, Apoenezyme, and the substrate.
- What makes up a whole enzyme or haloenzyme? (2)
- (1)cofactor or coenzyme
- What are two things that triggier the binding of the substrate and the enzyme?
- What is the cofactor?
- is a nonprotien component that may serve as a bridge for the binding of the substrate and the enzyme together
is a nonprotien component that may serve as a bridge for the binding of the substrate and the enzyme together
- What is the coenzyme?
- are cofactors that are eiher metal ions or orgainic ions
are cofactors that are either metal ions or organic ions
- What is the differ btwn Anabolism and Catabolism?
- Anabolism is dehydration synthesis of large macromolecules that requires energy and Catbolism is the break down of large macromolecules and releases energy
- ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) can trigger the binding of the enzyme to the substrate
- Name (3)important coenzyemes in metabolism
- (1)NAD+ in catabolism and NADP+ in anabolism
(2)FAD and FMN
- CoA stands for ( ).
- coenzyme A
- NAD+ is a ( 1 ). important in ( 2 ).
- NADP+ is a (1) important in (2).
- (1)coenzyme (2)anabolsim
- FAD is a ( ).
- FMN is a ( ).
- What is a catalyst?
- acceelerate reaction rates by 1o th folds each w/o being permanently changed
accelerate reaction rates by 10 th folds each w/o being permanently changed
- What is the turn over number?
- is the number of substrate molecules converted per second
is the number of substrate converted per second
- turn over number
- What is the turn over normal between?
- 1 and 10,000
- A enzyme is a ( ) for a particular substrate.
- Why is a enzyme specfic for its substrate?
- bc of its shape
- Enzymes normally end in ( ).
normally end in ase
- What are enzymes normally named after?
- the type of reaction they catalyze
are normally named bc of the type of reaction they catalyze
- Describe what happens in the catalytic cycle? (2)
- (1)the substrate binds to the enzyme forming the Enzyme-Substrate complex (2) the enzyme produces the product
- Nane four factors effecting enzyme activity?
- (1)Environment (2)Enzyme inhibitors (3)Feedback inhibition (4)Ribozymes
- the environment, enzyme inhibitors, feedback inhibitio, and ribozymes all affect ( ).
- Enzyme activity
- How does temp affect enzyme activty?
- as it rises so does the chemical reaction
- When temp increases, so does the ( ).
- Chemical reaction
usally involes the breakage of hydrgon bonds and similar weak bonds that hold the enzyme structure together
- IF the temperature gets hot enough, what will happen to the enzyme?
- it will denature
- How does ph affect enzyme activty?
- all enzyme have ph optimum at which activity is the best
- What does it mean when a enzyme is saturated?
- it means there are high cocentrations of substrate resulting the enzyme having its active site occupied at all times
- A enzyme is ( ) when its active sites are occupied at all times
they block the active site
- competitive inhibitors
- What are noncompetitve inhibitors?
- they bind at a postion away from the ative site, changing the shape of the enzyme so that it cannot bind w the substrate
they bind at a postion away from the active site changing the shape of the eznyme so that it cannot bind w the substrate
- noncompetitve inhibitors
- Allosteric inhibition refers to ( ).
- noncompetive inhibitors
- Noncompetive inhibitors are also called ( ).
- Allosteric inhibition
- What is the differ btwn competive inhibitors and Allosteric inhibition
- Allosteric inhibition-does not bind to the active site, changes the shape of the enzyme, and does not compete w the substrate unlike competive inhibitors which compete w the substrate but do not change their shape
- Name two ways that enzyme inhibitors affect a chemical reaction?
- block the active site w competive inhibitors or change the shape of the enzyme w noncompetive inhibitors
- The action of ( ) drugs depends on competive inhibition
is a specfic receptor site other than the active site
- the binding of a Activator to a Allosteric site will result in a ( ) conformation
- the binding of the inhibitor to the allosteric site will result in a ( ) conformation
- What are roboeznymes?
- a type of RNA that acts like enzymes that removes sections of RNA and splices it back together
is a type of RNA that acts like a enzyme
removes sections of RNA and splices it back together
- What can riboenzymes be used for?
- to treat viral diseases
can be used to treat viral diseases
- In many instances, the final product can inhibit enzymatic activity at some step and prevent making of excessive end product. This is called ( ).
- Feedback inhibition
- What is feedback inhibition?
- when the end product causes the inhibition of the enzymatic activity preventing execsesive a product to be made
the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits the first enzyme
- feedback inhibiton
- In Feedback inhibition, the end product of a metabolic pathway ( ).
- inhibits the first enzyme
- What are redox reactions?
- two half reactions called Oxidation and Reduction
are two half reactions called Oxidation and Reduction
- redox reaction
- What is Oxidation
- the partial or complete loss of E
is the partial or complete loss of electrons
- What is reduction?
