Glossary of Medical Microbiolgy Test 3
Other Decks By This User
- What are macrophages and neutrophils?
- What are the cells that have digestive granules and send out chemical messengers?
- mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils
- What cell retains pieces (antigens) after digesting it to present it to the adaptive immune system?
- What are specialized cells which destroy forgein and native cells?
- natural killer cells
- How long does the adaptive immune system reside?
- life long or long term
- What type of adaptive immune system has antibodies that are stuck on the membranes of certain cells which attach antigens?
- cell mediated
- What type of adaptive immune system has antibodies that are produced and then attached?
- What kind of cells do natural killer cells target?
- microbes or cancerous cells
- Do natural killer cells require an antigen exposure first to attack?
- What two types of cells are considered virgins before exposure to antigen?
- t and b lymphocytes
- Which lymphocyte is cell mediated and which deals with antibody production?
- cell mediated- t
- What occurs after lymphocytes are exposed to their first antigen?
- -differentiate into cells which produce effects and may form memory cells which will recognize those antigen in futire
- What type of cells process the antigen so that the t and b cells can go to work?
- antigen processing cells
- What are t cells that have been exposed to an angtigen?
- killer t cells
- What cells recognize antigens, but act as generals to move the killer t cells?
- helper t cells
- What occurs when HIV interferes with helper t's?
- They cannot effectively combat certain cell-mediated infections
- What are proteins that are capable of recognizeing a specific antigen and then binds to it?
- What occurs when antibodies bind to antigens?
- They get clumped and sticky so the antigen can be phagocytized or destructed
- What shape are antibodies in and describe their structure.
- Y shape with two heavy and two light chains with two variable regions on upper arms that bind to unique antigen.
- What class is found on mucous membranes?
- What class has a function that is not understood?
- What class binds to mast cells causing allergy?
- What class has 5 that bind together to form and is the first to respond to infection?
- What class increases levels with each exposure and can cross the placenta?
- What occurs when the body comes into contact with something it has no prior exposure to?
- It takes a day or two to mount an effective response- why colds last 5-7 days.
- What are antigens given in a controlled manner to elicit an immune response?
- How are vaccines effective?
- The mechanism is already in place for rapid production of that antibody.
- What type of immunity is obtained without the self production of antibodies?
- passive immunity
- How do babies have the same immunity than their mother's?
- IgG crosses placenta, and IgA in mother's milk
- What are some antibodies that are useful that are produced by another human or animal?
- snakes, horse serum, and hepatitis B
- What immunity has exposure to antigen and generation of antibodies?
- active immunity
- What type of immunity are vacccinations?
- What are the two great advances in health?
- vaccines and sanitation
- What type of immunization requires additional exposure?
- What are the pros of live vaccinations?
- stronger and long lasting
- What are the cons to live vaccinations?
- may cause disease in others or in compromised host
- What are the pros of attenuated vaccines?
- less likely to cause disease, gives good responses
- What are the cons of attenuated vaccines?
- Pain and fever and requires boasters
- What are toxoids?
- type of immunization antigen that resembles toxins such as tetanus
- What are live and attenuated immunizations?
- weaker strains of the agent
- What are subunits?
- pieces of agent in immunization
- When do babies begin immunization?
- when their immune systems can respond
- When are boasters needed?
- to re-introduce the organism and response
- Why may one need to get a new shot every year of the flu?
- organisms change yearly sometmes
- What us thimerosol?
- in some vaccines and can be metabolized to mercury base compound
- What has thimerosol been related to?
- What is a concern of vaccinations?
- The transfer of live organisms to non-immunized people.
- What are the two types of immunodeficiencies?
- genetic and acquired
- How does the genetic immunodeficiency occur?
- rare genetic diseases that result in missing components
- How do acquired immunodeficiencies occur?
- Poor nutrition, responses decline after 50, hiv and chemotherapy
- What is a disorder when the immune system gets exposed to antigens which are similar to "self" antigens?
- What occurs during autoimmunity?
- Body mounts an immune response to these self antigens-this in turn may destroy self tissues and interes with normal function
- What are some examples of auto immunity? 3
- diabetes, arthiritis, thyroid disease
- What is the overaction of immune system causing injury to self?
- What type of hypersensitivity is IgE mediated stimulation of mast cells to release histamine in large quantities?
- type 1
- What type of hypersensitivity ranges from allergy to anaphylaxis such as bee stings and drug allergies?
- type 1
- What type of hypersensitivity has antibodies that target and destroy self cells such as blood incompatibility?
- type 2
- What type of hypersensitivity has antibodies that bind to self antigens and can cause destruction from accumulation of antibody/antigen complexes?
- type 3
- What type of hypersensitivity is delayed and develops over a few days...poison ivy?
- type 4
- When is RH a problem?
