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Glossary of Medical Student Amnesia USMLE Step 1

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Addison’s Disease
1. Primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addisonian Anemia
2. Pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells →↓IF →↓Vit B12 →megaloblastic anemia)
Albright’s Syndrome
3. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
Alport’s Syndrome
4. Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Alzheimer’s
5. Progressive dementia
Argyll-Robertson Pupil
6. Loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral)
Arnold-Chiari Malformation
10. Cerebellar tonsil herniation through foramen magnum = see thoracolumbar meningomyelocele
Barrett’s
11. Columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus (↑risk of adenocarcinoma)- constant gastroesophageal reflux
Bartter’s Syndrome
12. Hyperreninemia
Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy
13. Similar to Duchenne
Bell’s Palsy
14. CNVII palsy (entire face; recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face)
Berger’s Disease
15. IgA nephropathy causing hematuria in kids
Bernard-Soulier Disease
16. Defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of platelet-surface glycoprotein)
Berry Aneurysm
17. Circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed) Anterior Communicating artery
Bowen’s Disease
19. Carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis (↑risk of visceral ca) [compare w/ Queyrat]
Brill-Zinsser Disease
20. Recurrences of rickettsia prowazaki up to 50 yrs later
Briquet’s Syndrome
21. Somatization disorder
Broca’s Aphasia
23. Motor Aphasia (area 44 & 45) intact comprehension
Brown-Sequard
24. Hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch
Bruton’s Disease
25. X-linked agammaglobinemia (↓B cells)
Budd-Chiari
26. Post-hepatic venous thrombosis = ab pain; hepatomegaly; ascites; portal HTN; liver failure
Buerger’s Disease
27. Acute inflammation of medium and small arteries of extremities →painful ischemia →gangrene
Burkitt’s Lymphoma
29. Small noncleaved cell lymphoma EBV
31. Seen commonly in jaws
abdomen
Caisson Disease
33. Nitric gas emboli
Chagas’ Disease
34. Trypansoma infection - cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
Chediak-Higashi Disease
35. (AR) Phagocyte Deficiency = defect in microtubule polymerization
36. Neutropenia
albinism
Conn’s Syndrome
37. Primary Aldosteronism: HTN; retain Na+ & H2O; hypokalemia (causing alkalosis); ↓renin
Cori’s Disease
38. Type III Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease (debranching enz: amylo 1
Creutzfeldt-Jakob
39. Prion infection →cerebellar & cerebral degeneration
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome
40. Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated)
Crohn’s
43. IBD; ileocecum
44. (contrast to UC: limited to colon
mucosa & submucosa
Curling’s Ulcer
46. Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Cushing’s
47. Disease: Hypercorticism 2to ↑ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma)
Cushing’s Ulcer
0. Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma
de Quervain’s Thyroiditis
1. Self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
DiGeorge’s Syndrome
2. Failure of 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches formation: Thymus & Parathyroid
8. Striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
Down’s Syndrome
. Trisomy 21 or translocation – Simian Crease
Dressler’s Syndrome
6. Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
7. Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) = bilirubin transposrt is defective not conjugation
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
9. Deficiency of dystrophin protein →MD X-linked recessive
Addison’s Disease 1
Primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addisonian Anemia 2
Pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells →↓IF →↓Vit B12 →megaloblastic anemia)
