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Glossary of Medical Terminology Test 2 Chapter 6

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agglutin/o
clumping
chrom/o
color
coagul/o
clotting
erythr/o
red
fibrin/o
fibers, fibrous
granul/o
granules
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
leuk/o
white
morph/o
shape
myel/o
bone marrow
phag/o
eat, swallow
sanguin/o
blood
thromb/o
clot
-apheresis
removal, carry away
-cyte
cell
-cytosis
more than the normal number of cells
-emia
blood condition
-globin
protein
-penia
abnormal decrease, too few
-poiesis
formation
-stasis
standing still
Cells that contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing pigment that binds oxygen in order to transport it to the cells of the body.
Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells (RBC)
The solid, cellular portion of blood. It consists of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
Formed Elements
The process of forming blood.
Hematopoiesis
A group of several different types of cells that provide protection against the invasion of bacteria and other foreign material. They are able to leave the bloodstream and search out the foreign invaders (bacteria, virus, and toxins), where they perform
Leukocytes or White Blood Cells (WBC)
The liquid portion of blood containing 90% water. There remaining 10% consists of plasma proteins (serum albumin, serum globulin, fibrinogen, and prothrombin), inorganic substances (calcium, potassium, and sodium), organic components (glucose, amino acid
Plasma
Cells responsible for the coagulation of blood. These are also called thrombocytes and contain no hemoglobin.
Platelets
A protein that is normally found circulating in the bloodstream. It is abnormal this to be in the urine.
Albumin
An organic substance found in plasma. It is used by cells to build proteins.
Amino Acids
An inorganic substance found in plasma. It is important for bones, muscles, and nerves.
Calcium
A waste product of muscle metabolism.
Creatinine
Lipid molecules transported throughout the body dissolved in the blood.
Fats
Blood protein that is essential for clotting to take place.
Fibrinogen
Protein component of blood containing antibodies that help to resist infection.
Gamma Globulin
One type of protein found dissolved in the plasma.
Globulins
The form of sugar used by the cells of the body to make energy. It is transported to the cells in the blood.
Glucose
Proteins that are found in plasma. Includes serum albumin, serum globulin, fibrinogen, and prothrombin.
Plasma Proteins
An inorganic substance found in plasma. It is important for bones and muscles.
Potassium
Clear sticky fluid that remains after the blood has clotted.
Serum
An inorganic substance found in plasma.
Sodium
A waste product of protein metabolism. It diffuses through the tissues in lymph and is returned to the circulatory system for transport to the kidneys.
Urea
Waste product produced from destruction of worn-out red blood cells; disposed of by the liver.
Bilirubin
The loss of a cell's nucleus.
Enucleated
Iron-containing pigment of red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissue.
Hemoglobin (Hg)
Nongranular leukocyte. This is one of the two types of leukocytes found in plasma that are classified as either monocytes or lymphocytes.
Agranulocyte
A granulocyte white blood cell that releases histamine and heparin in damaged tissues.
Basophils
A granulocyte white blood cell that destroy parasites and increases during allergic reactions.
Eosinophils
Granular polymorphonuclear leukocyte. There are three types: neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil.
Granulocytes
An agranulocyte white blood cell that provides protection through the immune response.
Lymphocytes
An agranulocyte white blood cell that is important for phagocytosis.
Monocytes
A granulocyte white blood cell that is important for phagocytosis. It is also the most numerous of the leukocytes.
Neutrophils
Disease-bearing organisms.
Pathogens
Neutrophil component of the blood; has the ability to ingest and destory bacteria.
Phagocyte
The process of engulfing or ingesting material. Several types of white blood cells function by engulfing bacteria.
Phagocytosis
Clumping together to form small clusters. Platelets do this to start the clotting process.
Agglutinate
Whitish protein formed by the action of thrombin and fibrinogen, which is the basis for the clotting of blood.
Fibrin
To stop bleeding or the stagnation of the circulating blood.
Hemostasis
Protein element within the blood that interacts with calcium salts to form thrombin.
Prothrombin
A clotting enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
Thrombin
Also called platelets. Platelets play a critical part in the blood-clotting process by agglutinating into small clusters and releasing thrombokinase.
Thrombocytes
Substance released by platelets; reacts with prothrombin to form thrombin.
Thromboplastin
The major system of blood typing.
ABO System
The blood of one person is different from another's due to the presence of antigens on the surface of the erythrocytes. The major method of this is the ABO system and includes types A, B, O, and AB. The other major type is the Rh factor, consisting of th
Blood Typing
An antigen marker found on erythrocytes of persons with Rh+ blood.
Rh factor
One of the ABO blood types. A person with this type blood makes anti-B antibodies.
Type A
One of the ABO blood types. This blood type does not make antibodies against either A nor B blood.
