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Glossary of Medical Test 2 Vocab

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agglutination
agglutinat = clumping
-ion = process

the process of clumping together, as of blood cells that are incompatible
albumin
one of a group of simple proteins found in blood plasma and serum
allergy
all = other
-ergy = work

individual hypersensitivity to a substance that is usually harmless
anaphylaxis
ana = up
-phylaxis = protection

an unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to foreign proteins or other substances
anemia
an = lack of
-emia = blood condition

a condition of a lack of red blood cells
anisocytosis
anis/o = unequal
cyt = cell
-osis = condition of

a condition in which the erythrocytes are unequal in size and shape
antibody
anti = against
-body = body

a protein substance produced in the body in response to an invading foreign substance
anticoagulant
anti = against
coagui = clots
-ant = forming

an agent that works against the formation of blood clots
antigen
anti = against
-gen = formation, produce

an invading foreign substance that induces the formation of antibodies
autoimune disease
a condition in which the body's immune system becomes defective and produces antibodies against itself
autotransfusion
auto = self
trans = across
fus = to pour
-ion = process

the process of reinfusing a patients own blood. methods used are "harvesting" the blood 1 to 3 weeks before elective surgery; "salvaging" intraoperative blood; and collecting blood from trauma or selected surgical patients for reinfusion within 4 hours
basocyte
bas/o = base
-cyte = cell

a base cell leukocyte
basophil
bas/o = base
-phil = attraction

a cell that has an attraction for a base dye
blood
the fluid that circulates through the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries
coagulable
coagul = to clot
-able = capable

capable of forming a clot
corpuscle
a blood cell
creatinemia
creatin = flesh, creatine
-emia = blood condition

a condition of excess creatine in the blood
embolus
a blood clot carried in the bloodstream
eosinophil
eosin/o = rose-colored
-phil = attraction

a cell that stains readily with the acid stain; attraction for the rose-colored stain
erythroblast
erythr/o = red
-blast = immature cell, germ cell

an immature red blood cell
erythrocyte
erythr/o = red
-cyte = cell

a red blood cell
erythrocytosis
erythr/o = red
cyt = cell
-osis = condition of
erythropoiesis
erythr/o = red
-poiesis = formation

formation of red blood cells
erythropoietin
erythr/o = red
poiet = formation
-in = chemical

a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells
extravasation
extra = beyond
vas(at) = vessel
-ion = process

the process whereby fluids and/or medications (IVs) escape into surrounding tissue
fibrin
fibr = fiber
-in = chemical

an insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process
fibrinogen
fibrin/o = fiber
-gen = formation

a blood protein converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process
globullin
globul = globe
-in = chemical

an albuminous protein found in body fluids and cells
granulocyte
granul/o = little grain, granular
-cyte = cell

a granular leukocyte
hematocrit
hemat/o = blood
-crit = to separate

a blood test that separates solids from plasma in the blood by centrifuging the blood sample
hematologist
hemat/o = blood
log = study of
-ist = one who specializes

one who specializes in the study of the blood
hematology
hemat/o = blood
-logy = study

the study of the blood
hematoma
hemat = blood
-oma = tumor

a blood tumor
hemochromatosis
hem/o = blood
chromat = color
-osis = condition of

a disease condition in which iron is not metabolized properly and it accumulates in body tissues. the skin has a bronze hue, the liver becomes enlarged, and diabetes and cardiac failure may occur.
hemoglobin
hem/o = blood
-globin = globe, protein

blood protein; the iron-containing pigment of red blood cells
hemolysis
hem/o = blood
-lysis = destruction

destruction of red blood cells
hemophilia
hem/o = blood
-philia = attraction

a hereditary blood disease characterized by prolonged coagulation and tendency to bleed
hemorrhage
hem/o = blood
-rrhage = bursting forth

excessive bleeding; bursting forth of blood
hemostasis
hem/o = blood
-stasis = control, stopping

the control or stopping of bleeding
heparin
a substance found in the liver, lungs, and other body tissues that inhibits blood clotting
hypercalcemia
hyper = excessive
calc = lime, calcium
-emia = blood condition

a condition of excessive amounts of calcium in the blood
hyperglycemia
hyper = excessive
glyc = sweet, sugar
-emia = blood condition

a condition of excessive amounts of sugar in the blood
hyperlipemia
hyper = excessive
lip = fat
-emia = blood condition

a condition of excessive amounts of fat in the blood
hypoglycemia
hypo = deficient
glyc = sweet, sugar
-emia = blood condition

a condition of deficient amounts of sugar in the blood
immunoglobulin (lg)
immun/o = immunity
globul = globe
-in = chemical

