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Glossary of Medical Terminology Test 3 Chpts 11-14

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Organs of the Endocrine System
Adrenal glands
Ovaries
Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans)
Parathyroid glands
Pineal glands
Pituitary gland
Testes
Thymus gland
Thyroid gland
acr/o
extremities
aden/o
gland
adren/o
adrenal glands
adrenal/o
adrenal glands
andr/o
male
calc/o
calcium
crin/o
secrete
estr/o
female
glyc/o
sugar
glycos/o
sugar
gonad/o
sex glands
home/o
sameness
kal/i
potassium
natr/o
sodium
ophthalm/o
eye
pancreat/o
pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroid gland
pineal/o
pineal gland
pituitar/o
pituitary gland
somat/o
body
thym/o
thymus gland
thyr/o
thyroid gland
thyroid/o
thyroid gland
tox/o
poison
-crine
to secrete
-dipsia
thirst
-emia
blood condition
-tropin
stimulate
-uria
urine condition
Cortisol
Regulates carbohydrate levels in the body
Aldosterone
Regulates electrolytes and fluid volume in body
Androgen, estrogen, progesterone
Responsible for reproduction and secondary sexual characteristics
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Intensifies response during stress; "fight or flight" response
Norepinephrine
Chiefly a vasoconstrictor
Estrogen
Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics in females; regulates menstrual cycle
Progesterone
Prepares for conditions of pregnancy
Glucagon
Stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood
Insulin
Administered to replace insulin for type 1 diabetes or to treat severe type 2 diabetics.
Parathyroid hormone
Stimulates bone breakdown; regulates calcium level in the blood
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Regulates function of adrenal cortex
Follicle-Stimulating hormone (FSH)
Stimulates growth of eggs in female and sperm in males
Growth hormone (GH)
Stimulates growth of the body
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Stimulates pigment in skin
Prolactin
Stimulates milk production
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Regulates function of thyroid gland
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Stimulates reabsorption of water by the kidneys
Oxytocin
Stimulates uterine contractions and releases milk into ducts
Testosterone
Promotes sperm production and development of secondary sex characteristics in males
Thymosin
Promotes development of cells in immune system
Calcitonin
Stimulates deposition of calcium into bone
Thyroxine
Stimulates metabolism in cells
Triiodothyronine
Stimulates metabolism in cells
Edema
Condition in which the body tissues contain excessive amounts of fluid
Exophthalmos
Conditions in which the eyeballs protrude, such as in Grave's Disease. This is generally caused by an overproduction of thyroid hormone
Gynecomastia
The development of breast tissue in males. May be a symptom of adrenal ferminization
Hirsutism
Condition of having an excessive amount of hair. Term generally used to describe females who have the adult male pattern of hair growth. Can be the result of a hormonal imbalance.
Hypersecretion
Excessive hormone production by an endocrine gland
Hyposecretion
Deficient hormone production by an endocrine gland
Metabolism
Sum of all chemical and physical changes that take place in the body
Obesity
Having an abnormal amount of fat in the body
Syndrome
Group of symptoms and signs that, when combined, present a clinical picture of a disease or condition.
Acidosis
Excessive acidity of body fluids due to the accumulation of acids, as in diabetic acidosis
Acromegaly
Chronic disease of adults that results in an elongation and enlargement of the bones of the head and extremities. There can also be mood changes. Due to an excessive amount of growth hormone in an adult.
Addison's disease
Disease named for Thomas Addison, a British physician, that results from a deficiency in adrenocortical hormones. There may be an increased pigmentation of the skin, generalized weakness, and weight loss.
Adenocarcinoma
A cancerous tumor in a gland that is capable of producing the hormones secreted by that gland. One cause of hypersecretion pathogens.
Adrenal feminization
Development of female secondary sexual characteristics (such as breasts) in a male. Often as a result of increased estrogen secretion by the adrenal cortex.
Adrenal Virilism
Development of male secondary sexual characteristics (such as deeper voice and facial hair) in a female. Often as a result of increased androgen secretion by the adrenal cortex.
Cretinism
Congenital condition in which a lack of thyroid may result in arrested physical and mental development.
