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Glossary of Medical Terminology Exam 3

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arteriole
small artery
catheter
tube for injecting or removing fluids
cortex
outer region; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney (cortical means pertaining to the cortex)
hilum
depression or pit in that part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
kidney
1 or 2 bean-shaped organs located behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region
meatus
opening or canal
medulla
inner region; the renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney (medullary means pertaining to the medulla)
micturition
urination; the act of voiding
renal artery
carries blood to the kidney
renal pelvis
central collecting region in the kidney
renal vein
carries blood away from the kidney
trigone
triangular area in the bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits
ureter
tube leading from each kidney to the bladder
urethra
tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body
urinary bladder
sac that holds urine
urination
process of expelling urine; also called micturition
voiding
emptying of urine from the urinary bladder; urination or micturition
cali/o, calic/o
calyx (calix)
cyst/o
urinary bladder
glomerul/o
glomerulus (collection of capillaries)
meat/o
meatus
nephr/o
kidney
pyel/o
renal pelvis
ren/o
kidney
trigon/o
trigone (region of the bladder)
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
vesic/o
urinary bladder
albumin/o
albumin (a protein in the blood)
azot/o
nitrogen
bacteri/o
bacteria
dips/o
thirst
ket/o, keton/o
ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
lith/o
stone
noct/i
night
olig/o
scanty
-poietin
substance that forms
py/o
pus
-tripsy
to crush
ur/o
urine (urea)
urin/o
urine
-uria
urination, urine condition
urinary incontinence
loss of control of the passage of the urine from the bladder
urinary retention
symptom results w/ the blockage to the outflow of urine from the bladder
glomerulonephritis
inflammation fo the kidney glomerulus
nephrolithiasis
kidney stones (renal calculi)
nephrotic syndrome
a group of symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in the urine (also called nephrosis)
polycystic kidneys
multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) w/in & upon the kidney hereditary cond. usu. remains asymptomatic (w/out symptoms)
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal medulla
renal cell carcinoma
(hypernephroma)
cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood
renal failure
failure of the kidney to excrete wastes & maintain its filtration function
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
renal hypertension
high blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
Wilms tumor
malignant tumor of the kidney occuring in childhood
bladder cancer
malignant tumor of the urinary bladder
diabetes insipidus
inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
diabetes mellitus
inadequate secretion or improper utilization of insulin
CT scan
X-ray image w/ detailed cross-sectional views of organs and tissues
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
X-ray image of the kidneys & ureters after injection of contrast into a vein
(also called excretory urogram)
kidneys, ureters, & bladder (KUB)
X-ray examination (w/out contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, & bladder
renal angiography
X-ray examination (w/ contrast) of the vascular system (blood vessels) of the kidney
retrograde pyelogram (RP)
X-ray images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder after injecting contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters
voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
X-ray record (w/ contrast) of the urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra while the patient is expelling urine
ultrasonography
process of imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a magnetic field and radio waves produce images of the kidney and surrounding structures in all three planes of the body
cystoscopy
direct visual examination of urinary bladder w/ an endoscope (cystoscope)
dialysis
process of seperating nitrogenous waste materials from the bloodstream when the kidneys no longer function
hemodialysis (HD)
uses an artificial kidney machine
peritoneal dialysis (PD)
uses a peritioneal catheter, fluid is intoduced into the peritoneal cavity
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
shock waves crush urinary tract stones, which then pass from the body in urine
renal angioplasty
dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries
stents
metal meshed tube used to keep the vessel open
renal biopsy
removal of kidney tissue w/ microscopic examination by a pathologist
renal transplantation
surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient
urinary catherization
passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder
ARF
acute renal failure
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
Cath
catheter, catherization
CRF
chronic renal failure; progressive loss of kidney function
cysto
cystoscopic examination
ESRD
end-stage renal disease; see CKD
ESWL
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
HD
hemodialysis
IVP
intravenous pyelogram
KUB
kidney, ureter, and bladder
PD
peritoneal dialysis
UA
urinalysis
UTI
urinary tract infection
VCUG
voiding cystourethrogram
episiotomy
to avoid perineal tear, it is deliberately cut on a slant b/4 delivery
utero-ovarian ligament
holds the ovary in place
graafian follicles
contains an ovum
corpus luteum
empty graafian follicle that secretes estrogen & progesterone after releast of the egg cell (yellow body)
lactation
the production of milk
amniotic fluid
fluid in the amniotic cavity
afterbirth
expelled placenta
amnion
innermost membrane around the developing embryo
areola
dark-pigmented area around the breast nipple
Bartholin glands
small exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice
cervix
lower neck portion of the uterus
clitoris
organ of sensitive erectile tissue anterior to the urinary meatus
coitus
sexual intercourse; copulation
cul-de-sac
region w/in the pelvis, midway b/n the rectum and the uterus
embryo
stage in prenatal development from implantation of the fertilized ovum until the 2nd month of pregnancy
endometrium
inner mucous membrane lining the uterus
estrogen
hormone produced by the ovaries; responsible for promoting female secondary sex characteristics
fallopian tube
one of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus
fertilization
union of the sperm cell and ovum from which the embryo develops
fetus
embryo from the eighth week after fertilization until birth
fimbriae (plural)
finger-like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes
gamete
male or female sexual reproductive cell; sperm cell or ovum
genitalia
reproductive organs; also called genitals
gestation