a blood protein capable of acting as an antibody. five types are IgA, IgD, IgE, IgC, and IgM
Kaposi's sarcoma
a malignant neoplasm that causes violaceous cascular lesions and general lymphadenopathy; it is the most common AIDS-related tumor.
leukapheresis
leuk/a = white
-pheresis = removal

removal of white blood cells from the circulation
leukemia
leuk = white
-emia = blood condition

a disease of the blood characterized by overproduction of leukocytes
leukocyte
leuk/o = white
-cyte = cell

a white blood cell
leukocytopenia
leuk/o = white
cyt/o = cell
-penia = lack of
lymph
a clear, colorless, alkaline fluid found in the lymphatic vessels
lymphadenitis
lymph = lymph
aden = gland
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the lymph gland
lymphadenotomy
lymph = lymph
aden/o = gland
-tomy = incision

incision into a lymph gland
lymphangiology
lymph = lymph
angi/o = vessel
-logy = study of

the study of the lymphatic vessels
lymphangitis
lymph = lymph
ang = vessel
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of lymphatic vessels
lymphedema
lymph = lymph
-edema = swelling

an abnormal accumulation of lymph in the interstitial spaces
lymphoma
lymph = lymph
-oma = tumor

a lymphoid neoplasm, usually malignant
lymphostasis
lymph/o = lymph
-stasis = control, stopping

the control or stopping of the flow of lymph
macrocyte
macr/o = large
-cyte = cell

an abnormally large erythrocyte
monocyte
mone = one
-cyte = cell

the largest leukocyte, which has one nucleus
mononucleosis
mono = one
nucle = kernel, nucleus
-osis = condition

a condition of excessive amounts of mononuclear leukocytes in the blood
neutrophil
neutr/o = neither
-phil = attraction

a leukocyte that stains with neutral dyes
opportunistic infection
a protozoal, fungal, viral, or bacterial infection that occurs when one's immune system is compromised (AIDS patients)
pancytopenia
pan = all
cyt/o = cell
-penia = lack of

a lack of the cellular elements of the blood
phagocytosis
phag/o = eat, engulf
cyt = cell
-osis = condition of

a condition of the engulfing and eating of bacteria by the phagocytes
plasma
the fluid part of the blood
plamapheresis
plasma = a thing formed, plasma
-pheresis = removal
polycythemia
poly = many
cyth = cell
-emia = blood condition

a condition of too many red blood cells
prothrombin
pro = before
thromb = clot
-in = chemical

a chemical substance that interacts with calcium salts to produce thrombin
radioimmunoassay
a method of determining the concentration of protein-bound hormones in the blond plasma
reticulocyte
reticul/o = net
-cyte = cell

a red blood cell containing a network of granules
septicemia
septic = putrefying
-emia = blood condition

a condition in which pathogenic bacteria are present in the blood
seroculture
ser/o = whey, serum
-culture = cultivation

a bacterial culture of blood serum
serum
ser(a) = whey
-um = tissue

the clear, yellowish fluid that separates from the clot when blood clots
sideropenia
sider/o = iron
-penia = lack of

lack of iron in the blood
splenomegaly
splen/o = spleen
-megaly = enlargement

enlargement of the spleen
stem cell
a cell in the bone marrow that gives rise to various types of blood cells
thalassemia
thalass = sea
-emia = blood condition

hereditary anemias occuring in the population bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in SE Asia
thrombectomy
thromb = clot
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a blood clot
thrombin
thromb = clot
-in = chemical

a blood enzyme that causes clotting by forming fibrin
thrombocyte
thromb/o = clot
-cyte = cell

a clotting cell; a blood platelet
thromboplastin
thromb = clot
plast = a developing
-in = chemical

an essential factor in the production of thrombin and blood clotting
thrombosis
thromb = clot
-osis = condition of

condition of a blood clot
thymoma
thym = thymis
-oma = tumor

a tumor of the thymus
tonsillectomy
tonsil = almond, tonsil
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of the tonsils
transfusion
trans = across
fus = to pour
-ion = process

the process whereby blood is transferred from one individual to the vein of another
vasculitis
vascul = small vessel
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of a lymph or blood vessel
alveolus
alveol = small, hollow air sac
-us = pertaining to

pertaining to a small air sac in the lungs
anthracosis
anthrac = coal
-osis = condition of

black lung, a lung condition caused by inhalation of coal dust and silica
aphasia
a = lack of
phas = speech
-ia = condition

absense of the ability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of brain dysfunction
apnea
a = lack of
-pnea = breathing