- is the partial or complete gain of electrons reducing the postive charge
is the partial or complete gain of electrons reducing the postive charge`
- Reduction reduces the ( ),
- + charge
- Oxygen is a powerful ( ).
- Oxidizing agent
- Give a ex of a powerful oxidiing agent,
- Respiration is a ( ) reaction
- stepwise Redox
- ( ) is a stepwise Redox reaction
- In prok what is the formula for cellular repsiration?
- C6H1206 + 6O2 + 38 ADP + 38 Pi=6CO2 + 6H20 + 38 ATP
- What does ATP stand for?
- Adenosine Triphosphate
it has a a nitrogenous base, a ribose, and a chain of three phostphate group
- What are the components of ATP? (3)
- (1)a nitrogenous base (2) ribose (3)a chain of three phosphate groups
- What happens when ATP undergoes hydrolysis?
- ADP and a phostphate is produced
- Give the formula for the hyrdolysis of ATP?
- ATP + H2O = ADP +Pi
- HOw is ATP generated?
- phosphorylation generates ( ).
- What is phosphorylation ?
- is the direct chemical transfer of a Pi group to a chemical compound
is the direct chemical transfer of a Pi group to a chemical compound
- What are two methods of phosphorylation in aerobic respiration?
- (1)Substrate-level phosphorylation (2) Oxidative phosphorylation
- Substrate-level phosphorylation and Oxidative phosphorylation are two methods of ( 1 ) in ( 2 ).
- (1)phosphorylation (2) aerobic respiration
- What is substrate-level phosphorylation?
- is process in which no oxygen or other inorganic final electron accecptor is required nd ATP is generated by the direct transfer of a high enegery phosphate from an intermediate metabolci compound to ADP
no energy is used to make Atp and no final eletron accepter is required
- Substrate-level phosphorylation
ATP is generated by the direct transfer of a high energy phosphate group from an intermediate metabolic compound to ADP
- Substrate-level phoshorylation
- What is oxidative phosphorylation?
- is a process in which electrons removed from an orgainic compound are transfered down the ETC to an electron accecptor such as Oxygen, releasing energy that is used to make ATP from ADP by adding a phospahte group
electrons are removed from an organic compound that are transfered dowm the ETC to an eletron acceptor such as oxygen, releasing energy that is used to produce ATP from ADP and the addition of Pi group
- Oxidative phosphorylation
is the additon of a Pi group
- What is the fomrula for phosphorylation?
- substrate + Pi + ADP = substrate + ATP
substrate + Pi + ADP = substrate + ATP
provides the majority of ATP from the electron carriers
- Oxidative phosphorylation
- Oxidative provides the ( ).
- majority of ATP from the electron carriers
- How is ATP regenerated?
- the addition of Pi group to ADP
- ADP + Pi will yeild ( ).
- What is the formula to regenerate ATP?
- ADP + Pi=ATP
- The regeneration of ATP is a ( ) process
- For every ( 1 ) ATP used, ( 2 ) are regenerated
- (1)10^7 (2)10^7
- Cellular respiration is used in the ( ) pathway
- ( ) is a Catabolic pathway
- Cellular respiration
- What is the formula for cellular respiration in prok?
- C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 38 ADP + 38Pi = 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP
- What is the formula for cellular respiration in euk?
- C6H12O6 + 6O2 +36ADP + 36 Pi= 6CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP
- What are three metabolic stages of Cellular respiration?
- (1)Gylcolysis (2)Krebs Cycle (3)ETC
- Gylcolysis, the Kreb's cycle, and ETC are ( 1 ) stages of the ( 2 ).
- (1)metabolic stages (2) cellular respiration
- What is glycolysis?
- is the oxidation of glucose to pruvic acid w/ the production of some ATP and energy containing NADH
is the oxidation of glucose to pruvic acid w/ the production of some ATP and energy containing NADH
- What is the Kreb's cycle?
- is the odixation of acetyl to CO2 w the production of some ATP and energy containg FADH2
is the oxidation of acetyl to CO2 w the production of some ATP and energy containing FADH2
- Kreb cycle
- What happens in the ETC and oxidative phosphorylation?
- the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to produce lots of ATP
is the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to produce lots of ATP
- ETC and oxidative phosphorylation
- How are the three metabolic stages of cellular respirations connected?
- ATP production
- What does Glycolysis mean?
- sugar spliltin
mean sugar spliting
- Where does Glycolysis ocur?
- in cytosol of all cells
Ocurs in the cytosol of all cells
- T or F
Glycolysis ocurs only when Oxygen is present
- Glycolysis takes ( 1 ) and turns it into ( 2 ).