Cushing's syndrome
Set of symptoms named after Harvey Cushing, an American neurosurgeon, that result from hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex. This may be the result of a tumor of the adrenal glands. The syndrome may present symptoms of weakness, edema, excess hair growth, skin discoloration, and osteoporosis.
Diabetes Insipidus
Disorder caused by the inadequate secretion of a hormone by th eposterior lobe of the pituitary gland. There may be polyuria and polydipsia. This is more common in the young.
Diabetes mellitus
Chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that results in hyperglycemia and glycosuria. There are two distinct forms of diabetes mellitus; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or type 1, and non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 2.
Diabetic Retinopathy
Secondary complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels of the retina, resulting in visual changes and even blindness.
Dwarfism
Condition of being abnormally short in height. It may be the result of a hereditary condition or a lack of growth hormone.
Gigantism
Excessive development of the body due to the overproduction of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland in a child or teenager. The oppostie of dwarfism.
Goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Graves' Disease
Condition named for Robert Graves, an Irish physician, that results in overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation. Also called hyperthyroidism.
Hashimoto's disease
Chronic form of thyroiditis, named for a Japanese surgeon.
Hyperthyroidism
Condition that results from overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation. Also called Graves' disease.
Hypothyroidism
Result of a deficiency in secretion by the thyroid gland. This results in a lowered basal metabolism rate with obesity, dry skin, slow pulse, low blood pressurem sluggishness, and goiter. Treatment is replacement with synthetic thyroid hormone.
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes
Also called Type 1 diabetes mellitus. It develops early in life when the pancreas stops insulin production. Persons with IDDM must take daily insulin injections.
Insulinoma
Tumor of the islets of Langerhans cells of the pancreas that secretes an excessive amount of insulin.
Ketoacidosis
Acidosis due to an excess of acidic ketone bodies (waste products). A serious condition requiring immediate treatment that can result in death for the diabetic patient if not reversed. Also called diabetic acidosis.
Myxedema
Condition resulting from a hypofunction of the thyroid gland. Symptoms can include anemia, slow speech, enlarged tongue and facial features, edematous skin, drowsiness, and mental apathy.
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Also called type 2 diabetes mellitus. It develops later in life when the pancreas produces insufficient insulin. Persons may take oral hypoglycemics to stimulate insulin secretion, or may eventually have to take insulin.
Panhypopituitarinism
Deficiency in all the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Often recognized because of problems with the glands regulated by the pituitary-adrenal cortex, thyroid, ovaries, and testes.
Peripheral neuropathy
Damage to the nerves in the lower legs and hands as a result of diabetes mellitus. Symptoms include either extreme sensitivity or numbness and tingling.
Pheochromocytoma
Usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine. Symptoms include anxiety, heart palpitations, dyspnea, profuse sweating, headache, and nausea.
Tetany
Painful muscle cramps that result from hypocalcemia.
Thyrotoxicosis
Condition that results from overproduction of the thyroid gland. Symptoms include a rapid heart action, tremors, enlarged thyroid gland, exophthalmos, and weight loss.
von Recklinghausen's
Excessive production of parathyroid hormone, which results in degeneration of the bones. Named for Friedrich von Recklinghausen, a German histologist.
Basal Metabolic
Somewhat outdated test to measure the energy used when the body is in a state of rest.
Blood serum test
Blood test to measure the level of substances such as calcium, electrolytes, testosterone, insulin, and glucose. Used to assist in determining the function of various endocrine glands.
Fasting blood sugar
Blood test to measure the amount of sugar circulating throughout the body after a 12-hour fast.
Glucose
Test to determine the blood sugar level. A measured dose of glucose is given to a patient either orally or intravenously. Blood samples are then drawn at certain intervals to determine the ability of the patient to use glucose. Used for diabetic patients to determine their insulin response to glucose.
Protein-Bound Iodine
Blood test to measure the concentration of thyroxine circulating in the bloodstream. The iodine becomes bound to the protein in the blood and can be measured. Useful in establishing thyroid function.
Radioactive-iodine Uptake
Test in which radioactive iodine is taken orally (PO) or intravenously (IV). The amount that is eventually taken into the thyroid gland (the uptake) is measured to assist in determining thyroid function.
Radioimmunoassay
Test used to measure the levels of hormones in the plasma of the blood.
Serum glucose
Blood test performed to assist in determining insulin levels and useful for adjusting medication dosage.