period from fertilization of the ovum to birth; pregnancy
gonad
organ in the male (testis) and female (ovary) that produces gametes
gynecology
study of the female reproductive organs including the breasts
mammary papilla
nipple of the breast. A papilla is any small nipple-shaped projection
menarche
beginning of the first menstrual period during puberty
menopause
gradual ending of menstruation
menstruation
monthly shedding of the uterine lining
menses
the normal flow of blood & tissue that occurs during menstruation
myometrium
muscle layer lining the uterus
neonatology
branch of medicine that concentrates on the care of the newborn (neonate)
obstetrics
branch of medicine concerned w/ pregnancy & childbirth
orifice
an opening
ovary
one of a pair of female organs (gonads)on each side of the pelvis; almond shaped, size of lg walnuts,& produce egg cells (ova) and hormones
ovulation
release of the ovum from the ovary
ovum (plural: ova)
egg cell; female gamete
parturition
act of giving birth
perineum
in females, the area b/n the anus and the vagina
placenta
vascular organ that develops during pregnancy in the uterine wall, its a cmcn b/n maternal & fetal bloodstreams
pregnancy
growth & developmental process in a woman from fertilization through embryonic & fetal periods to birth; gestation
progesterone
hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women
puberty
period of life when the ability to reproduce begins; secondary sex characteristics appear and gametes are produced
uterine serosa
outermost layer surrounding the uterus
uterus
female organ where embryo develops and from which menstruation occurs
fundus
upper portion of uterus
corpus
middle portion of the uterus
vagina
tube extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body
vulva
external genitalia of the female; includes the labia, hymen, and clitoris
amni/o
amnion
cervic/o
cervix, neck
chori/o, chorion/o
chorion
colp/o
vagina
culd/o
cul-de-sac
episi/o
vulva
galact/o
milk
gynec/o
woman, female
gynecomastia
enlargement of one or both breasts in a male; often occurs w/ relation to drugs
hyster/o
uterus,womb
lact/o
milk
mamm/o
breast
mast/o
breast
men/o
menses, menstruation
metr/o, metri/o
uterus
my/o
muscle
myom/o
muscle tumor
nat/i
birth
obstetr/o
midwife
o/o, ov/o, ovul/o
egg
oophor/o, ovari/o
ovary
perine/o
perineum
phor/o
to bear
salping/o
fallopian tubes
uter/o
uterus
vagin/o
vagina
vulv/o
vulva
-arche
beginning
-cyesis
pregnancy
-gravida
pregnancy
-parous
to bear, bring forth
-rrhea
discharge
-salpinx
uterine tube
-tocia
labor, birth
-version
act of turning
dys-
painful
endo-
within
in-
in
intra-
within
multi-
many
nulli-
no, not, none
pre-
before
primi-
first
retro-
backward
carcinoma of the cervix
malignant cells within the cervix (cervical cancer)
cervicitis
inflammation of the cervix
carcinoma of the endometrium (endometrial cancer)
malignant tumor of the uterus (adenocarcinoma)
endometriosis
endometrial tissue is found in abnormal locations, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, supporting ligaments, or small intestine
fibroids
benign tumors in the uterus
ovarian carcinoma
malignant tumor of the ovary (adenocarcinoma0
ovarian cystss
collections of fluid within a sac (cyst) in the ovary
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
inflammation in the pelvic region; salpingitis
carcinoma of the breast
malignant tumor of the breast (arising from milk glands and ducts)
lumpectomy
small primary tumors of the breast, the lump and immediately surrounding tissue is removed
modified radical mastectomy
which is removal of the whole breast, lymph nodes, and adjacent chest wall muscle
fibrocystic disease
small sacs of tissue and fluid in the breast
abruptio placentae
premature separation of the implanted placenta
ectopic pregnancy
implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location
placenta previa
placentla implantation over the cervical os (opening) or in the lower region of the uterine wall
preeclampsia
abnormal condition of pregnancy characterized by the triad of high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema
Apgar score
scores are given for heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone, & response time
rated 0,1, or 2 max total 10
down syndrome
chromosomal abnormality (trisomy-21)results in mental retardation, retarded growth, a flat face w/ a short nose, low-set ears, and slanted eyes
erythroblastosis fetalis
hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility b/n the mother and fetus
hyaline membrane disease or
respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn
acute lung disease commonly seen in the premature newborn
hydrocephalus
accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain
pyloric stenosis
narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum
Pap smear (test)
microscopic examination of stained cells from the vagina and cervix
speculum
instrument to hold apart the vaginal walls
pregnancy test
blood or urine test to detect the presence of HCG
hysterosalpingography
X-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material
mammography
x-ray imaging of the breast
pelvic ultrasonography
record of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvic region
aspiration
w/drawl of fluid from a cavity or sac
cauterization
process of burning a part of the body
colposcopy
visual examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope
conization
removal of a cone-shaped section of the cervix
cyrosurgery or cryocauterization
use of cold temps to destroy tissue
culdocentesis
needle aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac
dilation (dilatation) and curettage (D&C)
widening of the cervix and scraping the endometrium of the uterus
laparoscopy
visual examination of the abdominal cavity
tubal ligation
blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization from occuring
abortion
spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before the fetusc can exist on its own
amniocentesis
surgical puncture of the amniotic sac to w/draw amniotic fluid for analysis
cesarean section
surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus
fetal monitoring
use of ultrasonography to record the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions during labor
AB
abortion
BSE
breast self-examination
C-section
cesarean section
CIS
carcinoma in situ
CS
cesarean section
Cx
cervix
D&C
dilation (dilatation) and cutterage
DUB
dysfunctional uterine bleeding
FHR
fetal heart rate
G
gravida (pregnant)
GYN
gynecology
HDN
hemolytic disease of the newborn
menstrual cycle
last 28 days
menstrual period
days 1-5 menstruation
post menstrual period
days 6-12
ovulatory period
days 13-14 on about day 14 ovulation occurs
pre-menstrual period
days 15-28
IUD
intrauterine device; contraceptive
LMP
last menstrual period
OB
obstetrics
Para; P
woman's reproductive history
Path
pathology

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