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Glossary of Medical terminology Chapters 5-9

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Crani/o
Cranium (skull)
Clavicul/o
Clavicle (collarbone)
Cost/o
Cost (rib)
Scapul/o
Scapula (shoulder blade)
Stern/o
Sternum (breastbone)
Spin/o, Vertebr/o, Spondyl/o
vertebrae (in general)
thorac/o
thoracic vertebrae
lum/o
lumbar vertebrae
sacr/o
sacrum (sacral vertebrae)
coccyg/o
coccyx (coccygeal vertebrae)
pel/vi, ili/o
ilium (pelvic bone)
ischi/o
ishium (pelvic bone)
pub/o
pubis (pelvic bone)
humer/o
humerus (upper arm bone)
radi/o
radiant energy (or radius in forearm)
uln/o
ulna (bone of the forearm)
carp/o
carpals (wrist bones)
metacarp/o
meatacarpals (bone of the hand)
phalang/o
phalanges (bones of the fingers)
femor/o
femur (thigh bone)
patell/o
patella (kneecap)
fibul/o
fibula (bone of the lower leg)
tibi/o
tibia (bone of the lower leg)
tars/o
tarsals (ankle bones)
metatars/o
metatarsals (bones of the feet)
ankyl/o
stiff
arthr/o
articulation, joint
asthenia
weakness
burs/o
bursa
calc/i
calcium
chondr/o
cartilage
de-
down, from, or reversing
meta-
change or next in a series
muscul/o or my/o
muscle
myel/o
bone marrow or spinal cord
oste/o
bone
para-
near, beside or abnormal
-poesis
production
rheumat/o
rheumatism
ten/o, tend/o or tendin/o
tendon
Beneath the cartilage
subchondral
Destruction of muscle
myolysis
Excision of a rib
costectomy
Inflammation of a joint
arthritis
Paralysis of all four extremeties
quadriplegia
pertaining to the upper arm bone
humeral
pertaining to the collarbone
clavicular
pertaining to the tailbone
coccygeal
prolapse of the ankle
tarsoptosis
surgical repair of the skull
cranioplasty
Rachialgia
painful spine
myocele
fascial hernia
Inflammation of the vertebrae
spondylitis
between the ribs
intercostal
excision of a portion of the skull
craniectomy
broken bone that is visible through an opening in the skin
compound fracture
articulation
joint
rupture of an invertebral disk
herniated disk
What does osteoid mean?
resembling bone
What term refers to the bones that are located between the toes and the bones of the ankle?
metatarsals
A disorder that is characterized by progressive wasting of muscle
muscular dystrophy
examination with an arthroscope
arthroscopy
The clavical bone is also known as what?
collarbone
Lateral curvature of the spine
scoliosis
A complex of symptoms that results from pressure on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel of the wrist
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Severe chest pain and Constriction about the heart caused by an insufficient supply of blood to the heart itself
Angina pectoris
Irregularity or loss of rhthym of the heartbeat
Arrhythmia
Enlarged size of the heart
Cardiomegaly
Abnormalities present in the heart at birth
Congenital heart defects
A condition characterized by weakness, breathlessness, and edema in lower portions of the body.
Congestive Heart failure
An abnormal condition that affects the heart's arteries and produces various pathologic effects, especially the reduced flow of blood to the myocardium
Coronary artery disease
A severe cardiac arrhythmia in which contractions are too rapid and uncoordinated for effective blood circulation
Fibrillation
An electronic apparatus that delivers a shock to the heart, often thru placement of electrodes on the chest
defibrillator
A clinical condition resulting from failure of the heart to pump the blood effectively and to maintain adequate circulation of the blood.
heart failure
Angi/o, Vas/o, Vascul/o
vessel
Aort/o
aorta
arteri/o
artery
arteriol/o
arteriole
ather/o
yellow, fatty plaque
phelb/o or ven/o
vein
venul/o
venule
adenoid/o
adenoids
cervic/o
neck (or the uterine cervix)
ech/o or son/o
sound
-emia, hem/a, or hem/o
blood
extra-
outside
home/o
sameness
lymph/o
lymph or lymphatics
lymphat/o
lymphatics
my/o
muscle
pulmon/o
lung
roentgen/o
x-ray
splen/o
spleen
thromb/o
thrombus, blood clot
vascul/o
vessel
Coronary artery disease
CAD
Increased pulse
Tachycardia
High blood pressure
Hypertension
record of the heart and great vessels
Electrocardiogram
radiography of the heart an great vessels
Angiocardiography
Formation of fatty deposits on the artial walls
Atheroclerosis
blockage
Occlusion
Surical repair of blood vessels
Angioplasty
decreased pulse
bradycardia
death of part of the heart muscle
myocardial infarction
use of ultrasound in diagnosing heart disease
echocardiography
the fluid thatis transported by lymphatic vessels
lymph
Which procedure allows direct visualization inside a hollow organ or cavity using a device that consists of a tube and optical system?