- (1)glucose molecule (2) pyruvic acid
one glucose molecule is converted into a pryuvic acid
- The Kreb's cycle is also called ( ).
- TCA cycle
- TCA cycle is also called the ( ).
- Kreb's cycle
- What does TCA stand for?
- tricarboxylic acid
the cycle only uses 8 enzymatic steps
- Kreb's cycle
- The Kreb's cycle only uses ( ).
- 8 enzymatic steps
- In the Kreb cycle, ( 1 ) is changed into ( 2 ).
- (1)2 pyruivc acid (2)6CO2
2 pyruivc acid are changed into 6CO2
- Kreb's cycle
- In the Kreb's cycle, What is the ATP yield from substrate phosphorylation?
- 2 ATP
there is a electron transfer from NADH to FADH2
- Kreb's cycle
- Desribe the how the electrons are transfered from in the Kreb's cycle (2)
- (1)8 NAD+ = 8NADH
(2)2 FAD+ = 2 FADH
8 NAD+ = 8 NADH
2 FAD+ = 2 FADH
- Kreb's cycle
- During Glycolysis, Acetyl Co A becomes pyruvic acid w the help of ( ).
- Acetyl Coenzyme A
- During ( ), Acetyl Co A becomes pyruvic acid w. the help of Acetyl Coenzyme A.
- During Glycolysis, ( 1 ) becomes ( 2 ) w. the help of Acetyl Coenzyme A.
- (1)ACteyl Co A (2)pyruvic acid
- During Glycolysis in Euk, Electrons are transported from the ( 1 ) across the ( 2 ) by the use of ( 3 ) ATP, which reduces the overall output of ATP in the euk cell to ( 4 ) ATP.
- (1)cytoplasm (2) mitchondrio matrix (3)2 (4) 36
- NAME type of cell
there is no net loss of ATP during Glycolysis or the krebs cycle
- NAME CELL
there is a net loss of 2 ATP because electrons are tranported from the cytoplasm across the mitochondiran matrix during Glycolysis
Glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle ocur in the cystol
- Where does Glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle ocur in prok?
- What is the final electron acceptor in ETC?
- Oxygen is the ( ) in ETC
- final electron acceptor
- What is the formula for Aerobic respiration?
- C6H12O6 + 6O2 +38 ADP + 38 ADP + 38 Pi= 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP
- What is photosyntheis?
- is an endergonic process of a redox reaction
is an endergonic process of a redox reaction
- What is the formula for photosynethis?
- 6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
there engergy source is light (2)
- photoautotroph and Photoheterotrophs
there carbon source is CO2 (2)
- (1)Photoautotroph (2)Chemoautotrph
there energy source is from electrons from H atoms in organic compounds
- What is the energy source of Photoautotophs?
- What is the energy source of photoheterotroph?
- What is the Carbon source of photoheterotroph?
- Give a ex of photoheterotroph
- Photosynthetic bacteria
a ex is photosynthetic bacteria
- What is the energy source of Chemoautotrophs?
- Electrons from reduced inorganic compounds
- What is the energy source of chemoheterotrophs?
- electrons from H+ atom in organic compounds
- What is the Carbon source of Photoheterotrophs?
- Organic compounds
- What is the Carbon source of Chemoautotrophs?
- What is the Carbon source of Chemoheterotroph?
- Organic compounds
there Carbon source is Organic compounds (2)
- (1)Photoheterotroph (2) Chemoheterotroph
- Give a ex of Photoheterotroph?
- (1)Green and purple nonsulfur bacteria
a ex is Green and purple nonsulfur bacteria
- Give a ex of chemoautotrophs
- H , S, Fe, and Nitrfying bacteria
ex(s) are H, S, Fe, and Nitrfying bacteria
ex(s) are all animals, most fungi, protozoa, and bacteria
- Give ex of some chemoheterotrophs (4)
- (1)all animals (2)most fungi (3)protozoa (4)bacteria
- During Cellular respiration, ( 1 ) is oxidized to ( 2) and ( 3 ) is reduced to ( 4 )
- (1)glucose (2)CO2 (3)oxygen (4)water
- During cellular respiration, What happens to glucose and oxygen? (2)
- (1)glucose is oxidized to CO2
(2) oxygen is reduced to water
- What does NAD stand for?
- Nicotinamide adenine dinulceotide
- During cellular respiration, (1) and (2) pass electrons down the ETC to ( 3 ) which powers (4)
- (1)NADH (2)FADH2 (3)O2 (4)ATP synthesis
- What are three exs of coenzymes? (3)
- (1) nad (2) FMN and FAD (3) co enz A
accepts 2e and 1 p and is reduced during glyclosis
- each and every step of the metabolic pathway is catergorized by (1).
- what are two ways that cellular respiration can ocur>
- (1)anaerobic (2) aerobic
- How is energy produced?