Type AB
One of the ABO blood types. A person with this blood type will make anti-A antibodies.
Type B
One of the ABO blood types. A person with no markers on his or her RBCs. This blood type will not react with anti-A or anti-B antibodies. Therefore, it is considered the universal donor.
Type O
Type O blood is this. It has no markers on the RBC surface, it will not trigger a reaction with anti-A or anti-B antibodies.
Universal Donor
A person with type AB blood has no antibodies against the other blood types and therefore, in an emergency, can receive any type of blood.
Universal Recipient
This person's RBCs do not have the Rh marker and will make antibodies against Rh+ blood.
Rh-Negative
This person's RBCs have the Rh marker.
Rh-Positive
Lab test performed before a person receives a blood transfusion; double checks the blood type of both the donor's and recipient's blood.
Type and Crossmatch
-algia
pain
-cele
hernia, protrusion
-cise
cut
-dynia
pain
-ectasis
dilatation
-ectopia
displacement
-gen
that which produces
-genesis
produces, generates
-genic
producing
-ia
state, condition
-iasis
abnormal condition
-ism
state of
-itis
inflammation
-logist
one who studies
-logy
study of
-lysis
destruction
-malacia
abnormal softening
-megaly
enlargement, large
-oma
tumor, mass
-osis
abnormal condition
-pathy
disease
-plasia
development, growth
-plasm
formation, development
-ptosis
drooping
-rrhage
excessive, abnormal flow
-rrhea
discharge, flow
-rrhexis
rupture
-sclerosis
hardening
-stenosis
narrowing
-therapy
treatment
-trophy
nourishment, development
-uria
condition of the urine
Pertaining to
-ac
-al
-an
-ar
-ary
-eal
-iac
-ic
-ical
-ile
-ior
-ory
-ose
-ous
-tic
The hard collection of fibrin, blood cells, and tissue debris that is the end result of hemostasis or the blood-clotting process.
Blood Clot
When a liquid is converted to a gel or a solid, as in blood coagulation.
Coagulate
A general term indicating the presence of a disease affecting blood.
Dyscrasia
The process of forming erythrocytes in the red bone marrow.
Erythropoiesis
A physisican who specializes in treating diseases and conditions of the blood.
Hematologist
The collection of blood under the skin as a result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. Commonly referred to as a bruise.
Hematoma
To stop bleeding or the stagnation of blood flow through the tissues.
Hemostasis
A transfusion of only the formed elements and without plasma.
Packed Cells
Refers to the mixture of both plasma and formed elements.
Whole Blood
A large group of conditions characterized by a reduction in the number of RBCs or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood; results in less oxygen reaching the tissues.
Anemia
Severe form of anemia that develops as a consequence of loss of functioning red bone marrow. Results in a decrease in the number of all the formed elements. Treatment may eventually require a bone marrow transplant.
Aplastic Anemia
Condition in which antibodies in the mother's blood enter the fetus' blood and cause anemia, jaundice, edema, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. ALSO CALLED HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN.
Erythroblastosis Fetalis
An anemia that develops as the result of the excessive loss of erythrocytes.
Hemolytic Anemia
-centesis
puncture to withdraw fluid
-ectomy
surgical removal
-ostomy
surgically create an opening
-otomy
cutting into
-pexy
surgical fixation
-plasty
surgical repair
-rrhaphy
suture
-gram
record or picture
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
-meter
intrument for measuring
-metry
process of measuring
-scope
instrument for viewing
-scopy
process of visually examining
a-
without, away from
an-
without
ante-
before, in front of
anti-
against
auto-
self
brady-
slow
dys-
painful, difficult
endo-
within, inner
epi-
upon, over
eu-
normal, good
hetero-
different
homo-
same
hydro-
water
hyper-
over, above
hypo-
under, below
infra-
under, beneath, below
inter-
among, between
intra-
within, inside
macro-
large
micro-
small
neo-
new
pan-
all
para-
beside, beyond, near
per-
through
peri-
around
post-
after
pre-
before, in front of
pseudo-
false
retro-
backward, behind
sub-
below, under
super-
above, excess
supra-
above
tachy-
rapid, fast
trans-
through, across
ultra-
beyond, excess
bi-
two
di-
two
hemi-
half
mono-
one
multi-
many
nulli-
none
poly-
many
quad-
four
semi-
partial, half
tri-
three
uni-
one
Condition that may develop during pregnancy if the mother is Rh-negative, in which antibodies in the mother's blood enter the fetus' bloodstream, damaging fetal blood cells. Results in anemia, jaundice, edema, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Als
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
Hereditary blood disease in which blood-clotting time is prolonged. It is transmitted by a sex-linked trait from females to males. It appears almost exclusively in males.