Thyroid Echogram
Ultrasound examination of the thyroid that can assist in distinguishing a thyroid nodule from a cyst.
Thyroid Function Test
Blood test used to measure the levels of T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream to assist in determining thyroid function.
Thyroid scan
Test in which a radioactive iodine is administered that localizes in the thyroid gland. The gland can then be visualized with a scanning device to detect pathology such as tumors.
Total calcium
Blood test to measure the total amount of calcium to assist in detecting parathyroid and bone disorders.
Two-hour postprandial glucose tolerance test
Blood test to assist in evaluating glucose metabolism. The patient eats a high carbohydrate diet and fasts overnight before the test. A blood sample is then taken 2 hours after a meal.
Chemical thyroidectomy
Large dose of radioactive iodine is given in order to kill thyroid gland cells without having to actually do surgery.
Iaparoscopic Adrenalectomy
Excision of the adrenal gland through a small incision in the abdomen and using endoscopic instruments.
Lobectomoy
Excision of only one lobe of the thyroid gland.
Parathyroidectomy
Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands. This is performed to halt the progress of hyperparathyroidism.
Thymectomy
Removal of the thymus gland
Thyroidectomy
Removal of the entire thyroid or a portion (partial thyroidectomy) to treat a variety of conditions, including nodes, cancer, and hyperthyroidism.
Thyroparathyroidectomy
Surgical removal (excision) of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.
Corticosteriods
Although the function of these hormones in the body is to regulate carbohydrate metabolism, they also have a strong anti-inflammatory action. Therefore they are used to treat severe chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term use of corticosteroids has adverse side effects such as osteoporosis and the symptoms of Cushing's disease.
Epinephrine
As a medication, epinephrine is used to constrict blood vessels and block severe allergic reactions.
Human Growth Hormone Therapy
Therapy with human growth hormone in order to stimulate skeletal growth. Used to treat children with abnormally short stature.
Oral Hypoglycemic agents
Medications taken by mouth that cause a decrease in blood sugar. This is not used for insulin-dependent patients. There is no proof that this medication will prevent the agent long-term complications of diabetes mellitus.
Thyroid replacement
Given to replace thyroid in patients with hypothyroidism or who have had a thyroidectomy.
Vasopressin
Given to control diabetes insipidus and promote reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules.
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH
Antidiuretic hormone
BMR
Basal metabolic rate
DI
Diabetes Insipidus
DM
Diabetes Mellitus
FBS
Fasting blood sugar
GH
Growth hormone
GTT
Glucose tolerance test
IDDM
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
K+
Potassium
LH
Luteinizing hormone
MSH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Na+
Sodium
NIDDM
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
NPH
Neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)
PBI
Protein-bound iodine
PRL
Prolactin
PTH
Parathyroid hormone
RAI
Radioactive iodine
RAIU
Radioactive iodine uptake
RIA
Radioimmunoassay
T3
Triiodothyronine
T4
Thyroxine
T7
Free Thyroxine index
TFT
Thyroid function test
TSH
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Organs of the Nervous System
Brain
Nerves
Spinal Cord
Cephal/o
head
Cerebell/o
cerebellum
cerebr/o
cerebrum
encephal/o
brain
gli/o
glue
medull/o
medulla
mening/o
meninges
myel/o
spinal cord
narc/o
stupor
neur/o
nerve
phas/o
speech
poli/o
gray matter
pont/o
pons
radicul/o
nerve root
thalam/o
thalamus
ventricul/o
ventricle
-algesia
pain, sensitivity
-esthesia
feeling, sensation
-kinesia
movement
-lepsy
seizure
-paresis
weakness
-phasia
speech
-plegia
paralysis
-sthenia
strength
-taxia
muscle coordination
frontal lobe
most anterior portion of the cerebrum; controls motor function, personality, and speech
parietal lobe
the most superior portion of the cerebrum; receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors and interprets language
occipital lobe
the most posterior portion of the cerebrum; controls vision
temporal lobe
the left and right lateral portion of the cerebrum; controls hearing and smell
dura mater
the name means tough mother; it forms a tough, fibrous sac around the CNS
subdural space
the actual space between the dura mater and arachnoid layers
arachnoid layer
the name means spider-like; it is a thin, delicate layer attached to the pia mater by web-like filaments
subarachnoid space
