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Glossary of Med Term Ch 15

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Created by rbawd12

-arche
beginning
abdominal hysterectomy
removal of the uterus through an incision in the abdomen
abortifacient
drug that causes abortion (eg. mifepristone, formerly known as RU486)
abortion (AB)
expulsion of the products of conception before the fetus is viable (able to live outside the uterus)
abruptio placentae
premature detachment of a normally situated placenta
adenocarcinoma of the breast
malignant tumor of glandular breast tissue
adhesiolysis, adhesiotomy
breaking down or severing of pelvic adhesions
adnexa
uterine tubes and ovaries (uterine appendages)
amastia
absence of a breast
amenorrhea
absence of menstruation
amniocentesis
aspiration of a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis of possible fetal abnormalities
amnioinfusion
introduction of a solution into the amniotic sac; an isotonic solution is most commonly used to relieve fetal distress
amnion, amniotic sac
innermost of the membranes surrounding the embryo in the uterus, filled with amniotic fluid
amniotic fluid
fluid within the amniotic sac that surrounds and protects the fetus
anovulation
absence of ovulation
anteflexion
abnormal forward bending of the uterus
areola
dark-pigmented area around the nipple
aspiration biopsy, needle biopsy
needle draw of tissue or fluid from a cavity for cytologic examination
atrophic vaginitis
thinning of the vagina and loss of moisture because of depletion of estrogen, which causes inflammation of tissue
augmentation mammoplasty
reconstruction to enlarge the breast, often by insertion of an implant
barrier contraceptives
products that provide a physical barrier to prevent conception (eg. condoms or diaphragms)
Bartholin glands
two glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete a lubricant during intercourse
bilateral salpingooophorectomy
excision of both uterine tubes and ovaries
biopsy (Bx)
removal of tissue for microscopie pathologic examination
carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the cervix
malignant cell changes of the cervix that are localized, without any spread to adjacent structures
cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)
condition preventing normal delivery through the birth canal; either the baby's head is too large or the birth canal is too small
cervic/o
neck or cervix
cervical conization
removal of a cone-shaped portion of the cervix
cervical effacement
progressive obliteration of the endocervical canal during delivery
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cervical dysplasia
potentially cancerous abnormality of epithelial tissue of the cervix, graded according to the extent of abnormal cell formation: CIN1: mild dysplasia; CIN2: moderate dysplasia; CIN3: severe dysplasia
cervical neoplasia
abnormal development of cervical tissue cells
cervical os
opening of the cervix to the uterus
cervicitis
inflammation of the cervix
cervix
neck of the uterus
cesarean section (C-section)
surgical delivery of a baby via an incision through the abdomen and into the uterus
chemotherapy
treatment of malignancies, infections and other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair theier ability to reproduce
chlamydia
most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in North America; often occurs with no symptoms and is treated only after it was been spread, such as after causing pelvic inflammatory disease
chorionc villus sampling (CVS)
sampling of placental tissue for microscopic and chemical examination to detect fetal abnormalities
clitoris
female erectile tissue in the anterior portion of the vulva
colp/o, vagin/o
vagina (sheath)
colporrhaphy
suture to repair the vagina
colporrhaphy A&P repair
anterior and posterior repair of cystocele and rectocele
colporrhaphy anterior repair
repair of a cystocele
colporrhaphy posterior repair
repair of a rectocele
colposcopy
examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope, a specialized microscope which often has a camera attachment for photographs; used to document findings and for followup treatments
condyloma acuminatum
lesion that appears as a result of human papilloma virus; on the skin, the lesions appear as cauliflower-like warts, and on mucous membranes, they have a flat appearance; also known as venereal or genital warts
congenital anomalies, congenital irregularities
birth defects that cause abnormal development of an organ or a structure (eg. double uterus or absent vagina)
contraceptive implant
insertion of a contraceptive capsule under the skin to provide a continual infusion over an extended period
contraceptive injection
injection of a contraceptive hormone (eg. Depo-Provera)
cryosurgery
method of destroying tissue by freezing; used for treating dysplasia and early cancers