temporary cessation of breathing
asphyxia
a = lack of
sphyx = pulse
-ia = condition

a condition in which there is a depletion of oxygen in the blood with an increase of carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues
aspiration
apirat = to draw in
-ion = process

the process of drawing in or out by suction; foreign bodies may be aspirated into the nose, throat, or lungs on inspiration
asthma
a disease of the bronchi characterized by wheezing, dyspnea, and a feeling of constriction in the chest
atelectasis
atel = imperfect
-ectasis = dilation, expansion

a condition of imperfect dilation of the lungs; the collapse of an alveolus, a lobule, or a larger lung unit
bronchiectasis
bronch/i = bronchi
-ectasis = dilation, expansion

chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi, with a secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of a lung
bronchiolitis
bronchiol = bronchiole
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bronchioles
bronchitis
bronch = bronchi
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bronchi
bronchoscope
bronch/o = bronchi
-scope = instrument

an instrument used to examine the bronchi
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
a rhythemic cycle of breathing with a gradual increase in respiration followed by apnea, then a repeat of the same cycle
cough
sudden, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs
croup
an acute respiratory disease characterized by obstruction of the larynx, a barking cough, dyspnea, hoarseness, and stridor
cyanosis
cyan = dark blue
-osis = condition of

a dark blue condition of the skin and mucous membrane caused by oxygen deficiency
cystic fibrosis
cyst = sac
-ic = pertaining to
fibr = fiber
-osis = condition of

an inherited disease that affects the pancreas, respiratory system, and sweat glands.
diaphragmatocele
dia = through
phragmat/o = partition
-cele = hernia

a hernia of the diaphragm
dysphonia
dys = difficult
phon = voice
-ia = condition

a condition of difficulty in speaking
dyspnea
dys = difficult
-pnea = breathing

difficulty in breathing
emphysema
a chronic pulmonary disease in which the bronchioles become obstructed with mucus
empyema
pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity
endotracheal
endo = within
trach/e = trachea
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to within the trachea
epistaxis
epi = upon
-staxis = dripping

nosebleed; usually from traumatic or spontaneous rupture of blood vessels in the mucous membranes of the nose
eupnea
eu = good, normal
-pnea = breathing

good or normal breathing
exhalation
ex = out
halat = breathe
-ion = process

the process of breathing out
expectoration
ex = out
pectorat = breast
-ion = process

the process by which saliva, mucous, or phlegm is expelled from the air passages
Hemilich maneuver
a technique for removing a foreign body that is blocking the trachea
hemoptysis
hem/o = blood
-ptysis = to spit

the spitting up of blood
hyperpnea
hyper = excessive
-pnea = breathing

excessive or rapid breathing
hyperventilation
hyper = excessive
ventilat = to air
-ion = process

the process of excessive ventilating, thereby increasing the air in the lungs beyond the normal limit
hypoxia
hyp = below, deficient
ox = oxygen
-ia = condition

a condition of deficient amounts of oxygen in the inspired air
influenza
an acute, contagious respiratory infection caused by a virus. onset is usually sudden, and symptoms are fever, chills, headache, myalgia, cough, and sore throat.
inhalation
in = in
halat = breathe
-ion = process

the process of breathing in
laryngeal
laryng/e = larynx
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the larynx
laryngitis
laygn = larynx
-itis = inflammation
laryngoscope
laryng/o = larynx
-scope = instrument

an instrument used to examine the larynx
Legionnaires' disease
a severe pulmonary pneumonia
lobectomy
lob = lobe
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a lobe of any organ or gland, such as the lung
mesothelioma
mes/o = middle
thel/i = nipple
-oma = tumor

a malignant tumor of mesothelium (serious membrane of the pleura) caused by the inhalation of asbestos
nasopharyngitis
nas/o = nose
pharyng = pharynx
-itis = inflammation
olfaction
olfact = smell
-ion = process

the process of smelling
oropharynx
or/o = mouth
pharynx = pharynx

the central portion of the throat that lies between the soft palate and upper portion of the epiglottis
orthopnea
orth/o = straight
-pnea = breathing

inability to breathe unless in an upright or straight position
palatopharyngoplasty
palat/o = palate
pharyng/o = pharynx
-plasty = surgical repair

a type of surgery that relieves snoring and sleeping apnea by removing the uvula and the tonsils and reshaping the lining at the back of the throat to enlarge that air passageway
pertussis
an acute, infectious disease characterized by cough; also called whooping cough
pharyngitis
pharyng = pharynx
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the pharynx
pleurisy
inflammation of the pieura caused by injury, infection, or a tumor
pleuritis
pleur = pleura
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the pleura
pleurodynia
pleur/o = pleura
-dynia = pain