- When some of babie's blood transfers to mom during birth.
- If baby is RH positive and mother is negative, what will occur?
- Mom will develop antibodies against baby's blood
- What if the baby is rh + with subsequent pregnancies?
- igg from motheer crosses placenta and targets the baby's rbcs
- Name four things that make a good antigen?
- 1. foreign molecule
3. large molecule
4. induces antibody response
- What are smaller molecules that have to combine with larger molecules to form antigenic molecule such as penicilin?
- What are very tiny viruses containing RNA and infecting plants?
- What are proteins that can reproduce?
- How big are viruses?
- small 1/1000 bacteria
- Do viruses contain enzymes or cellular components?
- Where do viruses reproduce?
- in living cells
- What is the structure of a virus?
- dna or rna core + capsid +/- lipid coat
- What are the 2 functions of the capsid?
- 1. protects nucleic acid
2. assists in attachment
- What is a membrane outside of the capsid on some viruses?
- What are they called if they lack envelope?
- Why are naked viruses more resistant than enveloped ones?
- Many things can damage the envelope
- What4 things that can damage the evelope?
- freezing or hi temps, acid or base environments, lipid solvents, and disinfectants
- Name 4 types of naked viruses
- herpes-(chic pox, shingles)
Mono, polio, and common cold
- What must first occur for viral replication?
- Living cell- tail of virus attaches to specific receptors on cell membrane
- How do viruses get inside of cells?
- inject DNA or use lysosomes
- Where is the head of virus found when it inserts into cell?
- outside while only dna enters
- During viral transcription, how is it's info copied?
- Uses cell's enzymes to copy it's dna into mrna- makes cell process these enzymes and proteins and they replicate viral dna
- What are the four reasons why animal viruses are different?
- 1. cell membrane has no receptors for attachment
2. Virus is taken in by endocytosis
3. Rna transcribed by Rna polymerase
4. Dna transcribed by Dna polymerase
- What is special about rna viruses?
- do not require transcription first to produce dna
- What are the 3 ways that release new viral particles?
- lysis of cell, host cell continuously releases particles, viral dna and rna becomes part of host's genome
- What is the exchange of genetic material via viruses?
- What is when viruses specific to host?
- host specific
- What are the 3 characteristics of acute viral infections?
2. self limited
3. permanent damage
- What are the 3 characteristics of persistant viral infections?
- 1. viral particles present
2. potentially infectios to others
- What are the 2 characterisitcs of latent viral infections?
- 1. virus particles present in body, but can't be detected
2. reactivation occurs, viral particles can be defective
- Give two examples of latent infections?
- hsv-1 cold sores
hsv 2 - genital herpes
- What are the 3 viruses?
- What is an intitial infection of cold sores that lives within nerve cells with periodic activations?
- Herpes Simplex 1
- What is an infection in liver cells that is transmitted sexually via blood products and is a chronic infection last for a year that can result in death from liver failure or cancer?
- hepatitis B chronic
- What is abnormal growth of cells and tissue?
- What type of cancer gene turns on gene transcription?
- What is the type of cancer genes that limit abnormal growth?
- tumor supression genes
- What are slow infections?
- Viral infections that develop over years?
- Give an example of a slow infection?
- What kind of virus is HIV and what is its symptoms?
- Rna virusthat does not have reliable replication and may result in protein changes which makes it difficult for immune system to attack.
- Name four ways to turn on and off virus and cancer genese?
- mutations,mutagens,damage to dna repair mechs,and incorporate viral dna
- With RNA viruses-how do they work?
- Rna into dna and then inserted in host's dna..where it turns on and off the oncogenes and tumor supression genes?
- Name the two viruses that issue proof for genes and viruses?
- kaposi sarcoma
- What percentage of cancers have viral causes?
- What percentage of problems ith oncogenes?
- What percentage of cancers with tumor supressor genes?
- What causes brain infection which results in tissue degeneration?
- Do prions contain dna and rna and what are they made of?
- no dna and rna
- How do prions reproduce?
- The prions believed that are similar to native brain protein-when they come into contact, they cause it to change shape which is similar to prion's
- Name the five types of oncoviruses.
- 1. hpv
2. epstein bar virus
3. hsv 2
4. human t cell leukemia
- What is tumor seen in lower jaw in Africa?
- Burkitt's syndrome, a epstein bar
- Which onco is respon for warts/cerv cancer and genial herpes/cerv cancer?
- Are prions inherited?
- Name two types of diseases that prions cause.
- neurologic diseases:
1. spongiform encephalopathies- sheep scrapie
2. creutzfeldt-jacob disease,mad cow disease, kuru
3. some similarities to alzheimer's
- How many people are infected with parasitic worms?
- 3.5 billion
- What promotes poverty among 3rd world countries?
- socio-economic load
- How many were infected in Milwaukee and what was the microbe?