Albright’s Syndrome 3
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia; precocious puberty; café au lait spots; short stature; young girls
Alport’s Syndrome 4
Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Alzheimer’s 5
Progressive dementia
Argyll-Robertson Pupil 6
Loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral)
7
“Prostitute’s Eye” – accommodates but does not react
8
Pathognomonic for 3Syphilis
9
Lesion pretectal region of superior colliculus
Arnold-Chiari Malformation 10
Cerebellar tonsil herniation through foramen magnum = see thoracolumbar meningomyelocele
Barrett’s 11
Columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus (↑risk of adenocarcinoma)- constant gastroesophageal reflux
Bartter’s Syndrome 12
Hyperreninemia
Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy 13
Similar to Duchenne; but less severe (mutation; not a deficiency; in dystrophin protein)
Bell’s Palsy 14
CNVII palsy (entire face; recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face)
Berger’s Disease 15
IgA nephropathy causing hematuria in kids; usually following infection
Bernard-Soulier Disease 16
Defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of platelet-surface glycoprotein)
Berry Aneurysm 17
Circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed) Anterior Communicating artery
18
Often associated with ADPKD
Bowen’s Disease 19
Carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis (↑risk of visceral ca) [compare w/ Queyrat]
Brill-Zinsser Disease 20
Recurrences of rickettsia prowazaki up to 50 yrs later
Briquet’s Syndrome 21
Somatization disorder
22
Psychological: multiple physical complaints without physical pathology
Broca’s Aphasia 23
Motor Aphasia (area 44 & 45) intact comprehension
Brown-Sequard 24
Hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch; UMN / ipsi loss of consc
Bruton’s Disease 25
X-linked agammaglobinemia (↓B cells)
Budd-Chiari 26
Post-hepatic venous thrombosis = ab pain; hepatomegaly; ascites; portal HTN; liver failure
Buerger’s Disease 27
Acute inflammation of medium and small arteries of extremities →painful ischemia →gangrene
28
Seen almost exclusively in young and middle-aged men who smoke
Burkitt’s Lymphoma 29
Small noncleaved cell lymphoma EBV
30
8:14 translocation
31
Seen commonly in jaws; abdomen; retroperitoneal soft tissues
32
Starry sky appearance
Caisson Disease 33
Nitric gas emboli
Chagas’ Disease 34
Trypansoma infection - cardiomegaly with apical atrophy; achlasia
Chediak-Higashi Disease 35
(AR) Phagocyte Deficiency = defect in microtubule polymerization
36
Neutropenia; albinism; cranial & peripheral neuropathy & repeated infections w/ strep & staph
Conn’s Syndrome 37
Primary Aldosteronism: HTN; retain Na+ & H2O; hypokalemia (causing alkalosis); ↓renin
Cori’s Disease 38
Type III Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease (debranching enz: amylo 1;6 glucosidase def
Creutzfeldt-Jakob 39
Prion infection →cerebellar & cerebral degeneration
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome 40
Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated)
41
Glucuronyl transferase deficiency
42
Less severe form will respond to Phenobarbital therapy
Crohn’s 43
IBD; ileocecum; transmural; skip lesions; cobblestones; lymphocytic infiltrate; granulomas
44
(contrast to UC: limited to colon; mucosa & submucosa; crypt abscesses; pseudopolyps; ↑colon cancer risk)
45
Clinically: ab pain & diarrhea; fever; malabsorption; fistulae b/t intestinal loops & abd structures
Curling’s Ulcer 46
Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Cushing’s 47
Disease: Hypercorticism 2to ↑ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma)
48
Syndrome: hypercorticism of all other causes (1adrenal or ectopic)
49
- moon face; buffalo hump; purple striae; hirsutism; HTN; hyperglycemia
Cushing’s Ulcer 50
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma
de Quervain’s Thyroiditis 51