pain in the pleura
pneumoconiosis
pneum/o = lung
con/i = dust
-osis = condition of

a condition of the lung caused by the inhalation of dust
pneumonia
pneumon = lung
-ia = condition

inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or chemical irritants
pneumonitis
pneumon = lung
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the lung
pneumothorax
pneumo/o = air
thorax = chest

a collection of air in the chest cavity
polyp
a tumor with a stem, may occur where there are mucous membranes, such as the nose, ears, mouth, uterus, and intestine
pulmonectomy
pulmon = lung
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of the lung or a part of a lung
pyothorax
py/o = pus
thorax = chest

pus in the chest cavity
rale
an abnormal sound heard on auscultaion of the chest; a crackling, rattling, or bubbling sound
respirator
respirat = breathing
-or = a doer

a type of machine used for prolonged artificial respiration
respiratory distress syndrome
(hyaline membrane disease)
a condition that may occur in a premature infant in which the lungs are not matured to the point of manufacturing lecithin, a pulmonary surfactant. results in collapse of alveoli, which leads to cyanosis and hypoxia.
rhinoplasty
rhin/o = nose
plasty = surgical repair

surgical repair of the nose
rhinorrhea
rhin/o = nose
-rrhea = flow, discharge
rhinovirus
rhin/o = nose
vir = virus
-us = pertaining to

one of a subgroup of virused that causes the common cold (coryza) in humans
rhonchus
rhonch = snore
-us = pertaining to

a rale or rattling sound in the throat or bronchial tubes caused by a partial obstruction
sarcoidosis
sarc = flesh
-ois = resemble
-osis = condition of

a chronic granulomatous condition that may involve almost any organ system of the body. the lungs are usually involved and this causes dyspnea on exertion.
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
a contagious respiratory infection. a serious form of pneumonia
sinusitis
sinus = a curve, hollow
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of a sinus
spirometer
spri/o = breath
-meter = instrument to measure

an instrument used to measure the volume of respired air
sputum
substance coughed up from lungs; may be watery, thick, purulent, clear, or bloody and may contain microorganisms
stridor
a high-pitched sound caused by obstruction of the air passageway
tachypnea
tachy = fast
-pnea = breathing

fast breathing
thoraconcentesis
thorac/o = chest
-centesis = surgical puncture

surgical puncture of the chest for removal of fluid
thoracoplasty
thorac/o = chest
-plasty = surgical repair

surgical repair of the chest
thoraectomy
thorac/o = chest
-tomy = incision

incision of the chest
tonsillitis
tonsil = almond, tonsil
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the tonsils
tracheal
trach/e = trachea
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the trachea
trachealgia
teach/e = trachea
-algia = pain

pain in the trachea
tracheolaryngotomy
trache/o = trachea
laryng/o = larynx
-tomy = incision

incision into the larynx and trachea
tracheostomy
trache/o = trachea
-stomy = new opening

new opening into the trachea
tuberculosis
tubercul = a little swelling
-osis = condition of

an infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus
wheeze
a whistling sound caused by obstruction of air passageway
albuminuria
albumin = protein
-uria = urine

presence of serum protein in the urine
antidiuretic
anti = against
di(a) = through
uret = urine
-ic = pertaining to

pertaining to a medication that decreases urine secretion
anuria
an = without
-uria = urine

without the formation of urine
bacteriuria
bacter/i = bacteria
uria = urine

presence of bateria in urine
calciuria
calc/i = calcium
-uria = urine

presence of calcium in urine
calculus
a pebble, any abnormal concretion (stone)
catheter
a tube of elastic, elastic web, rubber, glass, metal, or plastic that is inserted into a body cavity to remove fluid or to inject fluid
cystectomy
cyst = bladder
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of the bladder of part of the bladder
cystitis
cyst = bladder
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bladder
cystocele
cyst/o = bladder
-cele = hernia

hernia of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina
cystodynia
cyst/o = bladder
-dynia = pain

pain in the bladder
cystogram
cyst/o = bladder
-gram = a mark, record

an x-ray record of the bladder
cystolithectomy
cyst/o = bladder
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a stone from the bladder
cystoscope
cyst/o = bladder
-scope = instrument

an instrument used for examination of the bladder
dialysis
dia = through
-lysis = destruction, to separate

a procedure to separate waste material from the blood and to maintain fluis, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in impaired kidney function or in the absence of the kidney
diuresis
di(a) = through
ure = urinate
-sis = condition