cystocele
pouching of the bladder into the vagina
dermoid cyst
congenital tumor composed of displaced embryonic tissue (teeth, bone, cartilage, and hair); typically found in an ovary and usually benign
dilation and curettage (D&C)
dilation of the cervix and scraping of the endometrium to control bleeding, to obtain tissue for biopsy, or to move polyps or products of conception
dilation and evacuation (D&E)
dilation of the cervix and removal of the products of conception; most commonly performed in the second trimester of pregnancy, after a missed abortion
displacement of the uterus
displacement of the uterus from its normal position
dysmenorrhea
painful menstruation
dyspareunia
painful intercourse (coitus)
eclampsia
true toxema of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, albuminuria, edema of the legs and feet, severe headaches, dizziness, convulsions, and coma
ectopic pregnancy
implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity, often in the tube or ovary, or rarely, in the abdominal cavity
embryo
the developing organism from fertilization to the end of the eighth week
endometriosis
condition characterized by migration of portions of endometrial tissue outisde the uterine cavity
endometritis
inflammation of the endometrium
endometrium
lining of the uterus, which is shed approximately every 28 to 30 days in a nonpregnant female during menstruation
endoscopic biopsy
removal of a specimen for biopsy during an endoscopic procedure (eg. colposcopy)
endovaginal sonogram, transvaginal sonogram
ultrasound image of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries made after introduction of an ultrasonic transducer within the vagina; useful for detecting pathology(eg. ectopic pregnancy or missed abortion)
enterocele
pouching sac of peritoneum between the vagina and the rectum
episi/o, vulv/o
vulva (covering)
episiotomy
incision of the perineum to facilitate delivery of a baby
erythroblastosis fetalis
disorder that results from the incompatability of a fetus with an Rh-positive blood factor and a mother with an Rh-negative blood factor, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; this condition necessitates a blood transfusion to save the fetus
estimated date of confinement (EDC), estimated date of delivery (EDD)
expected date for delivery of the baby; normally 280 days or 40 weeks from last menstrual period (LMP)
excisional biopsy
removal of an entire lesion for microscopic examination
external version
abdominal manipulation
fetal monitoring
use of an electronic device for simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions
fetus
the developing organism from the ninth week to birth
fibrocystic breasts
benign condition of the breast consisting of fibrous and cystic changes that render the tissue more dense; patient feels painful lumps that fluctuate with menstrual periods
fibroid, fibromyoma, leiomyoma
benign tumor in the uterus composed of smooth muscle and fibrous connective tissue
fistula
abnormal passage, such as from one hollow organ to another
fundus
upper portion of the uterus above the entry to the uterine tubes
gonorrhea
contagious inflammation of the genital mucous membranes caused by invasion of the gonococus Neisseria gonorrhea; the term refers to the urethral discharge characteristic of the infection, which was first thought to be a leakage of semen
gravida
a pregnant woman; gravida followed by a number indicates the number of pregnancies
gynec/o
woman
gynecomastia
development of mammary glands in the male caused by altered hormone levels
habitual abortion
spontaneous abortion occurring in three or more consecutive pregnancies
hepatitis B virus (HBV)
virus that causes an inflammation of the liver; transmitted through any body fluid, including vaginal secretions, semen, and blood
herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2)
virus that causes ulcer-like lesions of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa; after the initial infection, the virus lies dormant in the nerve cell root and may recur at times of stresss
hormonal contraceptives
hormones used to prevent conception by suppressing ovulation
hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
use of a hormone (eg. estrogen or progesterone) to replace a deficiency or to regulate production
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
virus that causes AIDS , permitting various opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases; contracted through exposure to contaminated blood or body fluid
human papilloma virus (HPV)
virus transmitted by direct sexual contact; infection can manifest on the skin or mucous membranes of the genitals
hymen
fold of mucous membrane that encircles the entrance to the vagina
hyperemesis gravidarum
severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy that can cause severe dehydration in the mother and fetus