Hemophilia
Condition of having too high a level of lipids such as cholesterol in the bloodstream. A risk factor for developing atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.
Hyperlipidemia
Anemia resulting from having insufficient hemoglobin in the erythrocytes. Named because the hemoglobin molecule is responsible for the dark red color of the erythrocytes.
Hypochromic Anemia
Anemia that results from having insufficient iron to manufacture hemoglobin.
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Cancer of the WBC-forming red bone marrow; results in a large number of abnormal and immature WBCs circulating in the blood.
Leukemia
Anemia associated with insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 by the digestive system. Vitamin B12 is necessary for erythrocyte production.
Pernicious Anemia
Production of too many RBCs by the bone marrow. Blood becomes too thick to easily flow through the blood vessels.
Polycythemia Vera
Having bacteria in the bloodstream. Commonly referred to as blood poisoning.
Septicemia
A genetic disorder in which erythrocytes take on an abnormal curved or "sickle" shape. These cells are fragile and are easily damaged, leading to hemolytic anemia.
Sickle Cell Anemia
A genetic disorder in which the person is unable to make functioning hemoglobin, resulting in anemia.
Thalassemia
AHF
antihemophilic factor
ALL
acute lymphocytic leukemia
AML
acute myelogenous leukemia
basos
basophils
BMT
bone marrow transplant
CBC
complete blood count
CLL
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CML
chronic myelogenous leukemia
diff
differential
eosins, eos
eosinophils
ESR, SR, sed rate
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
HCT, Hct, crit
hematocrit
HDN
hemolytic disease of the newborn
Hgb, Hb, HGB
hemoglobin
lymphs
lymphocytes
MCV
mean corpuscular volume
monos
monocytes
PA
pernicious anemia
PCV
packed cell volume
PMN, polys
polymorphonuclear neutrophil
PT, pro-time
prothrombin time
RBC
red blood cell
Rh+
Rh-positive
Rh-
Rh-negative
SMAC
sequential multiple analyzer computer
WBC
white blood cell
Test to measure the amount of time it takes for blood to coagulate.
Bleeding Time
Sample of blood is incubated in the laboratory to check for bacterial growth. If bacteria are present, they are identified and tested to determine which antibiotics they are sensitive to.
Blood Culture and Sensitivity (C&S)
Sample of bone marrow is removed by aspiration with a needle and examined for diseases such as leukemia or aplastic anemia.
Bone Marrow Aspiration
Blood test that consists of five tests: red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), and white blood cell differential.
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Blood test to determine the rate at which mature blood cells settle out of the blood after the addition of an anticoagulant. This is an indicator of the presence of an inflammatory disease.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Blood test to measure the volume of red blood cells within the total volume of blood.
Hematocrit (HCT,Hct,crit)
Incision into a vein in order to remove blood for a diagnostic test. Also called venipuncture.
Phlebotomy
Blood test to determine the number of platelets in a given volume of blood.
Platelet Count
A measure of the blood's coagulation abilities by measuring how long it takes for a clot to form after prothrombin has been activated.
Prothrombin Time (Pro time, PT)
Blood test to determine the number of erythrocytes in a volume of blood.
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
Examination of a specimen of blood for abnormalities in the shape (morphology) of the erythrocytes. Used to determine diseases like sickle cell anemia.
Red Blood Cell Morphology
Machine for doing multiple blood chemistry tests automatically.
Sequential Multiple Analyzer Computer (SMAC)
Blood test to measure the number of leukocytes in a volume of blood.
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
Blood test to determine the number of each variety of leukocytes.
White Blood Cell Differential (diff)
Procedure for collecting and storing a patient's own blood several weeks prior to the actual need. It can be used to replace blood lost during a surgical procedure.
Autologous Transfusion
Artificial transfer of blood into the bloodstream.
Blood Transfusion
Patient receives red bone marrow from a donor after the patient's own bone marrow has been destroyed by radiation or chemotherapy.
Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)
Replacement of blood by transfusion of blood received from another person.
Homologous Transfusion
Method of removing plasma from the body without depleting the formed elements. Whole blood is removed and the cells and plasma are separated. The cells are returned to the patient along with a donor plasma transfusion.
Plasmapheresis
Prevents blood clot formation.
Anticoagulant
Substance that prevents or stops hemorrhaging; a hemostatic agent.
Antihemorrhagic
Interferes with the action of platelets. Prolongs bleeding time. Commonly referred to as blood thinners.
Antiplatelet
Substance that increases the number of erythrocytes or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood.
Hematinic
Stops the flow of blood; an antihemorrhagic.
Hemostatic
Able to dissolve existing blood clots.
Thrombolytic
aden/o
gland
adenoid/o
adenoids
immun/o
protection
lymph/o
lymph
lymphaden/o
lymph node
lymphangi/o
lymph vessel
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus

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