condition of increased or excessive flow of urine
dysuria
dys = difficult, painful
-uria = urine

difficult or painful urinati
edema
an abnormal condition in which the vody tissues contain an accumlation of fluid
enuresis
a condition of involuntary emission of urine; bedwetting
excretory
excret = sifted out
-ory = like, resemble

pertaining to elimination of waste products from body
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotriptor
extra = outside of
corpor/e = body
-al = pertaining to

a device used to crush kidney stones. patient is sedated and immersed in a water bath while shock waves pound the stones and they crumble into small pieces. the pieces are flushed out with urine.
glomerular
glomerul = glomerulus, little ball
-ar = pertaining to

pertaining to the glomerulus
glomerulitis
glomerul = glomerulus, little ball
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the renal glomeruli
glomerulonephritis
glomerul = glomerulus, little ball
nephr = kidney
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the kidney involving primarily the glomeruli
glycosuria
glycos = sweet, sugar
-uria = urine

presence of glucose in the urine
hematuria
hemat = blood
-uria = urine

presence of blood in the urine
hemodialysis
hem/o = blood
dia = through
-lysis = to separate

the use od an artifical kidney to separate waste from the blood. the blood is circulated through tubes made of semipermeable membranes, and these tubes are continually bathed by solutions that remove waste.
hydronephrosis
hydro = water
nephr = kidney
-osis = condition of

a condition in which urine collects in the renal pelvis because of an obstructed outflow.
hypercalciuria
hyper = excessive
calci = calcium
-uria = urine

an excessive amount of calcium in the urine
incontinence
in = not
continence = to hold

the inability to hold urine
interstitial cystits
a chronically irritable and painful inflammation of the bladder wall
ketonuria
keton = ketone
-uria = urine

presence of ketones in the urine
lithotripsy
lith/o = stone
-tripsy = crushing

the crushing of a kidney stone
meatotomy
meat/o = passage
-tomy

incision of the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening
meatus
an opening or passage; the external opening of the urethra
micturition
micturit = to urinate
-ion = process

the process of urination
nephrectomy
nephr = kidney
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a kidney
nephritis
nephr = kidney
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the kidney
nephrocystitis
nephr/o = kidney
cyst = bladder
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bladder and the kidney
nephrolith
nephr/o = kidney
-lith = stone, calculus

kidney stone, calculus
nephrology
nephr/o = kidney
-logy = study of

study of the kidney
nephroma
nephr = kidney
-oma = tumor

kidney tumor
nephron
stuctural and functional unit of the kidney
nephropathy
nephr/o = kidney
-pathy = disease

disease of the kidney
nephrosclerosis
nephr/o = kidney
scler = hardening
-osis = condition of

a condition of hardening of the kidney
nocturia
noct = night
-uria = urine

excessive urination during the night
oliguria
olig = scanty
-uria = urine

scanty urination
percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy
per = through
cutan/e = skin
-ous = pertaining to
ultra = beyond
son = sound
-ic = pertaining to
lith/o = stone
-tripsy = crushing

the crushing of a kidney stone by using ultrasound. this is an invasive surgical procedure performed by using a nephroscope or fluoroscopy.
peritoneal dialysis
periton/e = peritoneum
-al = pertaing to
dia = through
-lysis = to separate

separation of waste from the blood by using a peritoneal catheter and dialysis. fluid is introduced into the peritoneal cavity, and wastes from the blood pass into this fluid. the fluid and waste are then removed from the body.
periurethral
peri = around
urethr = urethra
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to around the urethra
polyuria
poly = excessive
-uria = urine

excessive urination
pyelocystitis
pyel/o = renal pelvis
cyst = bladder
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bladder and renal pelvis
pyelolithotomy
pyel/o = renal pelvis
lith/o = stone
-tomy = incision

surgical incision into the renal pelvis for removal of a stone
pyelonephritis
pyel/o = renal pelvis
nephr = kidney
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis
pyuria
py = pus
-uria = urine

pus in the urine
renal
ren = kidney
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the kidney
renal colic
an acute pain that occurs in the kidney area and is caused by blockage during the passage of a stone
renal failure
cessation of proper functioning of the kidney
renal transplant
surgical procedure to implant a donor kidney to a recipient
renin
an enzyme produced by the kidney
residual urine
urine that is left in the bladder after urination
sediment
substance that settles at the bottom of a liquid; a precipitate
specific gravity
weight of a substance compared with an equal amount of water
specimen
sample of tissue, blood, urine, or other material intended to show the nature of the whole
sterile
state of being free from living microorganisms; asepsis

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