Self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
DiGeorge’s Syndrome 52
Failure of 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches formation: Thymus & Parathyroid
53
Thymic hypoplasia →T-cell deficiency
54
Hypoparathyroidism Tetany
Down’s Syndrome 55
Trisomy 21 or translocation – Simian Crease
Dressler’s Syndrome 56
Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome 57
Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) = bilirubin transposrt is defective not conjugation
58
Striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 59
Deficiency of dystrophin protein →MD X-linked recessive
Edwards’ Syndrome 60
Trisomy 18
61
Rocker-bottom feet; low ears; small lower jaw; heart disease
Ehler’s-Danlos 62
Defective collagen
Eisenmenger’s Complex 63
Late cyanotic shunt (R→L) pulmonary HTN & RVH 2to long-standing VSD; ASD; or PDA
Erb-Duchenne Palsy 64
Trauma to superior trunk of brachial plexus Waiter’s Tip
Ewing Sarcoma 65
Malignant undifferentiated round cell tumor of bone in boys <15yoa - t11;22
Eyrthroplasia of Queyrat 66
Carcinoma in situ on glans penis
Fanconi’s Syndrome 67
Impaired proximal tubular reabsorption 2to lead poisoning or Tetracycline (glycosuria;
Felty’s Syndrome 68
Rheumatoid arthritis; neutropenia; splenomegaly
Gardner’s Syndrome 69
AD = adenomatous polyps of colon; osteomas & soft tissue tumors
Gaucher’s Disease 70
Lysosomal Storage Disease glucocerebrosidase deficiency – glucocerebroside accumulation
71
Hepatosplenomegaly; femoral head & long bone erosion; anemia
Gilbert’s Syndrome 72
Benign congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated) = ↓d glucuronyl transferase activity
Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia 73
Defective glycoproteins on platelets = deficient platelet aggregation
Goodpasture’s 74
Autoimmune: ab’s to glomerular & alveolar basement membranes
Grave’s Disease 75
Autoimmune hyperthyroidism (TSI): IgG Ab reactive w/ TSH receptors
Guillain-Barre 76
Polyneuritis following viral infection/ autoimmune (ascending muscle weakness & paralysis; usually self-limiting)
Hamman-Rich Syndrome 77
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Hand-Schuller-Christian 78
Chronic progressive histiocytosis
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis 79
Autoimmune hypothyroidism
Hashitoxicosis 80
Initial hyperthyroidism in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis that precedes hypothyroidism
Henoch-Schonlein purpura 81
Hypersensivity vasculitis = allergic purpura
82
Hemmorhagic urticaria (with fever; arthralgias; GI & renal involvement)
83
Associated with upper respiratory infections
Hirschprung’s Disease 84
Aganglionic megacolon
Horner’s Syndrome 85
Ptosis; miosis; anhidrosis (lesion of cervical sympathetic nerves often 2to a Pancoast tumor)
Huntington’s (Chromosome 4) 86
AD: Progressive degeneration of caudate nucleus; putamen (striatum) & frontal cortex ↓GABA
Jacksonian Seizures 87
Epileptic events originating in the primary motor cortex (area 4)
Job’s Syndrome 1
Immune deficiency: neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli
2
Defective neutrophilic chemotactic response = repeated infections
3
Commonly seen in light-skinned; red-haired girls
88
↑’d IgE levels
Kaposi Sarcoma 89
Malignant vascular tumor (HHV8 in homosexual men)
Kartagener’s Syndrome 90
Immotile cilia 2to defective dynein arms infection; situs inversus; sterility
Kawasaki Disease 91
Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome in kids (acute necrotizing vasculitis of lips; oral mucosa)
Klinefelter’s Syndrome 92
47; XXY: Long arms; Sterile; Hypogonadism
Kluver-Bucy 93
Bilateral lesions of amygdala (hypersexuality; oral behavior)
Krukenberg Tumor 94
Adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells (typically originating from the stomach) metastases to
95
the ovaries
Laennec’s Cirrhosis 96
Alcoholic cirrhosis
Lesch-Nyhan 97
HGPRT deficiency
98