hypermastia, macromastia
abnormally large breasts
hypomastia
unusually small breasts
hyster/o, metr/o, uter/o
uterus
hysterectomy
removal of the uterus
hysterosalpingogram
xray of the fallopian tubes after injection of a contrast medium through the cervix; used to determine tubal patency (openness)
hysteroscopy
use of a hysteroscope to examine the intrauterine cavity for assessment of abnormalities (eg. polyps, fibroids, or anomalies)
incisional biopsy
removal of a piece of suspicious tissue for microscopic examination (eg. cervical or endometrial biopsy)
incomplete abortion
incomplete expulsion of the products of conception
internal version
intravaginal manipulation
intrauterine device (IUD)
contraceptive device inserted into the uterus that prevents implantation of a fertilized egg
introitus
entrance to the vagina
labia
folds of tissue on either side of the vaginal opening; known as the labia majora and mabir minora
lact/o
milk
laparoscopic surgery
surgical procedures within the abdominal or pelvic region using a laparoscope
laparoscopy
inspection of the abdominal or pelvic cavity with a laparoscope, which is an endoscope used to examine the abdominal and pelvic regions
left uterine appendage
left tube and ovary
leukorrhea
abnormal white or yellow vaginal discharge
lumpectomy
excision of a breast tumor without removing any other tissue or lymph nodes; usually followed by radiation or chemotherapy if the tumor is cancerous
macrosomia
large-bodied baby commonly seen in diabetic pregnancies
magnetic resonance imaging
use of nonionizing images to detect gynecologic conditions (eg. anomalies of the pelvis or soft tissues of the breast) or to stage tumors arising from the endometrium or cervix
mammary glands
two glands in the female breasts that are capable of producing milk
mammary papilla
nipple
mammogram
low dose xray imaging of breast tissue to detect neoplasms
mammoplasty
surgical reconstruction of a breast
mast/o, mamm/o
breast
mastectomy
removal of a breast
mastitis
inflammation of the breast; most commonly occurs in women who are breastfeeding
mastopexy
elevation of pendulous breast tissue
meconium
intestinal discharges of the fetus that form the first stools in the newborn
meconium aspiration
fetal aspiration of amniotic fluid containing meconium
meconium staining
presence of meconium in amniotic fluid
men/o
menstruation
menopause
cessation of menstrual periods caused by lack of ovarian hormones
menorrhagia
excessive bleeding at the time of menstruation (menses)
metrorrhagia
bleeding from the uterus at any time other than normal menstruation
missed abortion
death of a fetus or embryo within the uterus that is not naturally expelled after death
modified radical mastectomy
removal of an entire breast and lymph nodes of the axilla
multipara
a woman who has given birth to two or more children
myomectomy
excision of fibroid tumors
myometrium
muscular wall of the uterus
nulligravida
having never been pregnant
nullipara
a woman who has not borne a child
obstetr/o
midwife
obstetric sonogram
ultrasound image of the pregnant uterus to determine fetal development
oligo-ovulation
irregular ovulation
oligomenorrhea
scanty menstrual period
oophor/o, ovari/o
egg
oophorectomy
excision of an ovary
oophoritis
inflammation of one or both ovaries
oral contraceptive pill (OCP)
birth control pill
ovarian cystectomy
excision of an ovarian cyst
ovary
one of two glands located on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce ova and female sex hormones
oxytocin
hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that causes myometrial contraction; used to induce labor
Papanicolaou (Pap) Smear
study of cells collected from the cervix to screen for cancer and other abnormalities
para
to bear; a woman who has produced one or more viable (live outside of the uterus) offspring; para followed by a number indicates the number of times a pregnancy has resulted in a single or multiple birth
parovarian cyst
cyst of the uterine tube (fallopian tube)
pelv/i
pelvis (basin); hip bone
pelvic adhesions
scarring of tissue within the pelvic cavity resulting from endometriosis, infection, or injury
pelvic floor relaxation
relaxation of supportive ligaments of the pelvic organs
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
inflammation of organs in the pelvic cavity; usually includes the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and endometrium; most often caused by bacteria
pelvic sonography
ultrasound imaging of the female pelvis
pelvimetry
obstetric measurement of the pelvis to evaluate proper conditions for vaginal delivery
perineum
region between the vulva and anus
placenta
vascular organ that develops in the uterine wall during pregnancy to provide nourishment for the fetus
placenta previa
displaced attachment of the placenta in the lower region of the uterine cavity