- by ATP generazition
- What is the main area that glycolosis ocurs in?
- the cystol of the cells aka the cytoplasm
- During cellular respiration, (1) is oxidzed and (2) is reduced
- (1)glucose (2)O2
- What happens to O2 and glucose during cellular respiration?
- Glucose is oxidizxed and O2 is reduced
- What are the differ btwn prok and euk cellular respiration and why?
- (1)prok=38 ATP
(2) euk = 36 ATP
(3)bc prok dont have a mitochondria and euk use 2 ATP to transport substances to the mitochondria
- How is ATP's energy used?
- it is broken by hydrolysis to liberate useful energy from the cell
- What process is energy made by?
- dehydration syntesis
is made by dehydration synthesis
is the utilization of water molecules
- what is one way that ATP is generated?
- Where does substrate level phosphorlyation ocur?
- What connects the three main stages of cellular respiration?
- ATP production
- What happens in Glyscosis to glucose (give the by products) ? (3)
- (1)2 pryvuic acid (2) 2 ATP and (3)2NADH
the by products are 2 pryvuic acid, 2 ATP, and 2NADH
- What is the intermediate stage btwn Glysolysis and the krebs cycle?
- what are the two phases of glycolysis?
- (1)the energy investment phase (2) Energy yield phase
- What is the energy investment phase?
- step during Glycolysis in which energy is uitlized (2 ATP)
is the step during glycosis in which energy is utilized (2 ATP)
- investment phase
is the step during glycolsis in which 4 ATP is made. leaving 2 ATP (bc two were used in the step before)
- Energy yield phase
- What is the energy yield phase of glycolsis?
- 4 ATP is made and you are left w. 2 ATP bc the step before used 2 ATP
- What are the by products of Krebs cycle?
- (1)6NADH+ H+ (2)2FADH2(3)4CO2(4)2ATP
the by products are 6NADH, 2FADH,4CO2, and 2ATP
- the krebs cycle
- During ETC 1 NADH comes from (1) and 1 FADH2 comes from (2)
- (1)3ATP (2)2ATP
- During the ETC, (1) comes from 3 ATP and (2) comes from 2 ATP
- (1)1 NADH (2)1 FADH2
- What are three main carriers oxidative phosphorylation?
- (1)FMN (2)Cytochrome (3)Quinones
- FMN, cytochrome, and Quionones are three main carriers for (1)
- oxidative phosphorylation
- FMN stands for (1)
- Falivn Manonnulcotide
- What is the abrev of cytochrome?
- Cyta3, Ctyg
- Quinones are also called (1)
- During ETC , (1) is oxidized to NAD, (2) is reduced to (3) w the transfer of (4) and (5). Quione is oxidized to (6) and Cytochrome is reduced to (7)
- (1)NADH (2)FMN (3)FMNH (3)2e(4)2H+ (5)quione (6)Cyta3
- Draw the ETC in celluar respiration
- See notes
- Draw Krebs cycle
- see notes
- The proton motive forces drives ( 1 )
- ATP synthase
- What drives the ATP synthase?
- the proton motive force
- Where does the max production of ATP take place during Cellular respiration?
- oxidative phosporylation
- What are the three steps of oxiadtive phosporylation? (3)
- (1)proton pump (2) proton motive force (3) ATP synthase
- Where does oxidative phophpylation ocur?
- in the mitochonrida
- the mechanim that starts ATP is called the (1)
- chemosomotic reaction
- What is the chemosomotic reaction?
- is the mechanism that starts the ATP in in oxidative phosphorylation
- In aerobic respiration what is the final e acceptor in the ETC?
- What would life w/ our fermentation be like? (4)
- no (1)yougurt (2) cheese (3) bread (4)alcholol
- Desribe Fermentation?
- (1)starts w. pyruvic acid (2) releases energy from oxidation of organic molecule
starts w pruvic acid and releases energy from oxidation of a organic molecule
- Does fermentatio require O2?
- Does fermentation use ETC or the Kreb's cycle?
- What is the final electron acceptor in fermentation?
- an organic molecule
the final elelectron acceptor is an organic molecule
- What are two types of fermentation?
- (1)acidic (2)alcholoic
- Give ex of a by product of acidic fermenation
- latic acid
- What are the by products of alcholoci fermenation? (2)
- (1)ethanol (2)CO2
- During a heart attack, blood flowing in the heart muscles is interupted by blockage of the coronoary artery. How would you expect the metabolism in the heart to change? (4)
- (1)oxiaditve phosphorytion would slow down in the mitochondria (2)the rate of production of latic acid would be stimulated (3)the use of glucose by the muscle tissue would increase (4)the production of water in the mitochondria would be inhibitied
You must Login or Register to add cards