Gout; retardation; self-mutilation
Letterer-Siwe 99
Acute disseminated Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis
Libman-Sacks 100
Endocarditis with small vegetations on valve leaflets
101
Associated with SLE
Lou Gehrig’s 102
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis degeneration of upper & lower motor neurons
Mallory-Weis Syndrome 103
Bleeding from esophagogastric lacerations 2to wretching (alcoholics)
Marfan’s 104
Connective tissue defect: defective Fibrillin gene Dissecting aortic aneurysm; subluxation of lenses
McArdle’s Disease 105
Type V Glycogenosis - Glycogen storage disease (muscle phosphorylase deficiency = ↑Glycogen)
Meckel’s Diverticulum 106
Rule of 2’s: 2 inches long; 2 feet from the ileocecum; in 2% of the population
107
Embryonic duct origin; may have ectopic tissue: gastric/pancreatic remnant of vitteline duct/yolk stalk
Meig’s Syndrome 108
Triad: ovarian fibroma; ascites; hydrothorax – associated w/ fibroma of ovaries
Menetrier’s Disease 109
Giant hypertrophic gastritis (enlarged rugae; plasma protein loss)
Monckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis 110
Calcification of the media (usually radial & ulnar aa
Munchausen Syndrome 111
Factitious disorder (consciously creates symptoms; but doesn’t know why)
Nelson’s Syndrome 112
1Adrenal Cushings →surgical removal of adrenals →loss of negative feedback to pituitary →
Niemann-Pick 113
Lysosomal Storage Disease (sphingomyelinase deficiency – sphingomyelin accumulation)
114
“Foamy histiocytes”
Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome 115
Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
Paget’s Disease 116
Abnormal bone architecture (thickened; numerous fractures →pain)
Pancoast Tumor 117
Bronchogenic tumor with superior sulcus involvement →Horner’s Syndrome
Parkinson’s 118
Dopamine depletion in nigrostriatal tracts
Peutz-Jegher’s Syndrome (AD) 119
Melanin pigmentation of lips; mouth; hand; genitalia + hamartomatous polyps of small intestine
Peyronie’s Disease 120
Subcutaneous fibrosis of dorsum of penis
121
1
122
1
123
Calcium-frosting; unyielding layer – heart chambers may be unable to dilate to receive blood during diastole
Plummer’s Syndrome 124
Hyperthyroidism; nodular goiter; absence of eye signs (Plummer’s = Grave’s - eye signs)
Plummer-Vinson 125
Esophageal webs & iron-deficiency anemia; spoon-shaped nails; ↑SCCA of esophagus
Pompe’s Disease 126
Type II Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease →cardiomegaly (1;4 Glucosidase deficiency: ↑
Pott’s Disease 127
Tuberculous osteomyelitis of the vertebrae
Potter’s Complex 128
Renal agenesis →oligohydramnios →hypoplastic lungs; defects in extremities
Raynaud’s 129
Disease: recurrent vasospasm in extremities = seen in young; healthy women
130
Phenomenon: 2to underlying disease (SLE or scleroderma)
Reiter’s Syndrome 131
Urethritis; conjunctivitis; arthritis non-infectious (but often follows infections); HLA-B27; polyarticular
Reye’s Syndrome 132
Microvesicular fatty liver change & encephalopathy
133
2to aspirin ingestion in children following viral illness; especially VZV
Riedel’s Thyroiditis 134
Idiopathic fibrous replacement of thyroid
Rotor Syndrome 135
Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated)
136
Similar to Dubin-Johnson; but no discoloration of the liver
Sezary Syndrome 137
Leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides)
Shaver’s Disease 138
Aluminum inhalation →lung fibrosis
Sheehan’s Syndrome 139
Postpartum pituitary necrosis = hemorrhage & shock usually occurred during delivery
Shy-Drager 140
Parkinsonism with autonomic dysfunction & orthostatic hypotension
Simmond’s Disease 141
Pituitary cachexia – can occur from either pituitary tumors or Sheehan’s
Sipple’s Syndrome 142
MEN type IIa = pheochromocytoma; thyroid medullary CA; hyperparathyroidism
Sjogren’s Syndrome 143
Triad: dry eyes; dry mouth; arthritis ↑risk of B-cell lymphoma
Spitz Nevus 144
