Glossary of Medical Specialties Musculoskelaton

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Dr. specializing in misalignment of the spine
Dr. specializing in bones joints and muscles
Orthopedic Surgeon
Study of making and fitting orthopedic appliances
Dr. specializing in diagnosis and treatment of foot
Dr. specializing in treatment of health problems by manipulating the positions of the bones
Osteopathic physician
Sports-related injuries of the bones joints and muscles
Sports medicine
A Chiropractor holds what degree?
Doctor of Chiropractice DC
An Osteopathic Surgeon holds what degree?
Doctor of Osteopathy DO
Name one degree a podiatrist might have.
Doctor of Podiatric Medicine DPM
Name the other degree a podiatrist can have
Doctor of Podiatry DP
How many bones are there in the human body?
functions of the skeleton?
support framework
protect vital organs
stores minerals
assist in body movement
manufactures red blood cells
The process of making red blood cells is called?
What makes movement possible?
What is the pathway for neural messages between bones and brain
spinal cord
What protects the spinal cord?
backbone or spinal column
What protects heart liver lungs and spleen?
what protects the bladder intestines?
What minerals do the bones contain?
calcium phosphorous and sodium
what is stored in your bones and released as necessary?
what makes the blood cells?
bone marrow
what special cells does the marrow contain?
stem cells
stem cells produce what?
red blood cells
what diseases can bone marrow treat?
leukemia and immunodeficiency or treatment from chemo
what opens and closes like hinges?
joints (fingers elbows)
shoulder or hip joints allow what kind of movement?
backward forward sideways and rotating movements
what moves food through the digestive system?
what do muscles in the heart do?
drive circulation
what do muscles in the chest do?
help us breathe
what is leukemia?
cancer of the white blood cells
what is nervous tissue?
carries info electrical impulses
what is reponsible for movement?
what does connective tissue do?
stores energy supports body and organs holds organs together
what are specialized connective tissue
bones cartilages ligaments tendons and blood
what covers body surfaces lines hollow organs body cavities and blood vessels and forms glands?
epithelial tissue
what is a specialized type of tissue?
what is a tissue?
similar cells that work together to perform particular functions
how many basic categories of tissues are there?
what percentage of bones is made of minerals?
what percent is organic matter?
What are the forms of bone?
compact cancellous
Describe compact bone
solid hard outside of bone six times stronger than a steel bar of the same weight
What runs through compact bone?
holes and channels carrying blood vessels and nerves
Describe cancellous bone
looks spongy inside compact bone
Cancellous bone is made up of what?
meshlike network tiny pieces of bone
what are the tiny pieces of bone in cancellous called?
In the womb what is the bone made of?
First it is cartilage
What happens after a few weeks of development?
It begins process of ossification
what is ossification?
cartilage is replaced by calcium phosphate and stretchy collagen
How long does ossification take?
20 years
what are growing zones?
growth plates that consist of multiplying cartilage cells grow and change into bones (children)
how many years do girls arms and legs grow?
14 years
how many years do bones grow?
all your life
how many cells do bones contain?
3 osteoblasts
what do osteoblasts do?
make new bone and repair damage
what do osteocytes do?
arrange themselves in specific patterns, carry nutrients and wastes to and from blood vessels in the bone
what do osteoclasts do?
break down bone (destroy) and help sculpt and shape it
osteoblasts another name
embyonic bone cells
another name for osteocytes
large cells that absorb/digest bone tissue
mature bone cells
which is very active in children
what % of bone is broken down and built up every year in children
external and internal bone are covered with pliable protective tissue called
what is the membrane that covers the external surface?
what covers the inner cavities of bone?
what are the 2 basic type of bone markings called?
processes and depressions
another name for compact bone
cortical bone
which is the spongy bone tissue?
cancellous bone
which is the hard dense bone tissue?
compact bone
what are the shape classifications?
long bones short bones irregular bones flat bones
where are long bones found?
leg and arm
what is the shaft of the long bone called?