Endoscopy
Severe pain and constriction about the heart caused by insufficient blood supply
angina pectoris
The sudden blocking of an artery or lymph vessel by foreign material that has been brought by circulating blood
embolism
An irregularity of the heart beat
dysrhythmia
Roentgenography of the lymphatic vessels
lyphangiography
The passage of a long flexible tube into the heart chamber through a vien
Catheterization
An enlarged spleen
splenomegaly
Any disease of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy
balooning out of a vessel wall
aneurysm
below normal blood pressure
hypotension
Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels
lymphangitis
Pertaining to the lining of the heart
endocardial
Surgical repair of the aorta
aortoplasty
The smallest blood vessels
capillaries
xray of the lymphatic vessels and nodes
lymphangiography
A sac, made up of a double membrane, than encloses the heart
Pericardium
inflammation of the pericardium
Pericarditis
A lining inside the heart
Endocardium
heart muscle
myocardium
Inflammation of the heart muscle
Myocarditis
A general diagnostic term that designates primary disease of the heart
cardiomyopathy
The absorbtion of oxygen from the air and the removal of CO2 by the lungs.
External respiration (Breathing)
The state of equilibrium of the internal environment of the body.
Homeostasis.
Breathing of air into the lungs
Inspiration (aka Inhalation)
Breathing of air out of the lungs
Expiration (aka exhalation)
Labored or difficult breathing
Dyspnea
Temporary absence of breathing
Apnea
A condition in which breathing is uncomfortable in any position except sitting or standing
Orthpnea
Normal respiration
Eupnea
Abnormally slow breathing
Bradypnea
Respirations exceeding 25 breaths per minute; may be the result of excercise, physical exertion, or disease
Tachypnea
Increased respiratory rate that is deeper than normal
Hyperpnea
Increased aeration of the lungs, which may reduce CO2 in the body and disrupt homeostasis
hyperventilation
A measurement of the amount of air taken into and expelled from the lungs
Spirometry
The largest volume of air that can be exhaled after maxiumum inspiration
vital capacity
inability of the lungs to perform their ventilatory function
acute respiratory failure
Deficiency of oxygen, can be caused by respiratory disorders and disease
anoxia or hypoxia
Suffocation
Asphyxiation
A muscular wall that seperates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity
The Diaphragm (it contracts and relaxes with each inspiration and expiration)
Pertaining to the diaphragm
Phrenic
The membrane surrounding each lung
Pleura
The space between the pleura that covers the lungs and the pleura that lines the thoracic cavity
Pleural cavity
An inflammation of the pleura
Pleuritis, also called pleurisy
examination of the bronchi through a bronchoscope
bronchoscopy
Examination of the interior of the larynx
Laryngoscopy
Removal of small pieces of lung tissue for the purpose of diagnosis
Lung biopsy
A biopsy in which a segment of lung is removed after the surgeon has incised the chest
Open lung biopsy
A biopsy in which tissue is obtained by puncturing the suspected lesion through the skin
Percutaneous biopsy
Surgical removal of all or part of a lung
Pneumonectomy
Plastic surgery of the nose
Rhinoplasty
Surgical puncture of the chest cavity to remove fluid
Thoracocentesis
Incision of the trachea through the skin and muscles of the neck overlying the trachea; usually performed for insertion of a tube
Tracheotomy
An opening into the trachea by surgical means
Tracheostomy
A disorder characterized by respiratory insufficiency and hypoxemia
Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
Paroxymal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing; caused by spasm of the brochial tubes or swelling of their mucous membrane
Asthma
A whistling sound made during respiration
Wheeze
Occuring in sudden, periodic attacks or recurrence of symptoms
Paroxysmal
A condition in which the lungs of a fetus remain expanded at birth, OR a collapsed or airless condition of the lung usually caused by injury
Atelectasis
Chronic dilation of a bronchus or the bronchi accompanied by a secondary infection that usually involves the lower part of the lung
Bronchiectasis
radiography of the bronchi after a radioplaque substance has been injected
Bronchography
Lung cancer
Carcinoma of the lung