Juvenile melanoma (always benign)
Stein-Leventhal 145
Polycystic ovary: see amenorrhea; infertility; obesity; hirsutism = ↑↑LH secretion
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome 146
Erythema multiforme; fever; malaise; mucosal ulceration (often 2to infection = mycoplasma or sulfa
Still’s Disease 147
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (absence of rheumatoid factor)
Takayasu’s arteritis 148
Aortic arch syndrome
149
Loss of carotid; radial or ulnar pulses = pulseless disease
150
Common in young Asian females
Tay-Sachs (AR) 151
Gangliosidosis (hexosaminidase A deficiency →GM2 ganglioside) Cherry Red Spots of the Macula
Tetralogy of Fallot 152
1
Tourette’s Syndrome 153
Involuntary actions; both motor and vocal Txt w/ Pimozide
Turcot’s Syndrome 154
Colon adenomatous polyps plus CNS tumors
Turner’s Syndrome 155
45; XO = most common cause of Primary Amenorrhea
Vincent’s Infection 156
“Trench mouth” – acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis due to Fusobacterium
Von Gierke’s Disease 157
Type I Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease (G6Ptase deficiency) – Glycogen accumulaiton
Von Hippel-Lindau 158
Hemangioma (or hemangioblastoma) = cerebellum; brain stem; & retina
159
Adenomas of the viscera; especially ↑Renal Cell Carcinoma
160
Chromosome 3p
Von Recklinghausen’s 161
Neurofibromatosis & café au lait spots & Lisch nodules (Chromosome 17)
Von Recklinghausen’s Disease of Bone 162
Osteitis fibrosa cystica (“brown tumor”) 2to hyperparathyroidism = osteoclastic resorption w/
163
fibrous replacement
Von Willebrand’s Disease (AD) 164
Defect in platelet adhesion 2to deficiency in vWF
Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia 165
Proliferation of IgM-producing lymphoid cells in men 50-70 yoa; PAS(+) Dutcher bodies
Wallenberg’s Syndrome 166
Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) thrombosis “Medullary Syndrome”
167
Ipsilateral: ataxia; facial pain & temp; Contralateral: body pain & temp
Waterhouse-Friderichsen 168
Adrenal insufficiency 2to DIC
169
DIC 2to meningiococcemia
Weber’s Syndrome 170
Paramedian Infarct of Midbrain
171
Ipsilateral: mydriasis; Contralateral: UMN paralysis (lower face & body)
Wegener’s Granulomatosis 172
Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of paranasal sinuses; lungs; kidneys; etc
Weil’s Disease 173
Icteric Leptospirosis non-icteric prgresses to renal failure & myocarditis
174
Dark field microscopy for dx
Wermer’s Syndrome 175
MEN type I = thyroid; parathyroid; adrenal cortex; pancreatic islets; pituitary
Wernicke’s Aphasia 176
Sensory Aphasia impaired comprehension
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome 177
Thiamine deficiency in alcoholics; bilateral mamillary bodies (mediodorsal nucleua) (confusion; ataxia;
Whipple’s Disease 178
Malabsorption syndrome (with bacteria-laden macrophages) & polyarthritis
Wilson’s Disease 179
Hepatolenticular degeneration (copper accumulation [Txt w/ Penicillamine ] & decrease in ceruloplasmin)
180
Mallory Bodies in the Liver & also w/ alcoholic hepatitis & Hyaline change
181
Chromosome 13
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome 182
Immunodeficiency: combined B- &T-cell deficiency (thrombocytopenia & eczema)
183
↓IgM w/ ↑IgA
Wolff-Chaikoff Effect 184
High iodine level (−)’s thyroid hormone synthesis
Zenker’s Diverticulum 185
Esophageal; cricopharyngeal muscles above UES
Zollinger-Ellison 186
Gastrin-secreting tumor of pancreas (or intestine) →↑acid →recurrent ulcers
Roger’s Disease 187
Interventricular septal defect
Barlow’s Syndrome 188
Floppy vale syndrome – women b/t 20-40 yoa
Bracht-Wachter Lesions 189
Minute abscesses found in subacute bacterial endocarditis
Lutembacher’s Syndrome 190
Combination of septum secundum atrial septal defect w/ mitral stenosis
Schmidt’s Syndrome 191
Autoimmnue thyroid Disease (Hashimoto’s ) & insulin-dependent diabetes

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