The diaphysis has a thick wall made up of what?
compact bone
the diaphysis surrounds a central cavity called what?
medullary cavity
what's the medullary cavity made of?
yellow marrow (Fat)
Both ends of the long bone (Bulb like) are called what?
what is inside the epiphysis?
cancellous bone and red marrow
The outer part of the epiphysis does what?
what is articulate?
forms a joint
what is the joint coated with?
hyaline cartilage
what's between the diaphysis and the epiphysis?
what cartilage is a specialized connective tissue?
hyaline cartilage
what family does the hyaline cartilage beong to?
cartilaginous tissues
what are two other family members?
fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage
what kind of cartilage is at the tip of your nose?
hyaline cartilage
what are the cross section names
periosteum compact bone,endosteum, cancellous bone
short bones irregular bones and flat bones do not have what, that long bones have?
medullary cavity
what do the short bones look like?
what do flat bones look like?
different shapes but always thin like plates
what are examples of flat bones?s
sternum ribs and bones in cranium
give examples of irregular bones
mandible and vertabrae
examples of long bones
arm humerus and femur
examples of short bones
wrist carpals and ankle tarsals
what are sesamoid bones?
bones embedded in tendons
what are the two major divisions?
axial and appendicular skeleton
what does the axial skeleton support?
skull vertabral column and thoracic cage
what does the appendicular skeleton support?
pectoral girdle
upper extremities
lower extremities
pelvic girdle
what is the pectoral girdle?
shoulder blades and collarbones
upper extremities?
arms and hands
pelvic girdle
two hip bones
lower extremities
legs and feet
small piece of spongy substance of bone connected to others
a groove crevice or furrow
depression usually longitudal in shape below the surface
a cavity or hollow space
an aperture or perforation
a deep furrow cleft or slit
a ridge
short sharp process of bone a spinous process
a large rounded elevation
rounded articular surface at the extremity of the bone
bony prominance near the upper extremity of the femur
what is the delicate membrane covering the inner cavities of bone
the heavy duty membrane that covers the outside surface of bone
what are both the exterior and interior bone covered with?
large rounded elevation on the bone
sesamoid,periosteum,cancellous, hematopoiesis,ossification,tuberosity,
spine,fossa,medullary cavity, osteocytes,yellow marrow
Long Bones
diaphysis, articular cartilage, trabeculae, osteoblasts,resoption, trochanter, sulcus, foramen, yellow marrow, bone neck, osteocytes
short bones
epiphysis, compact bone, red bone marrow, osteoclasts, bone head, condyle, sinus, irregular bones, epiphyeal line, medullary cavity bone neck
flat bones
junction of epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone where growth in length occurs
epiphysial line
a joint between cranial bones
How many sutures are there in the cranium?
3 coronal, squamous and lamboid
a protuberance on bone where muscle and tendons attach
how many processes are there on the cranium
4 coldyloid masstoid styloid and coronoid
the junction between the frontal and the 2 parietal bones
coronal suture
line of union between the occipital and parietal bones
lambdoid suture
bony process off the base of the skull
long slender process lower side of the temporal bone
triangular process of the mandible
large single bone forming the forehead
frontal bone
large irregular bone situated in the base and side of the skull
temporal bone
the temporal bone consists of what
squamous tympanic and petrous
side bone of the skull
parietal bone
bone irregular shape at base of the skull
sphenoid bone
bone forming the rear bottom of the skull
an irregularly shaped bone between orbital plates of the frontal and sphenoid bone
ethmoid bone
fibrous joint between bones of the head
membranous spaces at the juncture of an infant's cranial bones that later ossify
fontanelle fontanel
nipple-like projection of the petrous part of the temporal bone
mastoid process
large hole at base of skull allows passage of spinal cord
foramen magnum
behind the nasal bone in front of the sphenoid bone
temporal bone projects downward to form a point of muscle attachment
mastoid process
spinal cord passes through a large hole
foramen magnum
immovable joints
bat shaped located at the base of the skull
spenoid bone
what bones create the thoracic cavity?
ribs sternum
what supports the throacic cavity?
thoracic vertebrae
ribs are divided into how many categories?
what are first 7 pairs of ribs?
true ribs
ribs that are attached to the sternum
costal cartilage
next 3 pairs of ribs
false ribs
last 2 pairs of ribs are called
floating ribs
where are the floating ribs attached?
in the back not in the front
what are the spaces in between the ribs called?
inercostal muscles
what do intercostal muscles contain?
blood vessels, nerves and muscles
another name for the sternum
breast bone
upper portion of the sternum is called the
the middle prtion of the sternum is called
body of the sternum
lower portion is called
xiphoid process
what is in the back behind the shoulder
scapula also called shoulder blade
The upper arm bone is known as ?
what are the two lower arm bones?
radius and ulna
what forms the elbow?
olecranon process
wrist bones are known as ?
hand bones are known as?
what does metacrpal mean?
beyond the carpals
what are the fingers known as?
what are at the distal end of the metacarpals?
what is the pelvis made up of?
ilium ischium and pubis sacrum and coccyx
which is the largest of the hip bones?
what is the upper curved edge of the ilium called?
iliac crest
lowest part of the hip bones is the?