- 400,000 and cryptospiridium
- What symptoms does cryptospiridium give?
- nausea,vomiting,and diahrrea,severe dehydration and loss of electrolytes
- How many people died from cryptospiridium, and who?
- 200 ppl...old,young,aids
- What are the ways you can get a parasite, and which is the worst?
- eat,drink,vector..vector is the worst
- Which is the single cell organism and what does it cause?
- Why are worms studied with microbio?
- have a single cell life stage
- Which kind of parasites live on the host?
- What is the name for elephantisis?
- lymphatic filariasis
- How many ppl are infected with elephantisis?
- 100 million
- How dows swelling result in elephantiasis?
- obstruction of lymph vessels by a round worm
- How is elephantiasis transmitted?
- Why is elephantiasis hard?
- dif to diagnose early and dif to cure later
- Why are parasites a global problem? 4 reasons
- 1. imports of food
2. mobile society
3. not confined to tropics
4. Can come to us
- What is the sushi parasite?
- What kind of parasite is a round worm found in fish?
- What kind of worms are flat and segmented?
- tape worms
- How are tape worms acquired?
- Eating uncooked flesh of animals that have larva..specific tape worm for each type of meat
- What is the ingested egg of the pork tape worm hatches and larva migrate to brain?
- What are the results of neurocystocerosis?
- leaves holes in brain, seizures
- Where is neurocystocerosis found?
- San Diego and Phoenix
- What is the leading cause of immigrants with seizures in communities?
- What is the photogenic parasite?
- Giardia lamdia
- Where is giardia found?
- clear mountain streams
- What causes giardiasis?
- intestinal upset
- What is the most common cause of non-bacteria diahrrea in US?
- giardia lamdia
- How can you kill and treat giardia?
- Boil water and antibiotics
- What is major concern of muncipal water supplies?
- What causes dracunculiasis?
- guinea worm
- Where does the guinea worm found?
- Africa and tropics
- What type of agent and condition has the larva in water that grows in fleas to be ingested by humans?
- guinea worm-dracunculiasis
- What type of organism causes blood flukes and schistosomiasis?
- What organism burrows into bloodstream to mate and release continual stream of eggs in stream?
- What organism causes bloody urine?
- What character played a part in Menorah's revenge in Egypt and Monopole?
- How is onchceriasis transmitted?
- black fly
- What is river blindness?
- What type of organism is caught by breeding black flies in streams, and the larva enters body?
- onchoceriasis river blind
- What disease results in baggie skin and blindness?
- onchoceriasis river blind
- What is plasmodium falciparum?
- How was malaria originally believed to be caught?
- BAD AIR around swamps
- How many people are infected and die from malaria a year?
- 300-500 mil infected, 1-3 mil deaths
- What type of symptoms does malaria cause? 5
- How can Malaria be treated?
- No vaccine.
- What is a good pesticide against mosquito?
- When was DDT banned from the US, synthesized and nobel prize?
- 1970 banned
1939 discovered insect
- How did ddt reduce fatalities?
- from 192 per 100,000 to 7 per 100,000
- What causes toxoplasmosis?
- protozoa-toxoplasma gondii
- What is the host of toxoplasmosis?
- cat and uncooked meat
- What are round worms found in children?
- pin worm
- What organism lives in small intestines and does not migrate into blood stream of other organs?
- pin worms
- Where are eggs laid on body of pinworms?
- peri anal area
- What does pin worms cause?
- How are pinworms diagnosed?
- collected on piece of tape
- How must the treatment of pin worm eggs work?
- drugs are very effective, but must be couple with sanitary habits
- What type of symptoms does toxoplasmosis cause?
- mild and flu-like..in IC patient..very bad
- What may form cysts in brain and eyes?
- What organism can be transferred to the fetus and form cysts?
- What is trichomonas vaginalis?
- pathogenic parasitic human infection
- What is the most common infection in humans in industrial world?
- trichomonas vaginalis
- How is trichomonas vaginalis spread?
- Direct contact with protozoan- can survive for short periods on moist objects
- What organism has symptoms such as thick yellow discharge in femals?
- trich vaginalis
- What org is asymptomatic but are carriers in males?
- trich vaginalis
- How is trich treated?
- metronidazole (flagyl)
- What are antibiotics considered against?
- What was traditionally associated with agents from living organisms--mainly fungi?
- What are man made or synthetic drugs?
- Where are antibiotics made from in common use?
- man made
- How were wounds treated in the past?
- mosses, herbs, plants, oils
- What herb has antibacterial properties?
- How were sore throats treated in middle ages?
- hold toad in mouth
- What toxic substances were used at antibs?
- cyanide, arsenic, strychnine
- Who noticed that antibs took different stains?