A disease process that decreases the ability of the lungs to perform their ventilatory function; may result from chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic asthma
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) aslo called chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD)
A chronic pulmonary disease characterized by an increase in the size of aveoli and by destructive changes in their walls, resulting in difficulty breathing
Emphysema
Blood in the pleural cavity
Hemothorax
An acute contagious respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset, chills, headache, fever, muscular discomfort. Caused by different types of viruses
Influenza
Inflammation of the larynx
Laryngitis
A condition caused by inhalation of dust particles; frequently seen in occupations like mining and stone cutting
Pneumoconiosis
An accumulation of fluid in lung tissues and aveoli, often caused by CHF
Pulmonary edema
a blockage of pulmonary artery by foreign matter such as fat,air, tumor, or blood clot
Pulmonary embolism
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of the dust of stone, sand, or flint that contains silica
Silicosis
The sudden, unexpected death of an apparently normal and healthy infant who has no physical evidence of disease that occurs during sleep
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis; it is often chronic in nature and commonly affects the lungs althought can occur elswhere in body
Tuberculosis (TB)
The lidlike structure that covers the larynx during the swallowing of food
Epiglottis
Inflammation of the nose
Rhinitis
Labored breathing
Dyspnea
Pertaining to the lungs
Pulmonary
Inflammation of the throat
Pharyngitis
Pertaining to the alveoli
Alveolar
Examination of the larynx
laryngoscopy
another name for pnuemonia..
Pneumonitis
The instrument used in bronchoscopy
Bronchoscope
The material raised from inflammed membranes of the respiratory tract
Sputum
Which structure is inflammed in rhinitis
The nose
A tumorlike growth on the vocal cords
laryngeal polyp
A weak voice
dyphonia
pertaining to the chest
Thoracic
Pertaining to the throat
pharyngeal
Subdivisions of the bronchi
Bronchioles
The windpipe
Trachea
The process of providing nutrition for the body
Alimentation
Excessive leaness caused by disease or lackof nutrition
Emaciation
loss of appetite for food
Anorexia
A disorder characterized by prolonged refusal to eat and often accompanied by psychological stress or conflict
Anorexia nervosa
a type of emotional disorder associated with episodes of binge eating and often terminates in self0induced vomiting
Bulimia
Depletion of nutrients from body cells
malnutrition
The 3 major classes of nutrients
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats
the enzyme that breaks down lactose (a type of sugar)
Lactase
The enzyme that acts on the sugar found in fruit (which is frutose)
Fructase
The enzyme that breaks down starch
amylase
Enzyme that breaks down protein
Protease or Proteinase
The enzyme that breaks down a lipid (fat)
Lipase
Elevated cholesterol
hyperlipidemia
An abnormal increase in the proportion of fat cells of the body
Obesity
A word that means vomiting
emesis
Things that can interfere with proper nutrition
hyperemesis and diarrhea
Medications that relieve or prevent vomiting
Antiemetics
When output of body fluid exceeds fluid intake
Dehydration
Excessive thirst
Polydipsia
cheil/o
lips
dent/i, dent/o, or odont/o
teeth
gingiv/o
gums
gloss/o or lingu/o
tongue
or/o or stomat/o
mouth
esophag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
intestin/o or enter/o
intestines
duoden/o
duodenum (division of the small intestines)
jejun/o
jejunum (division of the small intestines)
ile/o
ileum (division of the small intestines)
col/o
colon or large intestine
append/o or appendic/o
appendix
cec/o
cecum (division of large intestine)
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon (division of large intestine)
proct/o
anus or rectum (division of large intestine)
rect/o
rectum (division of large intestine)
an/o
anus (division of large intestine)
Organs that produce substances that are needed for proper digestion
Accessory organs
The accessory organs to the digestive system are...
the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and salivary glands
Produced by the liver, used in the small intestines for the absorbtion of fats
Bile
Pertaining to the common bile duct
Choledochal

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