describe the ischium
the strongest pelvic bone
the front part of the hip bone is called?
what is the point where the two pubic bones meet called?
symphysis pubis
what is the socket area that connects the femur and hip called?
what is the thigh bone called
describe the femur
longest heaviest and strongest bone in the body
the proximal end of the femur is where?
nearest the pelvis
the large lateral projection where the neck of the femur connects with the shaft of the femur is ?
greater trochanter
what serves as a site for muscle attachment/
greater and lesser trochanter
what is the kneecap called?
what are the two lower leg bones?
tibia and fibula
what is at the proximal end of the tibia? closest to femur
tibial tuberosity
what is the distal end?
farthest away
what is at the distal end of the fibula?
lateral malleolus
another name for the lateral malleolus
ankle bone
how many bones make up the ankle bone?
what is another name for the 7 bones ankle bones
what is the largest tarsal bone called?
what is another name for the calcaneus
heel bone
what is just above the calcaneus
talus bone
what does the talus bone join with?
the tibia and fibula
what does the talus bone with the tibia and fibula make?
ankle joint
what forms the ball of the foot?
what are the toes called
what is any broken bone?
a fracture
what is it when the bone is broken but the skin remains unbroken?
closed fracture
what are other names for closed fracture?
simple or complete
what is the fracture of he radus at the lower end of the wrist the bone fragment is didsplaced posteriorly?
Colles' fracture
what is the fracture where the bone is broken in two or more fragments splintered or crushed?
comminuted fracture
which fracture occures when a weak bone is pressed together on itself and collapses under minimal stress?
compression fracture
compression fracture is common to what?
which fracture runs along the length of the bone without displacing the bone fragment?
linear fracture
which fracture is incomplete, but there is bowing in the bone, partially bent and broken
greenstick fracture
the fracture line extends at an angle
oblique fracture
also known as a compound fracture open wound in the skin
open fracture
fracture in which the bone is broken and there is an aopen wound in the skin
compound fracture
fracture bone has been twisted apart usually due to sposts injury
spiral fracture
small crack develops from chronic excessive impact
stress fracture
fracture line extends straight across bone
transverse fracture
prominence or process on any part of bone
seperation of apophysis from bone
apophysial fracture
fracture involving joint surface of bone
articlar fracture
fracture when a joint capsule liga ment muscle inserion of origin is puled from bone as a result of a sprain dislocation strong contracture soft tissue is pulled away from bone fragments of bone may cone away with it
avulsion fracture
fracture-dislocation of first metacarpal bone(thumb) at the carpal metacarpal joint
Bennett's fracture
fracture of the floor of orbit
blow-out fracture
fracture of the neck of a metacarpal bone typically the fifth metacarpals
boxer's fracture
tear in the central part of a semilunar cartilage knee
bucket-handle fracture
incomplete fracture of radial head due to falling on outstreched hand
chisel fracture
displacement of any part
cervical spine fractures
hangman's fracture
fracture where fragments are driven into the cancellous tissue of the other fragment
impacted fracture
fracture especially of the skull occurs at point not at the site of impact
indirect fracture
fracture occuring within a joint capsule
intra-articular fracture
fracture at the articular extremity of a bone within the line of insertion of the casular ligament of the joint
intracapsular fracture
fracture of one or more bones of a foetus before birth
intrauterine fracture
transverse fracture through maxillary sinuses palate
lefort fracture
fracture running parallel with the long axis of the bone
linear fracture
fracture involving the bone in the line of its axis
longitudinal fracture
fracture occurring without any external injury
spontaneous fracture
intracapsular fracture of the neck of the femur at the point where the neck joins the head
subcapital fracture
fracture resulting from twisting of the limb
torsion fracture
deformity in children longitudinal compression of the soft bone commonly in the radius or ulna or both
torus fracture
small flexible knot bunch clump cluster
fracture which goes at an angle to the axis
oblique fracture
fracture which runs around the axis of the bone
breaks the skin
incomplete fracture long bone of child not finished growing. involving growth,cartilage plate near the end of the bone
green stick fracture
single fracture line through a bone
fractured two or more fragments
comminuted fracture
fractured bone penetrates the skin
open fracture
crackling sensation that is felt and heard when the ends of a broken bone rub together
deposit that forms around the area of a break in a bone
disk that has bulged out of place in the spinal column pressing on nearby nerves pain
herniated disk
bone comes out of socket
dislocation of a bone from its normal position within the joint occurs at birth
congenital dislocation
partial dislocation separates joint's moveable surfaces,shoulder hip and knee
ruptured disk of intervertebral pressure on spinal nerve roots
herniated disk

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