polyhydramnios
excessive amniotic fluid
polymastia
presence of more than two breasts
polythelia, supernumerary nipples
presence of more than one nipple on a breast
preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)
toxemia of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, albuminuria, edema of the legs and feet, and puffiness of the face, without convulsion or coma
pregnancy test
test performed on urine or blood to detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (secreted by the placenta), which indicates pregnancy
primigravida
first pregnancy
primipara
first delivery
prolapse
descent of the uterus down the vaginal canal
radiation therapy
treatment of neoplastic disease using radiation to deter the proliferation of malignant cells
radical mastectomy
removal of an entire breast along with the underlying chest muscles and axillary lymph nodes
radiography
xray imaging
rectocele
pouching of the rectum into the vagina
rectovaginal fistula
abnormal opening between the vagina and rectum
reduction mammoplasty
reconstruction to remove excessive breast tissue
retroflexion
abnormal backward bending of the uterus
retroversion
backward turn of the whole uterus; also called tipped uterus
Rh factor
presence, or lack, of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of the mother and the fetus, resulting in fetal anemia, which causes erythroblastosis fetalis
Rh immune globulin
immunizing agent given to an Rh-negative mother within 72 hrs after delivering an Rh-positive baby to suppress the Rh immune response
Rh negative
absence of antigens
Rh positive
presence of antigens
right uterine appendage
right tube and ovary
ruptured membranes
rupture of the amniotic sac, usually at onset of labor
salping/o
uterine (fallopian) tube; also, eustachian tube
salpingectomy
excision of a uterine tube
salpingitis
inflammation of a fallopian tube
salpingostomy
creation of an opening in the fallopian tube to open a blockage
salpingotomy
incision into a fallopian tube; often performed to remove an ectopic pregnancy
sentinel node breast biopsy
biopsy of the sentinel node in a breast with early cancer to determine metastases and, if no malignancy is found, to avoid the extensive removal of axillary nodes, which causes lymphedema (swelling under the arms); includes radionuclide imaging to locate
simple mastectomy
removal of an entire breast but with the underlying muscle and axillary lymph nodes left intact
sonohysterogram, hysterosonogram, saline infusion sonogram
transvaginal sonographic image made as sterile saline is injefcted into the uterus; used to assess uterine pathology or to determine tubal patency
spermicide
creams, jellies, lotions, or foams containing agents that kill sperm
spontaneous abortion (SAB)
miscarriage; naturally occurring expulsion of the products of conception
stereotactic breast biopsy
use of xray imaging, a specialized stereotactic frame, and a computer to calculate, precisely locate, and direct a needle into a breast lesion to remove a core specimen for biopsy
syphilis
infectious disease caused by a spirochete transmitted via direct, intimate contact and that may involve any organ or tissue over time; usually manifests first on the skin, with the appearance of small, painless, red papules that erode and form bloodless u
therapeutic abortion (TAB)
abortion induced by mechanical means or by drugs for medical reasons
threatened abortion
bleeding with the threat of miscarriage
toc/o
labor or birth
tocolytic agent
drug used to stop labor contractions
total hysterectomy
removal of the uterus and the cervix
trasnabdominal sonogram
ultrasound image of the lower abdomen, including the bladder, uterus, tubes, and ovaries, to detect conditions such as cysts and tumors
tubal ligation
sterilization of a woman by cutting and tying (ligating) the uterine tubes
urethrocele
pouching of the urethra into the vagina
uterine tubes, fallopian tubes
tubes extending from each side of the uterus toward the ovary that provide a passage for ova to the uterus
uterus
womb; a pear-shaped organ in the pelvic cavity in which the embryo and fetus develops
vagina
tubular passageway from the cervix to the outside of the body
vaginal hysterectomy
removal of the uterus through the vagina
vaginitis
inflammation of the vagina with redness, swelling, and irritation; often caused by a specific organism such as Candida or Trichomonas (a sexually transmitted parasite)
vaginosis
infection of the vagina, with little or no inflammation, characterized by a milk-like discharge and an unpleasant odor; also known as nonspecific vaginitis
version
manual method for reversing the position of the fetus, usually done to facilitate delivery
vesicovaginal fistula
abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina
vulva
external genitalia of the female

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