the space between the arachnoid layer and the pia mater; it contains cerebrospinal fluid
pia mater
the name means soft mother; it is the innermost membrane layer and is applied directly to the surface of the brain
olfactory
transports impulses for sense of smell
optic
carries impulses for sense of sight
oculomotor
motor impulses for eye muscle movement and the pupil of the eye
trochlear
controls oblique muscle of eye on each side
trigeminal
carries sensory facial impulses and controls muscles for chewing; branches into eyes, forehead, upper and lower jaw
abducens
controls an eyeball muscle to turn eye to side
facial
controls facial muscles for expression, salivation, and taste on two-thirds of tongue (anterior)
vestibulocochlear
responsible for impulses of equilibrium and hearing; also called auditory nerve
glossopharyngeal
carries sensory impulses from pharynx (swallowing) and taste on one-third of tongue
vagus
supplies most organ in abdominal and thoracic cavities
accessory
controls the neck and shoulder muscles
hypoglossal
controls tongue muscles
aura
sensations, such as seeing colors or smelling an unusual odor, that occur just prior to an epileptic
chorea
involuntary nervous disorder that results in muscular in muscular twitching of the limbs or facial muscles
coma
abnormal deep sleep or stupor resulting from an illness or injury
conscious
condition of being awake and aware of surroundings
convulsion
severe involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations. these have a variety of causes, such as epilepsy, fever, and toxic conditions.
delirium
an abnormal mental state characterized by confusion, disorientation, and agitation
dementia
progressive impairment of intellectual function that interferes with performing the activities of daily living. Patients have little awareness of their condition. Found in disorders such as Alzheimer's.
focal seizure
a localized epileptic seizure often affecting one limb.
grand mal seizure
a type of severe epileptic seizure characterized by a loss of consciousness and convulsions. It is also called a tonic-clonic seizure, indicating that the seizure alternates between strong continous muscle spasms (tonic) and rhythmic muscle contraction and relaxation (clonic).
Hemiparesis
weakness or loss of motion on one side of the body
hemiplegia
paralysis on only one side of the body
intrathecal
pertaining to within the meninges
lethargy
condition of sluggishness or stupor
neurosurgeoun
a physician specialized in treating conditions and diseases of the nervous systems by surgical means
palsy
temporary or permanent loss of the ability to control movement
paralysis
temporary or permanent loss of function or voluntary movement
paraplegia
paralysis of the lower portion of the body and both legs
paesthesia
an abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling
petit mal seizure
a type of epileptic seizure that lasts only a few seconds to half a minute, characterized by a loss of awareness and an absennse of activity. It is also called an absence seizure.
sciatica
pain in the low back that raiates down the back of a leg caused by pressure on the sciatic nerve from a herniated nucleus pulposus.
seizure
sudden attack of severe muscular contractions associated with a loss of consciousness. This is seen in grand mal epilepsy.
sleep disorder
any condition that interferes with sleep other than environmental noises. Can include difficulty sleeping (insomnia), extreme sleepiness (somnolence), nightmares, night tremors, sleepwalking, and apnea.
syncope
fainting
tic
spasmodic, involuntary muscular contraction involving head, face, mouth, eyes, neck, and shoulders.
tremor
involuntary quivering movement of a part of the body
unconscious
condition or state of being unaware of surroundings, with the inability to respond to stimuli.
Alzheimer's disease
chronic, organic mental disorder consisting of dementia, which is more prevalent in adults between 40 and 60. Involves progressive disorientation, apathy, speech and gait disturbances, and loss of memory. Named for Alois Alzheimer, a German neurologist.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
disease with muscular weakness and atrophy due to degeneration of motor neurons of the spinal cord. Also called Lou Gehrig's disease, after the New York Yankees baseball player who died from the disease.
Astrocytoma
Tumor of the brain or spinal cord that is composed of astrocytes, one of the types of neuroglial cells.
Bell's palsy
One-sided facial paralysis with an unknown cause. The person cannot control salivation, tearing of the eyes, or expression. The patient will eventually recover. Named for Sir Charles Bell, a Scottish surgeon.