- Who reasoned that toxic agents could be found that would be taken in by offending organisms and kill them without killing the host?
- What is a major cause of M/m?
- Who found syphillis an arsenic compound that killed it but not the organism?
- What is salvation plus arsenic?
- When was infections soon to be a things of the past?
- the 40's
- Why was there aggressive research during the 30's and 40's on infection?
- What produces substances which are toxic to other organisms, but are not selective-so they may kill favorable cells?
- What are most antibiotics from other microbes come from?
- Prokaryotic steptomyces, eukaryotic molds, gram pos bacillus
- What are antifungal and antiprotozoans dif to eliminate?
- How do antiviral agents work?
- Interfere with dna/rna synthesis
- What generally works by exploiting differences between the offending organism and the host?
- antimicrobial agents
- What are 5 differences that antimicrobial agents exploit between the offending organism and host?
- 1. metabolic pathways
2. protein synthesis
3. transport of drug
4. cell wall/membrane
5. nucleic acid synthesis
- What is amount of drug described?
- What is the time between dosing?
- What is the duration of treatment?
- What are undesirable responses which are temporary from antimicrobial agents?
- side effects
- What are severe and often permanent effects of antimicrobial agents?
- toxic effects
- What are 5 properties that would make an ideal antibiotic?
- 1. quickly kill org 100%
2. no interaction with host tissues
3. be able to reach infection site
4. be non-allergenic
5. lack resistance
- What is effective against a wide range of organisms?
- broad spectrum
- What is effective against a very selective range of organisms?
- narrow spectrum
- What is the dose at which the drug is effective against in a particular organism?
- effective dose
- What is the dose of the agent which results in toxic side effects?
- toxic dose
- What is the ratio of toxic dose to effective dose?
- therapeutic index
- What does a high therapeutic index indicate?
- A drug which is less toxic than a low index.
- What is blood concentration between minimal effective and toxic ranges?
- therapeutic range
- What occurs when there are changes to the normal flora of intestine?
- What is the disruption of normal flora allowing other organisms to grow?
- opportunisitic infections
- What are the 3 possible side effects of antibiotics?
- allergy infection, diahrrea, opportunistic infection
- What are some of the differences that are exploited 5 in antibiotics?
- 1. cell wall
2. cell membrane
3. 70s 80s ribosome
4. nucleotide replication
5. diff metabolic pathways
- How is eukaryotic cells including algae fungi and protozoans similar to your cells a problem?
- Some differences do exist, such as ergosterol found in fungi cell walls
- How is prokaryotic cells 70s and eukaryotic cells 80s a problem?
- Mitochondria also have 70s ribosomes, so may be affected by antibiotics targeting the bacterial 70s ribosome
- What are 4 problems with viruses?
- 1. have few components to target
2. hijack e's cell's machinery so this limits targets
3. no cell wall, ribosomoes, or metabolic pathways
- How can viruses be defeated?
- Agents can be directed against the attachemnt, reproduct, and release mech of viruses
- What can an organism do once it develops resistance?
- It can transfer it to other organisms.
- What are 8 adverse reactions to antibiotics?
- 1. allergy
3. damage kidney
4. depress bone marrow
5. blood cell production
7.developing teeth and cartilage
8.supress normal flora
- What can be used to damage the cell wall?
- penicillins and cephalosporin
- What can damage protein synthesis of 70s ribosomes?
- What can disrupt cell membranes unique to prokaryotes?
- polymoxin B
- What can damage metabolic pathways?
- sulfa drugs
- Name 4 ways that a microbe developes resistance?
- 1. develop enzymes
2. develop additional targets to overwhelm antibiotic
3. over prescribing
4. taking it incorrectly
- What occurs when folic acid production enzymes are poisoned by sulfa drugs?
- cell produces excess enzymes
- What is in aminogylcosides?
- What is in penicillions?
- What is in cephlasporins?
- keflex and ceclor
- What is in glycopeptides?
- What is in macrolides?
- What is in polypeptides?
- What is in quinolones?
- What is in sulfonamides?
- What is used against tb?
- What do penicillins target?
- gram pos usually
- What do different penicillin structures design for?
- increase absorption, spectrum,resistance
- What works by inhibiting the cross-linking in the cell wall and leads to defective or weakened walls?
- What is resistant to penicillins?
- What are side effects to penicillin?
- What is used for gram- organisms?
- What binds to ribosome to interfer with mRNA and protein production?
- What is given iv because of poor gut absorption?
- What can cause major toxicites of deafness and kidney damage?
- How is aminoglycosides toxicity watched?
- Blood levels measured
- What has a similiar mechanism to penicillin?
- What antibiotic interferes with peptidoglycan in cell wall production?
- What is used in patients that are sensitive to penicillin and cephalsporins?
- What ab is very selective against gram + cocci?
You must Login or Register to add cards