Brain Tumor
Intracranial mass, either benign or malignant. A benign tumor of the brain can still be fatal since it will grow and cause pressure on normal brain tissue.
Cerebral aneurysm
Localized abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel, usually an artery; the result of a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel. A ruptured aneurysm is a common cause of a hemorrhagic.
Cerebral contusion
Bruising of the brain form a blow or impact. Symptoms last longer than 24 hours and include unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size, and shock.
Cerebral palsy
nonprogressive brain damage resulting from a defect or trauma at the time of birth
cerebrovascular accident
Commonly called a stroke. The development of an infarct due to loss in the blood supply to an area of the brain. Blood flow can be interrupted by a ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage), a floating clot (embolus), a stationary clot (thrombosis), or compression. The extent of damage depends on the size and location of the infarct and often includes dysphasia and hemiplegia.
Concussion
Injury to the brain that results from the brain being shaken inside the skull from a blow or impact. Can result in unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size, and shock. Symptoms last 24 hours or less.
Encephalocele
Congenital gap in the skull with the brain protruding through the gap
Epidural hematoma
mass of blood in the space outside the dura mater of the brain and spinal cord
Epilepsy
Recurrent disorder of the brain in which seizures and loss of consciousness occur as a result of uncontrolled electrical activity of the neurons in the brain.
Guillan-Barre
Disease of the nervous system in which nerves lose their myelin covering. May be caused by an autoimmune reaction. Characterized by loss of sensation and/or muscle control in the arms and legs. Symptoms then move toward the trunk and may even result in paralysis of the diaphragm.
Huntington's Chorea
Disease of the central nervouse system that results in progressive dementia with bizarre involuntary movements of parts of the body. Named for George Huntington, an American physician.
Meningioma
Slow-growing tumor in the meninges of the brain
Hydrocephalus
Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain, causing the head to be enlarged. It is treated by creating an artifical shunt for the fluid to leave the brain.
Meningocele
Congenital condition in which the meninges protrude through an opening in the vertebral column.
Migraine
A specific type of headache characterized by severe head pain, photophobia, vertigo, and nausea.
Multiple Sclerosis
Inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in which there is extreme weakness and numbness due to loss of myelin insulation from nerves.
Myasthenia gravis
Disease with severe muscular weakness and fatigue due to insufficient neurotransmitter at a synapse.
Myelomeningocele
Congenital condition in which the meninges and spinal cord protrude through an opening in the vertebral column.
Narcolepsy
chronic disorder in which there is an extreme uncontrollable desire to sleep
Parkinson's disease
chronic disorder of the nervouse system with fine tremors, muscular weakness, rigidity, and a shuffling gait. Named for Sir James Parkinson, a British physician.
Reye's syndrome
combination of symptoms first recognized by R.D.K. Reye, an Australian pathologist, in which there is acute encephalopathy and various organ damage. This occurs in children under 15 years of age who have had a viral infection. For this reason, it's not recommended for children to use aspirin.
Shingles
Eruption of vesicles on the trunk of the body along a nerve path. Can be painful and generally occurs on only one side of the body. Thought to be caused by the Herpes Zoster Virus.
Spina Bifida
Congenital defect in the walls of the spinal canal in which the laminae of the vertebra do not meet or close. Results in a meningocele or a myelomeningocele-meninges or the spinal cord being pushed through the opening. Can also result in other defects, such as hydrocephalus.
Spinal Cord injury
damage to the spinal cord as a result of trauma. Spinal cord may be bruised or completely severed.
Subdural hematoma
mass of blood forming beneath the dura mater if the meninges are torn by trauma. May exert fatal pressure on the brain if the hematoma is not drained by surgery.
tic douloureux
painful condition in which the trigeminal nerve is affected by pressure or degeneration. the pain is severe stabbing nature and radiates from the jaw and along the face.
Transient ischemic attack
temporary interference with blood supply to the brain, causing neurological symptoms such as dizziness, numbness, and hemiparesis. May eventually lead to a full-blown stroke (CVA).
Babinski's reflex
Reflex test developed by Joseph Babinski, a French neurologist, to determine lesions and abnormalities in the nervous system. The Babinski reflex is present if the great toe extends instead of flexes when the lateral sole of the foot is stroked. The normal response to this stimulation is flexion of the toe.

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